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Employee Ownership of Registration-Exempt Company Securities: Proposals to Reform Required Corporate Disclosures (Section 507 of S. 2155, S. 488, H.R. 1343, and Section 406 of H.R. 10)

Description: This report discusses SEC registration requirements and the exemption from registration for small and mid-size companies. Recent legislation regarding the rules in the House and Senate is also included.
Date: April 3, 2018
Creator: Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of Preferred Equity Redemption Cumulative Stock

Description: This dissertation examines whether Percs, Preferred Equity Redemption Cumulative Stocks, are properly priced regarding to the relevant securities, such as the underlying common stock, the long-term call option of the stock, and so on. Test results indicate that Percs were overpriced with respect to the equivalent packages composed of the relevant securities. Further tests on arbitrage restrictions show that transaction costs would prevent arbitrage profits. This dissertation also examines the market reactions to Percs offerings. Test results reveal that the market reactions to the announcement of Percs offering and the actual issuance are both significantly negative. Compared to the market reaction on common stock offering announcement, the market reaction on Percs offering announcement is weaker. The overpricing of Percs and the weaker reaction of the market suggest that Percs may have advantages in transaction costs, taxes and some corporate finance issues.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Pu, Hansong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Empirical Evidence of Pricing Efficiency in Niche Markets

Description: Unique and proprietary data of the illiquid, one-year non cancelable for three month Bermudan swaps (1Y NC 3M swaps) and one-year non callable for three months Bermudan CDs (1Y NC 3M CDs), provides evidence of market efficiency. The 1Y NC 3M swap and 1Y NC 3M CD markets efficiently reflected unexpected economic information. The 1Y NC 3M swaption premiums also followed the European one-year into three-month (1Y into 3M) swaption volatilities. Swaption premiums were computed by pricing non-optional instruments using the quoted 1Y NC 3M swap rates and the par value swap rates and taking the difference between them. Swaption premiums ranged from a slight negative premium to a 0.21 percent premium. The average swaption premium during the study period was 0.02 percent to 0.04 percent. The initial swaption premiums were over 0.20 percent while the final swaption premiums were 0.02 percent to 0.04 percent. Premiums peaked and waned throughout the study period depending on market uncertainty as reflected in major national economic announcements, Federal Reserve testimonies and foreign currency devaluations. Negative swaption premiums were not necessarily irrational or quoting errors. Frequently, traders obligated to provide market quotes to customers do not have an interest and relay that lack of interest to the customer through a nonaggressive quote. The short-dated 1Y NC 3M swaption premiums closely followed 3M into 1Y swaption volatilities, indicating the 3M into 1Y swaption market closely follows the 1Y NC 3M swaption market and that similar market factors affect both markets or both markets efficiently share information. Movements in 1Y NC 3M swaption premiums and in 3M into 1Y swaption volatilities reflected a rational response by market participants to unexpected economic information. As market uncertainty decreased in the market place, risk measured both by swaption premiums and swaption volatilities decreased; vice verse when economic factors showed ...
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Koch, Sandra Idelle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prepositioned Stocks: Inconsistencies in DOD's Annual Report Underscore the Need for Overarching Strategic Guidance and Joint Oversight

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Defense (DOD) provided information on all 12 required reporting elements in its fiscal year 2012 prepositioning report; however, 3 of these elements were only partially addressed. For example, DOD provided a list of non-standard items slated for inclusion in its prepositioned stocks but did not include a specific plan for funding those items as required by the law. Federal internal control standards state that decision makers need complete and relevant information to manage risks and achieve efficiency and effectiveness goals. However, GAO found that DOD's report contained some inconsistencies in information across the services as well as several inaccuracies and omissions. For example, DOD's report included funding information for 6 or 7 fiscal years for most of the services but only 2 fiscal years for the Navy's stocks. Service information was also presented in different formats in the report, which makes it difficult to compare data. Because the Joint Staff did not provide specific guidance to the services to ensure consistency when requesting data, the services adopted separate approaches to reporting information to the Joint Staff for compilation in the report. In addition, although an agency should monitor the quality of information provided to Congress, GAO found several inaccuracies in the report, such as incorrect calculations and information that had been inadvertently omitted. While officials from the Joint Staff and each of the services stated that they have their own review processes, the errors found in the report indicate weaknesses in DOD's quality assurance procedures. Until DOD addresses these issues and provides complete, consistent, and accurate information on its prepositioned stocks, its report will be of limited use to Congress in making informed decisions about DOD's prepositioning programs."
Date: September 26, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three Essays on the Effects of Equity Option Introduction

Description: This dissertation is structured as three essays on various aspects of equity option introduction. Topics addressed include the relative predictability of introduction, the relationship between predictability of introduction and the price effect associated with introduction, and a comparison of the price response of optioned versus nonoptioned stocks to changes in dividends. Essay 1 involves use of firm-specific variables in a LOGIT model to allow assignment of a probability of equity option introduction. Two samples were developed: one of firms that were optioned, the other of firms which met the objective standards but were not optioned. A LOGIT model is used to assign a probability of optioning to each firm. A holdout sample is used to test the out-of-sample predictive power of the model. Firms were correctly classified as optioned or nonoptioned in about 85 percent of cases. Various researchers have detected abnormal positive returns associated with stock option introduction. In an efficient market context, this would indicate that option introduction is "good" news to financial markets. If optioning is predictable, stocks with a higher probability of optioning would be expected to show less price response when options are introduced. In Essay 2, the relationship between the probability of optioning and abnormal returns is tested using a standard event methodology. Utilizing nonparametric statistics, no significant differences were detected among abnormal returns of portfolios formed on the basis of probability of option introduction. Essay 3 compares abnormal returns of optioned and nonoptioned stocks around announced dividend changes. Two samples were obtained. Firms in the first (second) sample had significant dividend changes while options were (were not) available on their stocks. Standard event methodology is used to compare price responses of the two samples. If the price response of optioned stocks is less pronounced than the price response of nonoptioned stocks, this may ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Ragle, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

"Dark Pools" In Equity Trading: Significance and Recent Developments

Description: This report discusses "Dark Pools", relatively recent and controversial electronic stock trading alternatives to traditional exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), and now account for about 15% of overall trading volume. The report discusses the pros and cons of "dark trading", civil suits in reaction to Dark Pools and recent Securities and Exchange Commission actions.
Date: August 27, 2014
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Miller, Rena S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bombay Stock Exchange: tests of market efficiency

Description: This dissertation analyzes the efficiency of the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the relationship of stock return patterns on the BSE with those of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The data includes daily closing values of the BSE and S&P 500 Indexes for the period 1979-1990 and bi-weekly closing prices on 27 of the most active stocks on the BSE for the period 1980-1990.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Ignatius, Roger
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mapping vulnerability of tropical forest to conversion, and resulting potential CO2 emissions: A rapid assessment for the Eliasch Review

Description: This report is a rapid assessment analysis undertaken to inform the UK's Eliasch Review on the role of international finance mechanisms to preserve global forests in tackling climate change. The results should be used with an understanding of the caveats specified at the end of the report.
Date: May 27, 2008
Creator: Miles, Lera; Kapos, Valerie; Lysenko, Igor; Campbell, Alison & Gibbs, Holly
Partner: UNT Libraries

Crude Oil and Crude Oil Derivatives Transactions by Oil and Gas Producers.

Description: This study attempts to resolve two important issues. First, it investigates the diversification benefit of crude oil for equities. Second, it examines whether or not crude oil derivatives transactions by oil and gas producers can change shareholders' wealth. With these two major goals in mind, I study the risk and return profile of crude oil, the value effect of crude oil derivatives transactions, and the systematic risk exposure effect of crude oil derivatives transactions. In contrast with previous studies, this study applies the Goldman Sachs Commodity Index (GSCI) methodology to measure the risk and return profile of crude oil. The results show that crude oil is negatively correlated with stocks so adding crude oil into a portfolio with equities can provide significant diversification benefits for the portfolio. Given the diversification benefit of crude oil mixed with equities, this study then examines the value effect of crude oil derivatives transactions by oil and gas producers. Differing from traditional corporate risk management literature, this study examines corporate derivatives transactions from the shareholders' portfolio perspective. The results show that crude oil derivatives transactions by oil and gas producers do impact value. If oil and gas producing companies stop shorting crude oil derivatives contracts, company stock prices increase significantly. In contrast, if oil and gas producing companies start shorting crude oil derivatives contracts, stock prices drop marginally significantly. Thus, hedging by producers is not necessarily good. This paper, however, finds that changes in policy regarding crude oil derivatives transactions cannot significantly affect the beta of shareholders' portfolios. The value effect, therefore, cannot be attributed to any systematic risk exposure change of shareholders' portfolios. Market completeness, transaction costs, and economies of scale are identified as possible sources of value effect. The following conclusions have been obtained in this study. Crude oil provides significant diversification benefits ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: Xu, He
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies in Bank Contagion: Three Regulatory Events

