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The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Study 15: Elective Hysterectomy: Costs, Risks, and Benefits

Description: A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks takes the approach that "hysterectomies that are performed for indications that could be treated by alternative therapies or by no therapy at all, with fewer resultant health risks to the woman and lower economic costs in general" (p. 3).
Date: October 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PARTICIPANT SUPPORT FOR THE 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON PLASMA PROCESSING SCIENCE (JULY 11-16,2010)

Description: The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in low temperature plasma science and will explore the applications of low temperature plasma technology relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy and the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks, plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization, and environmental remediation and waste treatment. The conference will bring together in an informal atmosphere leaders in the field with junior investigators and graduate students. The special format of the Gordon Conferences, with programmed discussion sessions and ample time for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide for a fertile atmosphere of brainstorming and creative thinking among the attendees.
Date: June 14, 2011
Creator: Kortshagen, Uwe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam Sterilization of Seed Beds for Tobacco and Other Crops

Description: "The tobacco seedling is subject to injury in the seed bed by weeds and a number of parasitic enemies, among which is a fungus root-rot. It is of the utmost importance to secure beds free from weeds and to avoid the use of diseased or weak seedlings. Methods of sterilization have been developed to control seed-bed conditions.... This bulletin describes the necessary equipment and method of operation, with certain special features of seasonal convenience and seed-bed preparation. The method is applicable for working on either small or large seed-bed areas and can be used in all tobacco-growing districts. With necessary modifications in the apparatus which will readily suggest themselves to the truck grower, the method can be used very successfully to control soil conditions in the greenhouse, in cold-frames, or in the field." -- p. 2
Date: 1918
Creator: Beinhart, E. G. (Ernest George), 1887-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Simple Steam Sterilizer for Farm Dairy Utensils

Description: "Dairy utensils on small farms are not often efficiently sterilized, because steam is not available. The sterilizers now in use require a small boiler, and the whole sterilizing outfit is often regarded as too expensive for use, especially on farms where only a few cows are milked. The object of this bulletin is to describe a simple and inexpensive yet efficient steam sterilizer which can be provided at a cost of from $5 to $10. It is believed that the sterilizer described here is cheap enough to justify its use on any farm from which milk or cream is sold. The additional keeping quality which the sterilization of utensils will give milk and cream will probably pay for the cost of the sterilizer in one season." -- p. 1-2
Date: 1916
Creator: Ayers, S. Henry (Samuel Henry) & Taylor, George B. (George Barkley), b. 1878
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

Description: Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution.
Date: October 6, 2004
Creator: Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S. & Tsai, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation: A Tool for Industry. A Survey of Current Technology

Description: This one-year survey of industrial applications of ionizing radiation is based on interviews with workers in the field and on analysis of selected literature. ionizing radiation at kilowatt power levels from electron accelerators and from radionuclides is finding a few special applications, notably sterilization and be in various stages of process development and tcsting. These are concentrated heavily in the plastics field, though examples are found in petrochemical synthesis, product sterilization, and portable energy sources such as batteries. Ionizing radiation is not yet a processing tool of major importance to industry generally, however, because it has not yet demonstrated sufficient advantages over established methods of achieving a similar result. Thus, though ionizing radiation produces free radicals under a wide variety of conditions, it has, with few exceptions, not proved superior to other agents, such as heat and chemicals, that also produce free radicals. Insufficient specificity of action, low yields, and costs higher than those of competitive processes are among the chief difficulties found. Possible unique features of radiation have not been fully explored. Optimization of enviromental variables has not been thoroughly studied. Indirect advantages associated with radiation, such as greater processing or packaging flexibility, have already proved significantly important but have not yet been thoroughly evaluated in most potential applications. Even radiation engineering is relatively undeveloped and radiation economics uncertain. Skillfully oriented research and development on such problems will improve the likelihood of radiation becoming a tool of major importance for U.S. industry. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1959
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid inactivation of SARS-like coronaviruses.

Description: Chemical disinfection and inactivation of viruses is largely understudied, but is very important especially in the case of highly infectious viruses. The purpose of this LDRD was to determine the efficacy of the Sandia National Laboratories developed decontamination formulations against Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) as a surrogate for the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans. The outbreak of SARS in late 2002 resulted from a highly infectious virus that was able to survive and remain infectious for extended periods. For this study, preliminary testing with Escherichia coli MS-2 (MS-2) and Escherichia coli T4 (T4) bacteriophages was conducted to develop virucidal methodology for verifying the inactivation after treatment with the test formulations following AOAC germicidal methodologies. After the determination of various experimental parameters (i.e. exposure, concentration) of the formulations, final testing was conducted on BCV. All experiments were conducted with various organic challenges (horse serum, bovine feces, compost) for results that more accurately represent field use condition. The MS-2 and T4 were slightly more resistant than BCV and required a 2 minute exposure while BCV was completely inactivated after a 1 minute exposure. These results were also consistent for the testing conducted in the presence of the various organic challenges indicating that the test formulations are highly effective for real world application.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Kapil, Sanjay (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Oberst, R. D. (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David; Souza, Caroline Ann & Williams, Cecelia Victoria
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

Description: A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary ...
Date: March 20, 2009
Creator: Hooley, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EM Structure Based and Vacuum Acceleration

