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Scale Control With Graphite Heat-Transfer Tubes of Controlled Permeability to Steam

Description: From Introduction: "The present project authorized under OSW Contract No. 14-01-0001-685 was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of controlling calcium sulfate scale by permission of condensate through graphite heat-transfer tubes. Specifically, the following tasks were accomplished during the course of this contract: Graphite tubes 108" long X 2" O.D. x 1 1/2" I.D. were manufactured at three permeability levels. A test apparatus was constructed and proved out as a useful and reliable probe. Tests were conducted at two brine concentrations. Some correlation of test considerations with scale formation was found. The economic practicality and the feasibility of using permeable tubes for desalinization were established."
Date: July 1967
Creator: Vaaler, L. E. & Hulswitt, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

Description: The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Holcomb, G. R.; Wang, P.; Jablonski, P. D. & Hawk, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam-Cooled Power Reactor Evaluation: Study of 300 Mw(e) Once-Through Superheater Reactor

Description: From introduction: "This report presents a conceptual design study of the once-through superheat reactor design based on experimental heat transfer results obtained during the fall of 1960 on Task F-2 of the AEC sponsored Nuclear Superheat Project."
Date: January 1961
Creator: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressibility Factor, Density, Specific Heat, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free-Energy Function, Viscosity, and Thermal Conductivity of Steam

Description: Note presenting tables of thermal properties of stream that have been prepared in an NBS-NACA series. They include, for real gas, the compressibility factor, the density, the specific heat at constant pressure, the enthalpy, the entropy, the free-energy function, the viscosity, and the thermal conductivity.
Date: August 1956
Creator: Fano, Lilla; Hubbell, John H. & Beckett, Charles W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comparison of Mass Rate and Steam Quality Reductions to Optimize Steamflood Performance

Description: Many operators of steamdrive projects will reduce the heat injection rate as the project matures. The major benefit of this practice is to reduce the fuel costs and thus extend the economic life of the project. However, there is little industry consensus on whether the heat cuts should take the form of: (1) mass rate reductions while maintaining the same high steam quality, or (2) steam quality decreases while keeping the same mass rate. Through the use of a commercial three-phase, three-dimensional simulator, the oil recovery schedules obtained when reducing the injected steam mass rate or quality with time were compared under a variety of reservoir and operating conditions. The simulator input was validated for Kern River Field conditions by using the guidelines developed by Johnson, et at. (1989) for four steamflood projects in Kern River. The results indicate that for equivalent heat injection rates, decreasing the steam injection mass rate at a constant high quality will yield more economic oil than reducing the steam quality at a constant mass rate. This conclusion is confirmed by a sensitivity analysis which demonstrates the importance of the gravity drainage/steam zone expansion mechanism in a low-pressure, heavy oil steamflood with gravity segregation. Furthermore, the impact of discontinuous silts and nonuniform initial temperatures within the steamflood zone was studied, indicating again that a decreasing mass rate injection strategy is a superior operating practice.
Date: August 9, 1999
Creator: Messner, Gregory L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering evaluation of ruptured strainer in Building 309

Description: This report deals with the consequences of the ruptured steam strainer and is divided into two sections. Section 1 evaluates the engineering aspects of the ruptured steam strainer, investigates the events that culminated in the damage and considers factors that may have contributed to the incident. Recommendations are presented to upgrade the system in Building 309 by incorporating hardware changes and proposes a change in operating procedures. Section 2 utilizes the findings presented in Section 1 as a basis for conducting a review on the remainder of the 300 Area steam system, in order to identify similar problem areas. Corrective action recommendations to reduce the risk of repeating component ruptures from water hammer conditions were developed out of the survey and the associated review.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Papenfuss, J. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

Description: Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Choi, J.; Ludwig, P. & Brand, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings: Chicago, Illinois. Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

Description: Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.
Date: October 1, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

Description: The sourcebook is a reference for industrial steam system users, outlining opportunities to improve steam system performance. This Sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The Sourcebook is divided into the following three main sections: Section 1: Steam System Basics--For users unfamiliar with the basics of steam systems, or for users seeking a refresher, a brief discussion of the terms, relationships, and important system design considerations is provided. Users already familiar with industrial steam system operation may want to skip this section. This section describes steam systems using four basic parts: generation, distribution, end use, and recovery. Section 2: Performance Improvement Opportunities--This section discusses important factors that should be considered when industrial facilities seek to improve steam system performance and to lower operating costs. This section also provides an overview of the finance considerations related to steam system improvements. Additionally, this section discusses several resources and tools developed by the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) BestPractices Steam Program to identify and assess steam system improvement opportunities. Section 3: Programs, Contacts, and Resources--This section provides a directory of associations and other organizations involved in the steam system marketplace. This section also provides a description of the BestPractices Steam Program, a directory of contacts, and a listing of available resources and tools, such as publications, software, training courses, and videos.
Date: June 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

Description: In October 2008, the United States Congress extended both the residential and commercial solar investment tax credits (ITCs) for an unprecedented eight years, lifted the $2,000 cap on the residential credit, removed the prohibition on utility use of the commercial credit, and eliminated restrictions on the use of both credits in conjunction with the Alternative Minimum Tax. These significant changes, which apply to systems placed in service on or after January 1, 2009, will increase the value of the solar credits for residential system owners in particular, and are likely--in conjunction with state, local, and utility rebate programs targeting solar--to spur significant growth in residential, commercial, and utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations in the years ahead. This article focuses specifically on the residential credit, describing three areas in which removal of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC will have significant implications for PV rebate program administrators, PV system owners, and the PV industry.
Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Bolinger, Mark A; Barbose, Galen & Wiser, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department