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Physiological and Verbal Responses to Erotic Visual Stimuli in a Female Population

Description: In recent years, there has been a growing acceptance of sexual behavior as a legitimate area of research. An impetus for research utilizing erotic visual stimuli was supplied by the Presidential appointment of the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (1963). Research into the effects of erotic visual stimuli has typically employed male subjects (Neiger, 1966). The paucity of adequate research has not been a deterrent to the formulation of strong opinions regarding the nature of female sexuality. The present research has focused on female responses to visual representations of the nude male figure.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Hamrick, Narecia D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children's ability to recognize visually occluded stimuli

Description: The purpose of this research was to study children's ability to recognize partially occluded images. Tasks were constructed which consisted of occluded images from video games, trademarks, and household objects. The tasks were administered to third and sixth grade students at two elementary schools in Arlington, Texas. The researcher discovered no significant differences between the scores of males and females except for the males' higher score on the video game task .
Date: May 1985
Creator: Young, Jeffry R. (Jeffry Ray)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Vocal Pitch-Matching: The Effect of Singing into the Right Ears of Fifth-Grade Students

Description: This study investigated whether fifth-grade students would sing more accurately when responding to pitch stimuli presented to the right ear as compared to left and both ears. Students were also classified as either strongly right-handed or other (left-handed or mixed) to see if ear treatment responses would differ with handedness. Sixty-six students were tested on their attempts to match 12 model pitches. Identical tests were given to each subject on 3 different days, with a different ear treatment each day. Vocal response scores were significantly better for both-ear presentation than for left-ear. No significant difference was found between right and both ears, right and left ears, or between handedness groups.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Watkins, Sharon C. (Sharon Carp)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells

Description: Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.
Date: June 26, 2008
Creator: Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J. & Radisky, Derek C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Preliminary Evaluation of an Indirect Assessment of Sensitivity to Aversive Stimulation

Description: Aversive tasks and activities are commonly encountered in the everyday routines of most individuals. For individuals with intellectual disabilities, a means to assess individual sensitivities to aversive stimulation could allow caregivers to avoid unnecessary contact with aversive events, teach appropriate ways to avoid or escape aversive situations, and condition tolerance to unavoidable aversive tasks and activities. The current study, conducted at a large, state-operated residential facility for adults with intellectual disabilities, used an anecdotal assessment, the Sensitivities to Aversive Stimulation Survey (SASS), to evaluate the relative aversiveness of an array of commonly encountered tasks and activities for each participant. Five caregivers complete the 25-question assessment, using Likert-type scales to rate individual participants' affect, compliance or tolerance, and severity of problem behavior related to each item. The mean scores of the raters were used to estimate the aversiveness of each task, condition, or activity. The outcomes from the SASS were then compared with outcomes of an experimental analysis in which participants could emit responses to escape situations that were ranked either high or low using the SASS. Relative aversiveness was evaluated by comparing the percentage of trials with escape behavior and duration of exposure for each stimulus. Preliminary results indicate that the SASS may be useful in identifying aversive tasks and stimuli.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Hope, Mariah L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Evocative and Repertoire-Altering Effects of Contingency-Specifying Stimuli

Description: The effects of deadlines in contingency-specifying stimuli among nine 4 to 5 year old children were investigated. Each child was given verbal statements differing in the specified deadline, the delivery of the reinforcer, and the opportunity to respond. The results indicated: (a) statements not specifying deadlines or reinforcers failed to control the children's behavior reliably, (b) specifying deadlines, either immediate or delayed, and immediate reinforcers exerted reliable control over the children's behavior when the opportunity to respond was immediately available, and (c) specifying delayed deadlines or no deadlines and immediate or delayed reinforcers did not reliably control the children's behavior when the opportunity to respond was delayed.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Mistr, Kathryn N. (Kathryn Noel)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Functional Materials for Microsystems: Smart Self-Assembled Photochromic Films: Final Report

Description: This project set out to scientifically-tailor ''smart'' interfacial films and 3-D composite nanostructures to exhibit photochromic responses to specific, highly-localized chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, and to integrate them into optical microsystems. The project involved the design of functionalized chromophoric self-assembled materials that possessed intense and environmentally-sensitive optical properties (absorbance, fluorescence) enabling their use as detectors of specific stimuli and transducers when interfaced with optical probes. The conjugated polymer polydiacetylene (PDA) proved to be the most promising material in many respects, although it had some drawbacks concerning reversibility. Throughout his work we used multi-task scanning probes (AFM, NSOM), offering simultaneous optical and interfacial force capabilities, to actuate and characterize the PDA with localized and specific interactions for detailed characterization of physical mechanisms and parameters. In addition to forming high quality mono-, bi-, and tri-layers of PDA via Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, we were successful in using the diacetylene monomer precursor as a surfactant that directed the self-assembly of an ordered, mesostructured inorganic host matrix. Remarkably, the diacetylene was polymerized in the matrix, thus providing a PDA-silica composite. The inorganic matrix serves as a perm-selective barrier to chemical and biological agents and provides structural support for improved material durability in microsystems. Our original goal was to use the composite films as a direct interface with microscale devices as optical elements (e.g., intracavity mirrors, diffraction gratings), taking advantage of the very high sensitivity of device performance to real-time dielectric changes in the films. However, our optical physics colleagues (M. Crawford and S. Kemme) were unsuccessful in these efforts, mainly due to the poor optical quality of the composite films.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: BURNS, ALAN R.; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; CARPICK, R.W.; SHELNUTT, JOHN A. & BRINKER, C. JEFFREY
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Memory Load on the Accuracy of Recognition of Stimuli