Description: The importance of particle acceleration may be judged from the number of applications which require some sort of accelerated beam. In addition to accelerator-based high energy physics research, non-academic applications include medical imaging and treatment, structural biology by x-ray diffraction, pulse radiography, cargo inspection, material processing, food and medical instrument sterilization, and so on. Many of these applications are already well served by existing technologies and will profit only marginally from developments in accelerator technology. Other applications are poorly served, such as structural biology, which is conducted at synchrotron radiation facilities, and medical treatment using proton accelerators, the machines for which are rare because they are complex and costly. Developments in very compact, high brightness and high gradient accelerators will change how accelerators are used for such applications, and potentially enable new ones. Physical and technical issues governing structure-based and vacuum acceleration of charged particles are reviewed, with emphasis on practical aspects.
Date: September 27, 2005
Creator: Colby, E. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

Description: Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Gadgil, Ashok J. & Derby, Elisabeth A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Thermoradiation Treatments on the DNA of Bacillus Subtilis Endospores

Description: Endospores of the bacterium, Bacillus subfilis, have been shown to exhibit a synergistic rate of cell death when treated with particular levels of heat and ionizing radiation in combination. This synergism has been documented for a number of different organisms at various temperatures and radiation doses (Sivinski, H.D., D.M. Garst, M.C. Reynolds, C.A. Trauth, Jr., R.E. Trujillo, and W.J. Whitfield, ''The Synergistic Inactivation of Biological Systems by Thermoradiation,'' Industrial Sterilization, International Symposium, Amsterdam, 1972, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, pp. 305-335). However, the mechanism of the synergistic action is unknown. This study attempted to determine whether the mechanism of synergism was specifically connected to the DNA strand breakage--either single strand breakage or double strand breakage. Some work was also done to examine the effect of free radicals and ions created in the spore body by the radiation treatments, as well as to determine the functionality of repair enzymes following heat, radiation, and thermoradiation treatments. Bacillus subtilis spores were treated at combinations of 33 kr/hr, 15 kr/hr, 105 C, 85 C, 63 C, and 50 C. Some synergistic correlation was found with the number of double strand breaks, and a strong correlation was found with the number of single strand breaks. In cases displaying synergism of spore killing, single strand breakage while the DNA was in a denatured state is suspected as a likely mechanism. DNA was damaged more by irradiation in the naked state than when encased within the spore, indicating that the spore encasement provides an overall protective effect from radiation damage in spite of free radicals and ions which may be created from molecules other than the DNA molecule within the spore body. Repair enzymes were found to be functional following treatments by radiation only, heat only, and thermoradiation.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: JACOBS, JENNIFER A.; TURMAN, BOBBY N. & FAGUY, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent developments in the Sandia Laboratories' sewage sludge irradiation program

Description: Pathogen reduction studies have shown that a 1 Mrad treatment (or less at elevated temperatures) is very effective in eliminating pathogenic bacteria and viable parasite ova in liquid sludges. Heat is effective in reducing levels not only of pathogenic bacteria and Ascaris ova, but viruses as well. Ammonia has been shown to be virucidal to poliovirus and several other enteric viruses. Sludge processing costs are seen to be marginally competitive with heat treatment for liquid sludges and relatively economical for composted or dried sludges. Physical/chemical effects studies have shown that the effects of irradiation of sludges on dewatering properties are not significant when compared to polymers, nor is the combined effect synergistic. Dried, irradiated undigested sludge has been shown to be of significant nutritional value when used as a feed supplement for sheep and cattle, as well as in agronomic uses. No significant harmful effects have been demonstrated in the feeding program thus far. Product enhancement studies are currently under way, including schemes for removing nitrogen from effluent streams for addition as ammonium salts to sludges.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Sivinski, H.D.; Brandon, J.R.; Morris, M.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Ward, R.L.; McCaslin, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eliminating Medical Waste Liabilities Through Mobile Maceration and Disinfection

Description: Commercial medical waste treatment technologies include incineration, melting, autoclaving, and chemical disinfection. Incineration disinfects, destroys the original nature of medical waste, and reduces the waste volume by converting organic waste content to carbon dioxide and water, leaving only residual inorganic ash. However, medical waste incinerator numbers have plummeted from almost 2,400 in 1995 to 115 in 2003 and to about 62 in 2005, due to negative public perception and escalating compliance costs associated with increasingly strict regulations. High-temperature electric melters have been designed and marketed as incinerator alternatives, but they are also costly and generally must comply with the same incinerator emissions regulations and permitting requirements. Autoclave processes disinfect medical waste at much lower operating temperatures than incinerators operate at, but are sometimes subject to limitations such as waste segregration requirements to be effective. Med-Shred, Inc. has developed a patented mobile shredding and chemical disinfecting process for on-site medical waste treatment. Medical waste is treated on-site at customer facilities by shredding and disinfecting the waste. The treated waste can then be transported in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) requirements to a landfill for disposal as solid municipal waste. A team of Idaho National Laboratory engineers evaluated the treatment process design. The process effectiveness has been demonstrated in mycobacterium tests performed by Analytical Services Incorporated. A process description and the technical and performance evaluation results are presented in the paper. A treatment demonstration and microbiological disinfecting tests show that the processor functions as it was intended.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Rankin, R. A.; Soelberg, N. R.; Klingler, K. M.; Lagle, C. W. & Byers, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department