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Stereotype threat in India: Gender and leadership choices

Description: Stereotype threat is a psychosocial dilemma experienced by members of a negatively stereotyped group in situations where they fear they may confirm the stereotype. This study examined the phenomenon in India, thereby extending previous research to another culture. In addition, with participation by students preparing to be professionals, the results are applicable to organizational settings. Ninety graduate students from a professional training institute viewed common Indian advertisements under three conditions: gender stereotypic (women depicted as homemakers), counter stereotypic (women represented as professionally employed individuals) and neutral (no reference to any gender identity). It was hypothesized that females in the stereotypic condition would be susceptible to stereotype threat effect and thus opt for problem solver over leadership role on a subsequent task, while females in the counter stereotypic condition were expected to choose leadership roles. ANOVA was employed to test for differences across the three conditions. The study also hypothesized mediation of the stereotype threat performance deficits by self-efficacy, evaluation apprehension, anxiety, role conflict, stereotype activation, father's and mother's education levels. Hierarchical multiple regression procedures as recommended by Baron and Kenny (1986) were conducted for mediational analysis. Data analysis provided partial support for the two hypotheses. In support of the stereotype threat theory, condition emerged as a significant variable influencing selection of role choice. In line with previous research, no evidence for mediation by any of the variables studied as potential mediators was found. However role conflict and evaluation apprehension may have functioned as suppressor variables that enhanced the variance in the condition-role choice relationship. The results of the study and their implications, in context of the Indian scenario, are discussed. Certain limitations are identified and suggestions made for future research.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Prasad, Ambika
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stereotypes in Retail Print Advertising: The Effects of Gender and Physical Appearance on Consumer Perceptions

Description: The retail sector spends millions of dollars each year advertising to consumers. This is a considerable investment for companies seeking effective ways to inform and persuade the consumer. Consequently, retailers need to develop creative message strategies and tactics that will positively affect consumer attitudes. One particular tactic available to retailers is the use of a spokesperson in the advertisement. Salespersons are used in numerous advertisements and can provide key benefits to an advertiser. However, to maximize these benefits, retailers need to carefully select the spokesperson that will be most effective for their store and product. This purpose of this research is to examine the characteristics that influence consumers' perceptions of print advertisements that include a spokesperson in the advertisement. Most of the past literature concerning spokespersons has concentrated on the consumer perspective of meeting and interacting with a living, breathing person. This research seeks to use the past research on salespeople to examine the spokesperson as a cue in a print advertisement. In this perspective, the consumer views the spokesperson from a visual-only perspective. The proposed experiment will utilize print advertisements from two retail businesses. More specifically the study will investigate how consumers react if the individual viewed in the advertisement is typical (matches with their preconceived stereotype) or if the salesperson is atypical (does not match with their preconceived stereotype). This research also examines how men and women are viewed differently in the spokesperson role and how changes in physical appearance may impact consumers' perceptions. The research also studies the influence of spokesperson stereotypes on consumers' cognitive responses.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Allen, Charlotte
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Labeling and Stigma on the Social Rejection of Striptease Performers

Description: This study uses survey data collected from a convenience sample of undergraduate students (N=89). A vignette survey design is employed to measure social rejection of striptease performers compared to a control group. Data is also collected on negative stereotypes held about striptease performers, which are correlated with social rejection. Link and Phelan's conceptualization of the stigma process provides the theoretical framework for this analysis. Findings suggest that striptease performers experience higher levels of social rejection and are perceived more negatively than the control group and that endorsement of negative stereotypes is associated with social rejection.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Ebeid, Omar Randi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personal and Supplied Constructs: A Study of Meaningfulness, Cognitive Organization, Neuroticism, and Sex Roles