Description: The purpose of this study was to find if memory load significantly affects the performance of the subjects in the before condition of a before versus after technique experiment. In order to accomplish this the alternatives were presented either before or after the stimulus, with the alternatives and stimuli being either of high-complexity or low-complexity.
Date: June 1968
Creator: Harris, Jerry Lon
Partner: UNT Libraries

LLNL small-scale static spark machine: static spark sensitivity test

Description: Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done in order to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli, such as friction, static spark, and impact. Typically this testing is done to discover potential handling problems that may exist for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ''Static Spark Test Apparatus'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as the method used to evaluate the relative static spark sensitivity of energetic materials. The basic design, originally developed by the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is discussed. The accumulated data for the materials tested to date is not included here, with the exception of specific examples that have yielded interesting or unusual results during the tests.
Date: August 23, 1999
Creator: Foltz, M F & Simpson, L R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Application of Auditory Stimuli as Fading Prompts in Discrimination Training

Description: An experiment was conducted to examine the functionality of using auditory stimuli in isolation as fading stimuli. A review of the literature revealed very few reports regarding the usage of the auditory modality for fading purposes. The study employed auditory prompts as fading stimuli in the transfer of stimulus control across stimulus modalities, specifically, the transfer of stimulus control from auditory to visual stimulus properties. A single subject was employed for the experiment. The results were that the intensity of the auditory stimulus was an ineffective dimension to use for fading operations in the transfer of stimulus control across stimulus modalities, Further investigation is needed regarding the conditions that limit the transfer of stimulus control when auditory prompts are employed as fading stimuli.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Perlman, Neal S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Hazards Response of Energetic Materials - Developing a Predictive Capability for Initiation and Reaction under Multiple Stimuli

Description: We present our approach to develop a predictive capability for hazards--thermal and nonshock impact--response of energetic material systems based on: (A) identification of relevant processes; (B) characterization of the relevant properties; (C) application of property data to predictive models; and (D) application of the models into predictive simulation. This paper focuses on the last two elements above, while a companion paper by Maienschein et al focuses on the first two elements. We outline models to describe the both the microscopic evolution of hot spots for detonation response and thermal kinetic models used to model slow heat environments. We show examples of application to both types of environments.
Date: April 15, 2005
Creator: Nichols III, A L; Wallin, B K; Maienschein, J L; Reaugh, J E; Yoh, J J & McClelland, M E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report : impacts analysis for cyber attack on electric power systems (national SCADA test bed FY09).

Description: The development continues for Finite State Abstraction (FSA) methods to enable Impacts Analysis (IA) for cyber attack against power grid control systems. Building upon previous work, we successfully demonstrated the addition of Bounded Model Checking (BMC) to the FSA method, which constrains grid conditions to reasonable behavior. The new FSA feature was successfully implemented and tested. FSA is an important part of IA for the power grid, complementing steady-state approaches. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of myriad dynamic trajectories for the system, which in turn facilitates IA for whole ranges of system conditions simultaneously. Given the potentially wide range and subtle nature of potential control system attacks, this is a promising research approach. In this report, we will explain the addition of BMC to the previous FSA work and some testing/simulation upon the implemented code using a two-bus test system. The current FSA approach and code allow the calculation of the acceptability of power grid conditions post-cyber attack (over a given time horizon and for a specific grid topology). Future work will enable analysis spanning various topologies (to account for switching events), as well as an understanding of the cyber attack stimuli that can lead to undesirable grid conditions.
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Stamp, Jason Edwin; LaViolette, Randall A. & Gardiner, Judith D. (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Function-Altering Effects of Contingency-Specifying Stimuli

Description: Three children between the ages of 3 and 3 1/2 were asked to choose a colored object from an array of 5 colors in a baseline condition. After color preferences were established, stickers, small toys and praise were made contingent on choosing the least preferred color. After the first experimental condition resulted in consistent choosing of the least preferred color, a second experimental condition was implemented. At the beginning of each session a contingency-specifying stimulus (CSS) was presented, each CSS specifying a different color to be selected. Both contingency-shaping and CSS presentation resulted in stimulus control over responding. However, CSS presentation resulted in immediate redistributions of behavioral units across CSS sessions.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Ford, Victoria L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Do Shared S-minus Functions Among Stimuli Lead to Equivalence?

Description: We examined the claim that equivalence classes contain all positive elements in a reinforcement contingency by asking whether negative stimuli in a reinforcement contingency will also form an equivalence class, based on their shared function as S-minus stimuli. In Experiment 1, 5 subjects were tested for equivalence for positive and negative stimuli. Testing of positive stimuli preceded testing of negative stimuli. Two of five subjects demonstrated equivalence for positive stimuli, and three subjects demonstrated equivalence for negative stimuli. In Experiment 2, order of testing was reversed. Four of six subjects demonstrated equivalence for positive stimuli, and none demonstrated equivalence for negative stimuli. In Experiment 3, positive and negative stimuli were tested together. Only one of five subject demonstrated equivalence for positive and negative stimuli. These data suggest that negative stimuli may enter an equivalence class, and so Sidman paradigm should be expanded. Order of testing was found as a meaningful variable.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Kassif-Weiss, Sivan O.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sex-Guilt and the Effects of a Subliminal Sex-Related Stimulus on the Libidinal Content of Fictional Narratives

Description: Fictional narratives of 68 female undergraduates classified as either high or low on sex-guilt were rated for libidinal content following subliminal exposure to either a sex-related or a neutral stimulus. Separate dependent measures were obtained for libidinal derivatives bearing either a transparently "close" or a symbolically "distant" relationship to the sex-related stimulus. Subjects in the sex-related stimulus condition expressed significantly fewer close libidinal derivatives than subjects in the neutral condition. High sex-guilt subjects' distant derivative production revealed a near-significant trend toward repression in the neutral condition, but the greatest amount of expression in the sex-related condition. Type of defenses employed are discussed as a function of subliminally perceived stimulus threat.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Thode, Rick D. (Rick Davis)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Elimination of Cigarette Smoking, Employing a New Aversive Conditioning Procedure

Description: The study was designed to find a response on the behavioral level that would be an effective index across subjects for determining when conditioned aversive suppression of a response had been achieved. Ten male volunteers received shock during trials in which they had to smoke. Half of the subjects received a brief but more intense shock when they stopped smoking during a trial. A comparison of these subjects to the others showed their average amount of smoking suppression in pre- and post-treatment rates to be significantly (P < .025) greater. In addition, these subjects showed conditioned emotional responding. It was concluded that this behavioral level response was an effective index for determining when suppression of smoking would occur.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Himes, Jerome A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Responsive Copolymers for Enhanced Petroleum Recovery

Description: The objectives of this work was to: synthesize responsive copolymer systems; characterize molecular structure and solution behavior; measure rheological properties of aqueous fluids in fixed geometry flow profiles; and to tailor final polymer compositions for in situ rheology control under simulated conditions. This report focuses on the synthesis and characterization of novel stimuli responsive copolymers, the investigation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow and the design of a rheometer capable of measuring very dilute aqueous polymer solutions at low torque.
Date: February 27, 2001
Creator: McCormick, C. & Hester, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Aversion Therapy for Morphine Addiction

Description: These studies led the experimenter to investigate the use of chemical aversion therapy using anectine as the aversive stimulus with a morphine addict. The success of Thomason and Rathod with heroin addicts suggested that their experimental method would be useful as a reference while designing this study. The treatment hypothesis was that the patient's use of intravenous narcotic drugs would be eliminated through the application of chemical aversion therapy. Chemical aversion therapy was operantly defined as the injection intravenously of anectine into the patient concurrent with his self-injection of his narcotic of choice.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Norton, Carole Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness: The Result of the Uncontrollability of Reinforcement or the Result of the Uncontrollability of Aversive Stimuli?

Description: This research demonstrates that experience with uncontrollable reinforcement, here defined as continuous non-contingent positive feedback to solution attempts of insoluble problems, fails to produce the proactive interference phenomenon, learned helplessness, while uncontrollable aversive events, here defined as negative feedback to solution attempts of insoluble problems, produces that phenomenon. These results partially support the "learned helplessness" hypothesis of Seligman (1975) which predicts that experience with uncontrollable reinforcement, the offset of negative events or the onset of positive ones, results in learning that responding is independent of reinforcement and that learning transfers to subsequent situations. This research further demonstrates that experience with controllability, here defined as solubility, results in enhanced competence.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Benson, James S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Auditory and Visual Stimuli in a Delayed Matching to Sample Procedure with Adult Humans.

Description: Five humans were exposed to a matching to sample task in which the delay (range = 0 to 32 seconds) between sample stimulus offset and comparison onset was manipulated across conditions. Auditory stimuli (1” tone) and arbitrary symbols served as sample stimuli for three (S1, S2, S3) and two (S4 and S5) subjects, respectively. Uppercase English letters (S, M, and N) served as comparison stimuli for all subjects. Results show small but systematic effects of the retention interval on accuracy and latency to selection of comparison stimuli. The results fail to show a difference between subjects exposed to auditory and visual sample stimuli. Some reasons for the failure to note a difference are discussed.
Date: December 2002
Creator: DeFulio, Anthony L.
Partner: UNT Libraries