Description: This research describes an analysis, using event-study methodology, of the reaction of the stock returns of a sample, drawn from the one-hundred largest bank holding companies, to certain actions of regulatory agencies. The first part of the analysis examines the reaction of the bank stocks to the closure of the Bank of New England, using cross-sectional variables not previously examined by other investigators. The second event considers the invalidation of interest-rate swap contracts by the British Law Lords, the highest court in Britain. The third case is an examination of the effects of actions taken to enforce the Community Reinvestment Act. All three events have significant abnormal returns in at least one sub-sample and event window. The results of the cross-sectional analysis and the lack of response to later events are consistent with market efficiency in the semi-strong form. The results are also consistent with the hypothesis that regulatory policies that emphasize consistency and banking system safety are desirable.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Springstube, Woodard R. (Woodard Rex)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Announcement Effects of Bond Rating Changes on Common Stock Prices

Description: This dissertation examines the reaction of common stock prices to changes in bond ratings by Moody's Bond Service. The question is whether an announcement of a re-rating by Moody's is new information. There are only two studies of stock price reaction to bond changes and the results are conflicting. Pinches and Singleton (1978) [PS] concluded that any reaction comes well before the re-rating. Griffin and Sanvicente (1982) [GS] found that their portfolio test indicated that rating changes do convey new information. This was particularly true for downgradings. Both studies used monthly data and neither performed a statistical testing of residual reversals. PS provided a graph of the residuals which indicated the presence of a reversal trend. GS provided no information on this topic. This study, using daily data and the cumulative prediction error technique, finds that bond re-ratings offer new information. The results indicate that the market only partially anticipates the bond change. For the downgrades, the excess return on the announcement day is .6% which is statistically significant. The residuals reverse after the announcement day, but are not statistically significant. The upgrades do not have a significant reaction on the announcement day, but have a statistically significant negative reaction from day 1 to 10. The cumulative residual for days 1 to 10 is -2.8% with a test statistic of -3.85. This study finds as PS that there is some anticipation for both upgrades and downgrades. It extends their work by statistically testings the reversals after the announcement date and by testing the announcement day effect. There is significant abnormal return for the downgrades on the announcement day and the upgrades have a significant reversal in their residuals from day 1 to 10. This provides both support and extension of Griffin and Sanvicente's results and suggests that Moody's is offering ...
Date: December 1984
Creator: Glascock, John L. (John Leslie)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Information Content of Managerial Decisions, Change in Risk, and Complimentary Signals: Evidence on New Bond Issue, Exchange Offer, and Dividend Payments

Description: The effect of a change in capital structure on the risk and return of common stockholders is investigated. Also, the information content of dividends when a firm goes for new outside financing is examined. Data used in the study are collected from the Moody's Bond Survey, the Prentice Hall's Capital Adjustments, the Wall Street Journal Index, and the Center for Research in Security Prices Tape. The study uses an event study methodology. The risk (beta) of common stock before an issuance of debt securities is compared with the risk after the issue. The stock market reaction to the issuance of new debt securities is measured using after-the-event risk. The information content of dividend announcement before a new debt issue is compared to that of after the issue. The findings show that debt issue reduces stock holders' risk if the issuer is a dividend paying company. Also, debt securities issued through an exchange offer increase stockholders' wealth. Finally, issuance of new debt does not affect the information content of dividends.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Iqbal, Zahid
Partner: UNT Libraries

Combined Leverage and the Volatility of Stock Prices

Description: Much has been written during the past decade to explain the relationship between financial and operating leverage and stock-price volatility. However, the relationship between combined leverage and stock-price volatility has yet to be fully explored. Mandelker and Rhee's (MR) recent study uses both operating and financial leverage in a regression (equivalent to the traditional total leverage—DTL) and shows that both types of leverage are positively associated with common stock betas. Huffman recently demonstrated that there are interactions between operating leverage and financial leverage. Therefore, MR's model could be oversimplified. This study examines the relationship between firms' combined leverage and their stock-price volatility. The study also examines industry and industry growth to see if the relationship is influenced by these factors. The question is whether DOCL is a better risk measure than DTL and whether there is an interaction between operating and financial leverage. The inferences that can be drawn from the study's results are as follows: (a) Stock risk is a function of combined leverage; (b) Industry significantly influences the relationship between stock risk and DOCL; (c) High growth increases the relationship between stock risk and DOCL; (d) Combined leverage (DOCL) is a better risk measure than total leverage (DTL). Further, the problem with the traditional total leverage measure is the omission of the interaction between DOL and DFL. This is consistent with Huffman's theory and suggests Mandelker and Rhee's model is oversimplified.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Li, Rong-Jen
Partner: UNT Libraries

[News Script: Prices]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, relating a news story.
Date: April 25, 1969, 12:00 p.m.
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections