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Temperature and environmentally assisted cracking in low alloy steel

Description: Environmental assisted cracking (EAC) can be defined as the propagation of fatigue cracks in water at rates from 3 to over 40 times the growth rates in air. For low alloy steels with sulfur contents > 0.0125% by weight, EAC is normal behavior in the 240 to 290C range. However, literature yields mixed results for low alloy steels with compositions just below this sulfur level; some reports indicate EAC while others do not. Also, several authors have reported an increased tendency toward EAC when the water temperatures were lowered. In the present work, five ASTM A 508 Class 2 forgings with ladle and check analyses that ranged from 0.010 to 0.019 wt% S were tested in high purity deaerated water in the temperature range of 93 to 260C. At 260C these forgings did not exhibit EAC, reinforcing earlier results for two similar forgings. This broad sampling indicates strong resistance to EAC for this class of forging at 260C. On the other hand, EAC occurred consistently in the three of these forgings that were tested below 204C, provided the test conditions (loading frequency, {Delta}K, and R) were high enough to produce a high baseline fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), where the baseline FCGR is that expected in air. At 149C, EAC occurred at test conditions that combined to yield a baseline FCGR greater than {approx}2E-6 mm/s. At 204, 121, and 93C, this critical crack growth rate appeared to shift to lower baseline values. The EAC that occurred at lower temperatures was a factor of 3 to 12 times higher than baseline air rates, which was not as strong as the effect for higher sulfur steels at 240 to 290C. Also, no plateau in the growth rates occurred as it does with the higher sulfur steels. In another approach, EAC was induced ...
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Auten, T.A. & Monter, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel for improved toughness properties

Description: Welding of heavy section steel has traditionally used the automatic submerged arc welding (ASAW) process because of the high deposition rates achievable. However, the properties, particularly fracture toughness, of the weld are often inferior when compared to base material. This project evaluated the use of narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to improve weld material properties. The welding procedures were developed for ASTM A508 Class 4 base material using a 1% Ni filler material complying to AWS Specification A.23-90-EF3-F3-N. A narrow groove joint preparation was used in conjunction with the GTAW process so competitive fabrication rates could be achieved when compared to the ASAW process. Weld procedures were developed to refine weld substructure to achieve better mechanical properties. Two heaters of weld wire were used to examine the effects of minor filler metal chemistry differences on weld mechanical properties. Extensive metallographic evaluations showed excellent weld quality with a refined microstructure. Chemical analysis of the weld metal showed minimal weld dilution by the base metal. Mechanical testing included bend and tensile tests to ensure weld quality and strength. A Charpy impact energy curve versus temperature and fracture toughness curve versus temperature were developed for each weld wire heat. Results of fracture toughness and Charpy impact testing indicated an improved transition temperature closer to that of the base material properties.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Penik, M.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An x-ray diffraction study of microstructural deformation induced by cyclic loading of selected steels

Description: X-ray double crystal diffractometry (XRDCD) was used to assess cyclic microstructural deformation in a face centered cubic (fcc) steel (AISI304) and a body centered cubic (bcc) steel (SA508 class 2). The first objective of the investigation was to determine if XRDCD could be used to effectively monitor cyclic microstructural deformation in polycrystalline Fe alloys. A second objective was to study the microstructural deformation induced by cyclic loading of polycrystalline Fe alloys. The approach used in the investigation was to induce fatigue damage in a material and to characterize the resulting microstructural deformation at discrete fractions of the fatigue life of the material. Also, characterization of microstructural deformation was carried out to identify differences in the accumulation of damage from the surface to the bulk, focusing on the following three regions: near surface (0--10 {micro}m), subsurface (10--300 {micro}m), and bulk. Characterization of the subsurface region was performed only on the AISI304 material because of the limited availability of the SA508 material. The results from the XRDCD data indicate a measurable change induced by fatigue from the initial state to subsequent states of both the AISI304 and the SA508 materials. Therefore, the XRDCD technique was shown to be sensitive to the microstructural deformation caused by fatigue in steels; thus, the technique can be used to monitor fatigue damage in steels. In addition, for the AISI304 material, the level of cyclic microstructural deformation in the bulk material was found to be greater than the level in the near surface material. In contrast, previous investigations have shown that the deformation is greater in the near surface than the bulk for Al alloys and bcc Fe alloys.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Fourspring, P.M. & Pangborn, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