Description: George Kelly has stated that persons place interpretations, or constructs, on what they perceive. Past research has indicated that subjects more meaningfully apply their own personal constructs to persons and situations than constructs supplied from other sources. This study attempted to confirm previous findings. Sixty-three university students used their own personal constructs, elicited from the Role Construct Repertory Test, and supplied instrumental-expressive role constructs to interpret and rate 12 actors portraying instrumental and expressive behaviors in six videotaped scenes. The purpose of this study is to compare the meaningfulness to subjects of stereotypic terms in a sex-role inventory to the meaningfulness of the subjects' own personal constructs when interpreting typical masculine- and feminine-typed behavior.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Zervopoulos, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Male and Female Roles in the Lyrics of Three Genres of Contemporary Music

Description: A sample of the top fifty songs of 1973 in Soul, Country-Western, and Easy Listening music is content-analyzed to determine dominant theme and type of love relationship presented. Most of the songs are about women and are sung by men. Hence, male artists continue to dominate the record industry. Criteria for evaluating direction of presentation are applied to lyrics to determine how men present women and women present men. Songs with the heterosexual theme are analyzed to determine conformity to six male and six female stereotypical traits. Males conform to the male stereotype in larger percentages than females conform to the female stereotype. Differences in female role expectations vary among the three genres.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Freudiger, Patricia T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sex-Role Stereotyping in Marital Counseling Sex- Role Style and Type of Problem Effects on Clinical Judgments

Description: The analogue study was designed to extend previous research on clinical sex-role stereotyping of individual clients into the realm of marital counseling. The effects of clinician and couple sex-role style and type of marital problem on clinical judgements of couples was examined through ratings of four audiotaped couples constructed from two scripts depicting either couple financial or sexual problems. Each script produced both a stereotypical and counterstereotypical sex-role styled couple through reversal of spouse verbalizations. A sample of 40 (32 male, 8 female) practicing doctorate-level psychologists rated either two stereotypical or two counterstereotypical couples for level of maladjustment, need for treatment, and prognosis. Individual spouse ratings were also obtained to examine client gender effects.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Woodruff, James Graham
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exotic Femininity: Prostitution Reviews and the Sexual Stereotyping of Asian Women

Description: Studies on prostitution have typically focused on the experiences, problems, and histories of prostitutes, rather than examining men who seek to purchase sex. Race has also been overlooked as a central factor in shaping the sex industry and the motivations of men who seek to purchase sex. This study utilizes online reviews of prostitutes to examine the way men who purchase sex discuss Asian prostitutes in comparison to White prostitutes. This paper traces the history of colonialism and ideas of the exotic Orient to modern stereotypes of Asian women. These stereotypes are then used to frame a quantitative and qualitative analysis of online reviews of prostitutes and compare the ways in which Asian prostitutes and white prostitutes are discussed. Further, the reviews are used to examine more broadly what services, traits, and behaviors are considered desirable by men who use prostitutes. The study finds that there are significant quantitative and qualitative differences in how men discuss Asian and White prostitutes within their reviews, and that these differences appear to be shaped by racially fetishizing stereotypes of Asian women. Prostitution also appears to reinforce male dominance and patriarchy in the form of masculine control and the feminine servicing of male sexual and emotional needs.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Dougherty, Devyn T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis of a Selected Strategy for the Mitigation of Stereotypic Sex Role Attitudes Among Teacher Education Students

Description: The problem of this study was an analysis of the effects of a selected strategy for bringing about changes in stereotypic sex role attitudes of teacher trainees during their teacher education program. The major purposes of this investigation were to (1) develop a preservice treatment program, characterized by the persuasive communication approach, to modify students' stereotypic sex role attitudes, (2) determine the effectiveness of the strategy in modifying students' attitudes, and (3) examine student factors that influence reception and yielding to a persuasive message.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Christensen, Eric W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Autostereotypes and Acculturative Stress in Hispanic College Students: Implications on Self-Esteem and Achievement Motivation

Description: This study evaluated the impact of acculturative stress and negative autostereotypes on the level of self-esteem and achievement motivation among subgroups of Hispanic college students. Subjects were classified by generational level as Second-generation (i.e., foreign-born parents), or Other (i.e., first-generation, foreign-born individuals, and third-generation, foreign-born grandparents;). By country/region of origin, subjects were divided into Central-Americans, Puerto-Ricans, Mexican, Mexican-Americans, and South Americans. Results showed that acculturative stress may facilitate loss of self-esteem particularly in Second-generation individuals, while negative autostereotypic attitudes may actually increase the student's level of motivation for achievement, particularly in Mexican-American individuals. Also, country/region of origin overall influenced negative autostereotypic attitudes.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Fantoni, Patricia (Patricia Maria Angelica)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stereotypes and Hiring Preferences Among Business Students as a Function of Psychologist's Attire

Description: To study what stereotypes exist regarding psychologists by the general public and determine whether and how this affects hiring preferences, 114 undergraduate business and non-business students at a large southwestern university were asked to participate. The Gough Adjective Check List was administered to determine what stereotypes are held by persons regarding psychologists. A study of visual perception/stereotype and hiring preference as a function of attire was also conducted. Three dress styles were used as stimuli. It was hypothesized that the groups would differ in their stereotypes of psychologists both cognitively and visually. There were no significant differences between the groups as a function of college major. However, a main effect for dress style was found. Possible explanations of findings are discussed.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Shaffer, Renita Philley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Big Hair and Big Egos: Texan Stereotypes in American Entertainment Media as Formed Through Television Viewing.

Description: This thesis explores the stereotypes of Texans portrayed in American entertainment media, and attempts to identify the reasons for both the existence, and persistence of these images. The study includes a brief history of Texas, and background information on the formulation of stereotypes. Cultivation theory is used to explain the process of stereotypes formed through television viewing. Content analysis of the responses from an on line survey involving 52 participants revealed that people outside the state of Texas have strong perceptions about Texans that are consistent with media representations. As the level of television viewership increased, so did the indelibility of the impressions. Those who watch more television were more likely to perceive the image of Texans as negative, and less likely to change their opinions of Texans after visiting the state.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Burdette, Catherine Bowers
Partner: UNT Libraries

A test of the effects of linguistic stereotypes in children's animated film: A language attitude study.

Description: This study examined the claim that animated films influence childrens' opinions of accented-English. Two hundred and eighteen 3rd through 5th graders participated in a web-based survey. They listened to speakers with various accents: Mainstream US English (MUSE), African American Vernacular English (AAVE), French, British, and Arabic. Respondents judged speakers' personality traits (Work Ethic, Wealth, Attitude, Intelligence), assigned jobs/life positions, and provided personal information, movie watching habits, and exposure to foreign languages. Results indicate: (1) MUSE ranks higher and AAVE lower than other speakers, (2) jobs/life positions do not correlate with animated films, (3) movie watching habits correlate with AAVE, French, and British ratings, (4) foreign language exposure correlates with French, British, and Arabic ratings.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Trowell, Melody
Partner: UNT Libraries

Racial Stereotypes and Racial Assimilation in a Multiracial Society

Description: Interest in a multiracial society has increased in recent years and including on racism and prejudice and in the propensity to stereotype out-groups. Theories on racism help explain the dominant group's prejudice toward subordinate groups. Yet they only explain why dominant group members stereotype subordinates or if the dominant group's propensity to stereotype is different from that of subordinate groups. Recent assimilation theories suggest that some minorities are assimilating with Whites but Blacks are not undergoing assimilation. Classic assimilation theory suggests that when a subordinate group assimilates with the dominant group then they will also take on the dominant group's values and beliefs, including their prejudices and propensities to stereotype. The use of racial stereotypes in support of the assimilation of a minority group has not been tested. Results from the LSAF national survey provide support for Asians to be assimilating with Whites. However, Hispanics do not appear to be taking on Whites' propensity to stereotype, contradicting the prediction that Hispanics are assimilating with Whites.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Youngblood, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries