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Characteristics and Technologies for Long- vs. Short-Term Energy Storage: A Study by the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Description: This report describes the results of a study on stationary energy storage technologies for a range of applications that were categorized according to storage duration (discharge time): long or short. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Energy Storage Systems Program. A wide variety of storage technologies were analyzed according to performance capabilities, cost projects, and readiness to serve these many applications, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are presented.
Date: March 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deterioration in the Heating Value of Coal During Storage

Description: From Introduction: "The detailed report is presented in this bulletin, which gives full account of the tests and the analytical data covering a period of five year's storage. Data of somewhat similar experiments for shorter periods with gas coal from the Pittsburgh bed, with Pocahontas coal on the Isthmus of Panama, with Sheridan, Wyo., subbituminous coal, which used for railroad and other purposes in the West, are included."
Date: 1917
Creator: Porter, Horace C. & Ovitz, F. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil-storage Tanks and Reservoirs with a Brief Discussion of Losses of Oil in Storage and Methods of Prevention

Description: From Introduction: "The Bureau of Mines has been conducting investigations with the view of determining the types of containers best adapted to the storage of oil. These investigations have shown that tanks composed wholly of steel give the best results. Practically all such containers in use at present have wooden roofs and this type of construction is here described, although it is the belief of the writer that concrete roofs would be far more satisfactory in every way, and that the difference in cost between a concrete and a wooden roof would, as a rule, in a few year's time, be offset by a saving oil and in cost of repairs and renewals."
Date: 1918
Creator: Bowie, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storage Stability of Gasoline: Development of a Stability Prediction Method and Studies of Gasoline Composition and Component Reactivity

Description: From Abstract: "The compositions of various gums and inorganic deposits are reported in terms of elemental analysis and spectroscopic examinations. The reactions of tetraethyllead with selected hydrocarbons are also reported."
Date: 1972
Creator: Schwartz, F. G.; Whisman, M. L.; Allbright, C. S. & Ward, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potato Storage and Storage Houses

Description: "Potato storage serves two purposes, the first of which is to make possible a longer marketing period for the crop, and the second, to insure the minimum amount of loss from moisture and decay. The successful storage of potatoes is dependent on a number o factors; as, for example, the quality of the tubers stored, the temperature at which they are held, the moisture content of the air, the size of the storage pile, and the exclusion of light. The proper storage temperature for potatoes is supposed to range from 34 degrees to 38 degrees Fahrenheit.... This bulletin deals with the fundamental factor of construction and management of storage houses, as well as the methods of handling the crop that govern the condition of potatoes in storage." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Stuart, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of Common Storage Houses for Apples in the Pacific Northwest

Description: "This bulletin deals with the fundamental of construction and the efficient management of common storage houses for apples under the conditions prevailing in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana." -- p. 2. Topics discussed include ventilation, insulation, fruit quality.
Date: 1917
Creator: Ramsey, H. J. & Dennis, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

Description: This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles & Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

Description: The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Austad, Stephanie L.; Bragassa, Patrick W.; Croft, Kevin M; Ferguson, David S; Gladson, Scott C; Shafer, Annette L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Phase Diamond at High Temperature and Its Release

Description: The objectives of this proposed research were: 91) Separation and storage of hydrogen on nanophase diamonds. It is expected that the produced hydrogen, which will be in a mixture, can be directed to a nanophase diamond system directly, which will not only store the hydrogen, but also separate it from the gas mixture, and (2) release of the stored hydrogen from the nanophase diamond.
Date: October 13, 2008
Creator: Ghosh, Tushar K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Storage Opportunities Analysis Phase II Final Report: A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Description: This study on the opportunities for energy storage technologies determined electric utility application requirements, assessed the suitability of a variety of storage technologies to meet the requirements, and reviewed the compatibility of technologies to satisfy multiple applications in individual installations. The study is called ''Opportunities Analysis'' because it identified the most promising opportunities for the implementation of energy storage technologies in stationary applications. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with industry experts from utilities, manufacturers, and research organizations. This Phase II report updates the Phase I analysis performed in 1994.
Date: May 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Description: This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.
Date: February 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage: Executive Summary

Description: Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.
Date: December 31, 2012
Creator: Simmons, Joseph & Muralidharan, Krishna
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries using Synchrotron Based In Situ X-ray Techniques

Description: The emergence of portable telecommunication, computer equipment and ultimately hybrid electric vehicles has created a substantial interest in manufacturing rechargeable batteries that are less expensive, non-toxic, operate for longer time, small in size and weigh less. Li-ion batteries are taking an increasing share of the rechargeable battery market. The present commercial battery is based on a layered LiCoO{sub 2} cathode and a graphitized carbon anode. LiCoO{sub 2} is expensive but it has the advantage being easily manufactured in a reproducible manner. Other low cost layered compounds such as LiNiO{sub 2}, LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} or cubic spinels such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been considered. However, these suffer from cycle life and thermal stability problems. Recently, some battery companies have demonstrated a new concept of mixing two different types of insertion compounds to make a composite cathode, aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in ·capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and phase transitions for these composite cathodes. Understanding the structure and structural changes of electrode materials during the electrochemical cycling is the key to develop better .lithium ion batteries. The successful commercialization of the· lithium-ion battery is mainly built on the advances in solid state chemistry of the intercalation compounds. Most of the progress in understanding the lithium ion battery materials has been obtained from x-ray diffraction studies. Up to now, most XRD studies on lithium-ion battery materials have been done ex situ. Although these ex situ XRD studies have provided important information· about the structures of battery materials, they do face three major problems. First of all, the pre-selected charge (discharge) states may not be representative for the full picture of the structural ...
Date: May 23, 2007
Creator: Yang, Xiao-Qing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

Description: In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.
Date: August 31, 2008
Creator: Yang, Xiao-Qing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Installation Manual for Thermal Energy Storage, Second Edition

Description: The second addition is a substantial revision of the original work. A new chapter on latent heat storage, an appendix on units and conversions, and an index have been added. The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Nield, Kenneth J.; Rohde, Raymond R. & Wolosewicz, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Development of Lithium/Metal Sulfide Battery Technology for Vehicle Propulsion : Summary Report, October 1977- September 1978

Description: The research, development, and management activities done in preparation for in-vehicle testing of engineering-scale lithium/metal sulfide batteries are described. These activities were carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) from October 1977 to September 1978. Over the past year, lead--acid batteries were tested both in the laboratory and in a Renault automobile. The data obtained from these tests will be used to assess the performance of lithium/metal sulfide batteries. Testing of a 40 kWh lithium/metal sulfide battery in a vehicle is planned for early 1979. The equipment needed to evaluate the performance of this battery was designed and fabricated. Testing of this equipment is expected to begin at the end of 1978. In order to carry out the above in-vehicle test, the lithium/metal sulfide battery must have a thermally efficient case and a charger. Construction of such a case is in progress. A portable charger/equalizer that has the capability of charging up to six lithium/metal sulfide cells was fabricated.
Date: March 1979
Creator: Barney, Duane L.; Chilenskas, A. A.; DeLuca, W. H.; Hayes, E. R.; Hornstra, F.; Farahat, M. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

Description: We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage ...
Date: February 1, 2012
Creator: Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H. & Song, W. -K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storage resource managers: Middleware components for gridstorage

Description: The amount of scientific data generated by simulations orcollected from large scale experiments have reached levels that cannot bestored in the researcher's workstation or even in his/her local computercenter. Such data are vital to large scientific collaborations dispersedover wide-area networks. In the past, the concept of a Gridinfrastructure [1]mainly emphasized the computational aspect ofsupporting large distributed computational tasks, and optimizing the useof the network by using bandwidth reservation techniques. In this paperwe discuss the concept of Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) as componentsthat complement this with the support for the storage management of largedistributed datasets. The access to data is becoming the main bottleneckin such "data intensive" applications because the data cannot bereplicated in all sites. SRMs can be used to dynamically optimize the useof storage resource to help unclog this bottleneck.
Date: August 18, 2005
Creator: Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex & Gu, Junmin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Putting more power in your pocket

Description: Representing the Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of NECCEC is to identify the key atomic-scale processes which govern electrode function in rechargeable batteries, over a wide range of time and length scales, via the development and use of novel characterization and theoretical tools, and to use this information to identify and design new battery systems.
Date: July 18, 2013
Creator: Chapman, Karena
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Not Your Normal Power Box

Description: Representing the Center for Electrical Energy Storage (CEES), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge and was awarded "Best Science Lesson." As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CEES is to acquire a fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena controlling electrochemical processes that will enable dramatic improvements in the properties and performance of energy storage devices, notably Li ion batteries.
Date: July 18, 2013
Creator: Okman, Oya; Baginska, Marta; Jones, Elizabeth MC; Pety, Stephen J; Lim, Tae Wook; Kaitz, Joshua A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department