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Deterioration in the Heating Value of Coal During Storage

Description: From Introduction: "The detailed report is presented in this bulletin, which gives full account of the tests and the analytical data covering a period of five year's storage. Data of somewhat similar experiments for shorter periods with gas coal from the Pittsburgh bed, with Pocahontas coal on the Isthmus of Panama, with Sheridan, Wyo., subbituminous coal, which used for railroad and other purposes in the West, are included."
Date: 1917
Creator: Porter, Horace C. & Ovitz, F. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storage Stability of Gasoline: Development of a Stability Prediction Method and Studies of Gasoline Composition and Component Reactivity

Description: From Abstract: "The compositions of various gums and inorganic deposits are reported in terms of elemental analysis and spectroscopic examinations. The reactions of tetraethyllead with selected hydrocarbons are also reported."
Date: unknown
Creator: Schwartz, F. G.; Whisman, M. L.; Allbright, C. S. & Ward, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil-storage Tanks and Reservoirs with a Brief Discussion of Losses of Oil in Storage and Methods of Prevention

Description: From Introduction: "The Bureau of Mines has been conducting investigations with the view of determining the types of containers best adapted to the storage of oil. These investigations have shown that tanks composed wholly of steel give the best results. Practically all such containers in use at present have wooden roofs and this type of construction is here described, although it is the belief of the writer that concrete roofs would be far more satisfactory in every way, and that the difference in cost between a concrete and a wooden roof would, as a rule, in a few year's time, be offset by a saving oil and in cost of repairs and renewals."
Date: 1918
Creator: Bowie, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics and Technologies for Long- vs. Short-Term Energy Storage: A Study by the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Description: This report describes the results of a study on stationary energy storage technologies for a range of applications that were categorized according to storage duration (discharge time): long or short. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Energy Storage Systems Program. A wide variety of storage technologies were analyzed according to performance capabilities, cost projects, and readiness to serve these many applications, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are presented.
Date: March 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potato Storage and Storage Houses

Description: "Potato storage serves two purposes, the first of which is to make possible a longer marketing period for the crop, and the second, to insure the minimum amount of loss from moisture and decay. The successful storage of potatoes is dependent on a number o factors; as, for example, the quality of the tubers stored, the temperature at which they are held, the moisture content of the air, the size of the storage pile, and the exclusion of light. The proper storage temperature for potatoes is supposed to range from 34 degrees to 38 degrees Fahrenheit.... This bulletin deals with the fundamental factor of construction and management of storage houses, as well as the methods of handling the crop that govern the condition of potatoes in storage." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Stuart, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of Common Storage Houses for Apples in the Pacific Northwest

Description: "This bulletin deals with the fundamental of construction and the efficient management of common storage houses for apples under the conditions prevailing in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana." -- p. 2. Topics discussed include ventilation, insulation, fruit quality.
Date: 1917
Creator: Ramsey, H. J. & Dennis, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

Description: This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles & Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

Description: The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Austad, Stephanie L.; Bragassa, Patrick W.; Croft, Kevin M; Ferguson, David S; Gladson, Scott C; Shafer, Annette L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Phase Diamond at High Temperature and Its Release

Description: The objectives of this proposed research were: 91) Separation and storage of hydrogen on nanophase diamonds. It is expected that the produced hydrogen, which will be in a mixture, can be directed to a nanophase diamond system directly, which will not only store the hydrogen, but also separate it from the gas mixture, and (2) release of the stored hydrogen from the nanophase diamond.
Date: October 13, 2008
Creator: Ghosh, Tushar K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Putting more power in your pocket

Description: Representing the Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of NECCEC is to identify the key atomic-scale processes which govern electrode function in rechargeable batteries, over a wide range of time and length scales, via the development and use of novel characterization and theoretical tools, and to use this information to identify and design new battery systems.
Date: July 18, 2013
Creator: Chapman, Karena
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Not Your Normal Power Box

Description: Representing the Center for Electrical Energy Storage (CEES), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge and was awarded "Best Science Lesson." As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CEES is to acquire a fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena controlling electrochemical processes that will enable dramatic improvements in the properties and performance of energy storage devices, notably Li ion batteries.
Date: July 18, 2013
Creator: Okman, Oya; Baginska, Marta; Jones, Elizabeth MC; Pety, Stephen J; Lim, Tae Wook; Kaitz, Joshua A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Gordon Research Conference on BATTERIES was held at Four Points Sheraton / Holiday Inn Express, Ventura, California, March 4-9, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 176 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.
Date: March 9, 2012
Creator: Harris, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

Description: This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.
Date: December 19, 2013
Creator: Claus Daniel, C. & Wixom, M. (A123 Systems, Inc.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-­‐based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­‐hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-­‐based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-­‐hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help ...
Date: October 30, 2012
Creator: Bigelow, Erik
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

Description: This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Eyer, James M. & Corey, Garth P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

Description: LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations ...
Date: September 30, 2012
Creator: Stratton, Jeremy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

Description: This report describes the research that was completed under project title – Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.
Date: September 30, 2011
Creator: Shane, Rodney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

Description: This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

Description: This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.
Date: November 30, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department