Description: Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements ...
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P. & Pini, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels: Part 1, medium-sulfur forging steel

Description: Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a medium- sulfur ASTM A508-2 forging steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 30.3--38.3 mm, and depths of 13.1--16.8 mm. The experiments were conducted in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, and cyclic frequency) conductive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) in higher-sulfur steels under quasi-stagnant conditions. Earlier experiments on unclad compact tension specimens of this heat of steel did not exhibit EAC, and the present experiments on semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating cladding also did not exhibit EAC.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: James, L.A.; Poskie, T.J.; Auten, T.A & Cullen, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing and properties of superclean ASTM A508 Cl. 4 forgings

Description: Steels with improved resistance to temper embrittlement are now being produced using ``superclean`` steelmaking technology. This technology involves the use of scrap control, proper electric arc furnace and ladle refining furnace practices to produce steel with very low Mn, Si, P, S and other residual impurities such as Sn, As and Sb. This technology has been applied on a production basis to modified ASTM A508 Cl- 4 material intended for high temperature pressure vessel forgings. Processing and properties of this superclean material are reviewed. In addition, the cleanliness and mechanical properties are compared to conventionally melted A508 Cl. 4 material. The ``superclean`` A508 Cl. 4 mod. was found to meet all specification requirements. In addition, the superclean material was found to possess superior upper shelf CVN properties, a lower FATT{sub 50} and NDTT, along with superior microcleanliness compared to conventional material. Finally, the superclean material was found to be immune to temper embrittlement based on the short-term embrittlement treatments examined.
Date: December 31, 1988
Creator: Hinkel, A. V.; Handerhan, K. J.; Manzo, G. J. & Simkins, G. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of unclad and sub-clad semi-elliptical flaws in pressure vessel steels

Description: This study was conducted to support warm prestressing experiments on unclad and sub-clad flawed beams loaded in pure bending. Two cladding yield strengths were investigated: 0.6 Sy and 0.8 Sy, where Sy is the yield strength of the base metal. Cladding and base metal were assumed to be stress free at the stress relief temperature for the 3D elastic-plastic finite element analysis used to model the experiments. The model results indicated that when cooled from the stress relief temperature, the cladding was put in tension due to its greater coefficient of thermal expansion. When cooled, the cladding exhibited various amounts of tensile yielding. The degree of yielding depended on the amount of cooling and the strength of the cladding relative to that of the base metal. When subjected to tensile bending stress, the sub-clad flaw elastic-plastic stress intensity factor, K{sub I}(J), was at first dominated by crack closing force due to tensile yielding in the cladding. Thus, imposed loads initially caused no increase in K{sub I}(J) near the clad-base interface. However, K{sub I}(J) at the flaw depth was little affected. When the cladding residual stress was overcome, K{sub I}(J) gradually increased until the cladding began to flow. Thereafter, the rate at which K{sub I}(J) increased with load was the same as that of an unclad beam. A plastic zone corrected K{sub I} approximation for the unclad flaw was found by the superposition of standard Newman and Raju solutions with those due to a cladding crack closure force approximated by the Kaya and Erdogan solution. These elastic estimates of the effect of cladding in reducing the crack driving force were quite in keeping with the 3D elastic-plastic finite element solution for the sub-clad flaw. The results were also compared with the analysis of clad beam experiments by Keeney and the conclusions ...
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Irizarry-Quinones, H.; Macdonald, B.D. & McAfee, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials property testing using a stress-strain microprobe

Description: The Stress-Strain Microprobe (SSM) uses an automated ball indentation technique to obtain flow data from a localized region of a test specimen or component. This technique is used to rapidly determine the yield strength and microstructural condition of a variety of materials including pressure vessel steels, stainless steels, and nickel-base alloys. The SSM provides an essentially non-destructive technique for the measurement of yield strength data. This technique is especially suitable for the study of complex or highly variable microstructures such as weldments and weld heat affected zones. In this study 119 distinct SSM determinations of the yield strength of eight engineering alloys are discussed and compared to data obtained by conventional tensile tests. The sensitivity of the SSM to the presence of residual stresses is also discussed.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Panayotou, N.F.; Baldrey, D.G. & Haggag, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pretest fracture evaluation of the NESC-1 spinning-cylinder experiment

Description: This paper describes a pretest fracture analysis of the cylinder specimen being used in the Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC) large-scale spinning-cylinder project (NESC-1). Organized as an international forum to exchange information on procedures for structural integrity assessment, to collaborate on specific projects, and to promote the harmonization of international standards, the NESC is currently focusing on a research project funded by United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to study the total process of structural integrity assessments of aged reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing subclad cracks. The intent is to have the problem studied by a wide range of organizations involved in RPV safety assessment. In this project, important safety assessment issues are being investigated by inspection and analysis of a spinning cylinder test which was performed at the AEA Technology facility at Risley, UK. Thermoelastic-plastic analyses were carried out for a clad cylinder model with a 74-mm-deep through-clad inner-surface crack. For this loading, the analytical results indicate that cleavage initiation may be achieved. The intervention of warm prestressing and loss of constraint may make cleavage initiation difficult to achieve in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and near-HAZ regions.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Keeney, J. A.; Bass, B. R.; Williams, P. T. & Pugh, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of low upper-shelf material under pressurized-thermal-shock loading (PTSE-2)

Description: The second pressurized-thermal-shock experiment (PTSE-2) of the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program was conceived to investigate fracture behavior of steel with low ductile-tearing resistance. PTSE-2 was designed primarily to reveal the interaction of ductile and brittle modes of fracture and secondarily to investigate the effects of warm prestressing. A test vessel was prepared by inserting a crack-like flaw of well-defined geometry on the outside surface of the vessel. The flaw was 1 m long by approx.15 mm deep. The instrumented vessel was placed in a test facility in which it was initially heated to a uniform temperature and was then concurrently cooled on the outside and pressurized on the inside. These actions produced an evolution of temperature, toughness, and stress gradients relative to the prepared flaw that was appropriate to the planned objectives. The experiment was conducted in two separate transients, each one starting with the vessel nearly isothermal. The first transient induced a warm prestressed state, during which K/sub I/ first exceeded K/sub Ic/. This was followed by repressurization until a cleavage fracture propagated and arrested. The final transient was designed to produce and investigate a cleavage crack propagation followed by unstable tearing. During this transient the fracture events occurred as had been planned. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Bryan, R.H.; Bass, B.R.; Bolt, S.E.; Bryson, J.W.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fractographic study of a thick wall pressure vessel failure

Description: The pressure vessel described in this paper is identified as Intermediate Test Vessel 1 (ITV-1) and was fabricated of SA508, Class 2 Steel. It was tested to failure at 54/sup 0/C (130/sup 0/F). The gross failure appeared to be a brittle fracture although accompanied by a measured strain of 0.9%. Seven regions of the fracture were examined in detail and the observed surfaces were compared to Charpy V-notch (C/sub v/) specimens of SA508, Class 2 steel broken at temperatures above and below the ductile to brittle transition temperature. Three samples from the vessel were taken in the region around the fatigue notch and four from areas well removed from the notch. All these were carefully examined both optically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was established that early crack extension was by ductile mode until a large flaw approximately 500 mm long 83 mm wide was developed. At this point the vessel could no longer contain the internal pressure and final rupture was by brittle fracture.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Canonico, D.A.; Crouse, R.S. & Henson, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stable crack growth estimates based on effective crack length and crack-opening displacements

Description: A method was developed for estimating the amount of stable crack growth that has occurred in a fracture toughness specimen that were loaded into the plastic range and for which only a monotonically increasing load-displacement curve was measured. The method was applied to data from several pressure vessel steels. The resulting J vs ..delta..a values compare favorably with a resistance curve obtained by the multiple specimen heat-tinting technique for A533, Grade B, Class 1 steel. The method for estimating stable crack growth uses several existing concepts heretofore mainly used separately. These concepts include an approximate expression for J for the compact specimen proposed by Andrews, the effective crack length concept of McCabe and Landes, the UK representation of the crack profile as a pair of straight lines intersecting at a hinge point, and Well's expression, J = m sigma/sub y/delta, for relating the crack-opening displacement to the value of J. The value of the constraint factor, m, at the advancing crack tip is estimated by means of a relation between ductility and fracture toughness. When calculated with respect to the COD at the original fatigue crack tip, the constraint factor, m/sub o/, is found to have a value consistently close to 2.0 for compact and precracked Charpy specimens. The method of estimation requires no auxiliary load-deflection measurements or calculations, and so permits single specimen estimates of stable crack growth to be made without the necessity of making high precision unloading compliance measurements.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Merkle, J.G. & Hudson, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of instrumented charpy tests to determine onset of upper-shelf energy

Description: The Charpy V-notch (C/sub v/) upper-shelf energy is usually defined as that temperature range in which the surface of the C/sub v/ specimen exhibits an appearance indicative of a 100 percent ductile fracture. In an attempt to avoid the need for interpretation, the selection of the C/sub v/ upper-shelf energy is based on the results from an instrumented impact test which provides a permanent record of the load-deflection history of a C/sub v/ specimen during the testing sequence. In the brittle-ductile transition temperature regime, a precipitous drop in the load trace occurs. The amount of the drop decreases at higher temperatures until it is zero, and the zero-drop-in-load temperature is identical to the onset of the C/sub v/ upper shelf. This relationship between the drop in load and energy in an instrumented impact test provides incontestable assurance that the C/sub v/ upper shelf has been obtained. This relationship between drop in load and temperature permits a prediction of the onset of the upper-shelf temperature with as few as two instrumented impact tests. It is also shown that nil-ductility temperature (NDT) (determined by the drop-weight test) is released to the C/sub v/ upper shelf. For the SA-508 Class 2 and SA-533 Grade B Class 1 steels employed in the fabrication of pressure vessels for light-water reactors, C/sub v/ testing at NDT + 180$sup 0$F (100$sup 0$C) will provide upper-shelf energy values. (DLC)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Canonico, D.A.; Stelzman, W.J.; Berggren, R.G. & Nanstad, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of fracture models through pressurized-thermal-shock testing

Description: Two multiple-transient pressurized-thermal-shock experiments (PTSEs) have been conducted under the NRC-sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) program. The first test (PTSE-1) employed an SA-508 class 2 steel with high Charpy upper-shelf energy level and a relatively high brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. The second test (PTSE-2) used a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel (SA-387 grade 22) that had been given a special heat treatment to yield a low Charpy upper-shelf energy level and attendant low tearing resistance. Each experiment included two combined thermal and pressure transients that give rise to propagation and arrest of an initial long flaw that extended about 10% through the thick wall of the test cylinder. Both materials exhibited the ability to inhibit crack propagation by warm prestressing, high initiation toughness values and high crack-arrest toughness values. Cleavage initiation and arrest are modeled well by available fracture theories. However, calculations of ductile tearing based on resistance curves did not consistently predict the observed tearing.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Pugh, C.E.; Bryan, R.H.; Bass, B.R. & Nanstad, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Half bead welding technique

Description: The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Canonico, D.A. & Holz, P.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of thermal-shock experiment TSE-6 and proposal for TSE-7, 8, 9

Description: TSE-6 was conducted on an A508 class-2-chemistry test cylinder tempered at 613/sup 0/C and containing an inner flaw extending the full 1.2-m length and 10% of the 76 mm thickness. During the test, the cylinder was thermally shocked by contacting the inner surface with liquid nitrogen. There were two initiation-arrest events: one at 69 s at a crack depth ratio of 0.27, and 137 s at 0.93. The second event included the desired long crack jump with arrest near the outer surface and confirmed the LEFM prediction of the inability of the crack to completely penetrate the wall under thermal shock alone. Tests TSE-7, 8, and 9 are planned to investigate the effect of cladding on surface extension of short flaws. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cheverton, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program. Volume 2, No. 2: Semiannual progress report, April--September 1991

Description: Goal is to provide a thorough, quantitative assessment of the effects of neutron irradiation on the material behavior, and in particular the fracture toughness properties, of typical pressure vessel stools as they relate to light-water reactor pressure-vessel integrity. Effects of specimen size, material chemistry, product form and microstructure, irradiation fluence, flux, temperature and spectrum, and post-irradiation annealing are being examined on a wide range of fracture properties. The HSSI Program is into 10 tasks: (1) program management, (2) K{sub Ic} curve shift in high-copper welds, (3) K{sub Ia} curve shift in high-copper welds, (4) irradiation effects on cladding, (5) K{sub Ic} and K{sub Ia} curve shifts in low upper-shelf welds, (6) irradiation effects in a commercial low upper-sheer weld, (7) microstructural analysis of irradiation effects, (8) in-service aged material evaluations, (9) correlation monitor materials, and (10) special technical assistance. This report provides an overview of the activities within each of these tasks from April to September 1991.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Corwin, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture-mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with LWR pressure-vessel material

Description: Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that can subject the reactor pressure vessel to severe thermal shock, that is, a rapid cooling of the inner surface of the vessel wall. The thermal-shock loading, coupled with the radiation-induced reduction in the material fracture toughness, introduces the possibility of propagation of preexistent flaws and what at one time were regarded as somewhat unique fracture-oriented conditions. Several postulated reactor accidents have been analyzed to discover flaw behavior trends; seven intermediate-scale thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted; and corresponding materials characterization studies have been performed. Flaw behavior trends and related fracture-mechanics data deduced from these studies are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Cheverton, R.D.; Canonico, D.A.; Iskander, S.K.; Bolt, S.E.; Holz, P.P.; Nanstad, R.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy-section steel technology program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 28, 1973

Description: The materials investigations under the HSST program are divided into studies of unirradiated materials and studies of irradiation effects. The studies of unirradiated materials, which include inspection, characterization, metallurgy, variability determinations, transition temperature investigations, fracture mechanics studies, and fatigue-crack propagation tests, are discussed. The investigations of irradiated materials include studies of radiation effects on A-533-B steel. Results of studies on thick pressure vessels and pipes of ASTM A508 steel are also reported along with results of studies on Mode III crack extension in reactor piping. (JRD)
Date: February 1, 1974
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison between instrumented precracked Charpy and compact specimen tests of carbon steels

Description: The General Atomic Company High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is housed within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Various carbon steel structural members serve as closures at penetrations in the vessel. A program of testing and evaluation is underway to determine the need for reference fracture toughness (K/sub IR/) and indexing procedures for these materials as described in Appendix G to Section III, ASME Code for light water reactor steels. The materials of interest are carbon steel forgings (SA508, Class 1) and plates (SA537, Classes 1 and 2) as well as weldments of these steels. The fracture toughness behavior is characterized with instrumented precracked Charpy V-votch specimens (PCVN) - slow-bend and dynamic - and compact specimens (10-mm and 25-mm thicknesses) using both linear elastic (ASTM E399) and elastic-plastic (equivalent Energy and J-Integral) analytical procedures. For the dynamic PCVN tests, force-time traces are analyzed according to the procedures of the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC)/Metal Properties Council (MPC). Testing and analytical procedures are discussed and PCVN results are compared to those obtained with compact specimens.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Nanstad, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure vessel fracture studies pertaining to a PWR LOCA-ECC thermal shock: experiments TSE-1 and TSE-2

Description: The LOCA-ECC Thermal Shock Program was established to investigate the potential for flaw propagation in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) vessels during injection of emergency core coolant following a loss-of-coolant accident. Studies thus far have included fracture mechanics analyses of typical PWRs, the design and construction of a thermal shock test facility, determination of material properties for test specimens, and two thermal shock experiments with 0.53-m-OD (21-in.) by 0.15-m-wall (6-in.) cylindrical test specimens. The PWR calculations indicated that under some circumstances crack propagation could be expected and that experiments should be conducted for cracks that would have the potential for propagation at least halfway through the wall.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Cheverton, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of four prestressed concrete reactor vessel liner steels

Description: A program of fracture toughness testing and analysis is being performed with PCRV steels for HTGRs. This report focuses on background information for the base materials and results of characterization testing, such as tensile and impact properties, chemical composition, and microstructural examination. The steels tested were an SA-508 class 1 forging, two plates of SA-537 class 1, and one plate of SA-537 class 2. Tensile requirements in effect at the time of procurement are met by all four steels. However, the SA-537 class 2 plate would not meet the minimum requirement for yield strength. Drop-weight and Charpy impact tests verified that the RT/sub NDT/ is equal to the NDT for each steel. Charpy impact energies at the NDT range from 40 J (30 ft-lb) for one heat of SA-537 class 1 to 100 J (74 ft-lb) for the SA-537 class 2 plate; upper-shelf energies range from 170 to 310 J (125 to 228 ft-lb) for the same two steels, respectively. The onset of upper-shelf energy occurred at temperatures ranging from 0 to 50/sup 0/C.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Nanstad, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department