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Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

Description: The sourcebook is a reference for industrial steam system users, outlining opportunities to improve steam system performance. This Sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The Sourcebook is divided into the following three main sections: Section 1: Steam System Basics--For users unfamiliar with the basics of steam systems, or for users seeking a refresher, a brief discussion of the terms, relationships, and important system design considerations is provided. Users already familiar with industrial steam system operation may want to skip this section. This section describes steam systems using four basic parts: generation, distribution, end use, and recovery. Section 2: Performance Improvement Opportunities--This section discusses important factors that should be considered when industrial facilities seek to improve steam system performance and to lower operating costs. This section also provides an overview of the finance considerations related to steam system improvements. Additionally, this section discusses several resources and tools developed by the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) BestPractices Steam Program to identify and assess steam system improvement opportunities. Section 3: Programs, Contacts, and Resources--This section provides a directory of associations and other organizations involved in the steam system marketplace. This section also provides a description of the BestPractices Steam Program, a directory of contacts, and a listing of available resources and tools, such as publications, software, training courses, and videos.
Date: June 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam Digest 2002

Description: Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.
Date: November 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measure Guideline: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

Description: This report was written as a resource for professionals involved in multifamily audits, retrofit delivery, and program design, as well as for building owners and contractors. It is intended to serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate and improve the efficiency and operation of one-pipe steam heating systems. In centrally heated multifamily buildings with steam or hydronic systems, the cost of heat for tenants is typically absorbed into the owner's operating costs. Highly variable and rising energy costs have placed a heavy burden on landlords. In the absence of well-designed and relevant efficiency efforts, increased operating costs would be passed on to tenants who often cannot afford those increases. Misinvestment is a common problem with older heating systems -- multiple contractors may inadequately or inappropriately upgrade parts of systems and reduce system functionality and efficiency, or the system has not been properly maintained.
Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: Choi, J.; Ludwig, P. & Brand, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic analysis of a geopressured geothermal hybrid wellhead power system. Final report

Description: This research project is designed to evaluate the performance and operating characteristics of hybrid power cycles applied to geopressured and geothermal resources. The power systems evaluated are from the EPRI geopressured wellheat project and data used for the analysis are from the Pleasant Bayou well site. Three types of hybrid power systems are analyzed thermodynamically. They are (A) the single flash system, (B) the double flash system, and (C) the binary system. The studies of the first two systems are more extensive than the third one, although the binary system is the one chosen for testing at the Pleasant Bayou well site.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Chang, I. & Williams, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips Fact Sheet

Description: BestPractices Steam tip sheet about recovering low-pressure steam by flashing high-pressure condensates in plant-wide steam systems.
Date: May 11, 2001
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

Description: This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.
Date: January 11, 2001
Creator: Oland, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

Description: This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.
Date: January 11, 2001
Creator: Oland, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

Description: This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E. & Roselius, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California

Description: A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.
Date: July 16, 1996
Creator: Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C. & H.W., Tseng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risked Based Inspection (External Conference MaterialsRBI) of Steam Systems

Description: This paper describes the implementation of a risk-based inspection program for process and utility steam lines in a large chemical process facility. The paper addresses first the development of an RBI matrix, the likelihood attributes, the consequence scores, and the overall risk in terms of personnel safety and costs. Systems are plotted on the RBI matrix to develop inspection priorities. The RBI ranking is followed by inspection planning, acceptance criteria, and wall thickness inspection techniques, including UT, pulsed eddy current and digital radiography.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: GEORGE, ANTAKI
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering evaluation of ruptured strainer in Building 309

Description: This report deals with the consequences of the ruptured steam strainer and is divided into two sections. Section 1 evaluates the engineering aspects of the ruptured steam strainer, investigates the events that culminated in the damage and considers factors that may have contributed to the incident. Recommendations are presented to upgrade the system in Building 309 by incorporating hardware changes and proposes a change in operating procedures. Section 2 utilizes the findings presented in Section 1 as a basis for conducting a review on the remainder of the 300 Area steam system, in order to identify similar problem areas. Corrective action recommendations to reduce the risk of repeating component ruptures from water hammer conditions were developed out of the survey and the associated review.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Papenfuss, J. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

Description: Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Choi, J.; Ludwig, P. & Brand, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings: Chicago, Illinois. Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

Description: Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.
Date: October 1, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic and engineering studies for hydrothermal electric power plants. Final technical report, September 15, 1980-December 31, 1981

Description: Seven pre-conceptual designs of small hydrothermal power plants are presented covering resource temperature of 341/sup 0/F, 405/sup 0/F, and 515/sup 0/F and considering both flashed steam and binary cycle approaches for each temperature. These design studies are presented in six reports. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Pitts, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation

Description: BestPractices Steam tip sheet regarding ways to assess steam system efficiency. To determine the effective cost of steam, use a combined heat and power simulation model that includes all the significant effects.
Date: December 4, 2000
Creator: Papar, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Motor Challenge Energy Matters, May 1999

Description: The May issue of Energy Matters (formerly Turning Point) features articles on motor, steam, and compressed air systems management. One article explains how chemical treatment can improve boiler system efficiency; another discusses the importance of data logging to assess compressed air system performance. A feature article describes motor system upgrades at Blue Circle Aggregates, a Georgia quarry, which resulted after a no-cost assessment by one of DOE's Industrial Assessment Centers. This issue includes an 8-page special supplement devoted to steam system efficiency.
Date: May 7, 1999
Creator: Ericksen, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of a 10MW regenerative isobutane geothermal power plant. Technical report No. 18

Description: At present, there are basically three different systems for converting energy in geothermal fluid into power: vapor-flashing system, total flow system, and binary system. A comparison of the power production processes was made on the basis of work output in Kwh per 1000 pounds of geothermal fluid for self flowing wells with wellhead pressure of 100 psia and for wells with downhole pumps. For simplicity, the assumptions were made that the enthalpy of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir is approximately equal to that at the wellhead, that the thermodynamic properties of geothermal fluid may be approximated by those of water, and that the pressure effects on the properties of fluid are negligible. The results showed that the performance of the two-stage vapor-flashing system is not appreciably improved by using a downhole pump. The total flow system is simple, but its success depends mainly on the development of a reliable machine with sufficiently high thermal efficiency. The regenerative isobutane system is impractical, if the geothermal fluid temperature is below 380/sup 0/F. But, when the brine temperatures range from 485 to 600/sup 0/F, the regenerative isobutane system with downhole pump exhibits superior performance as compared to two-stage vapor-flashing system, basic isobutane system, or total flow system.
Date: October 15, 1976
Creator: Gupta, A.K. & Chou, J.C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved energy sealing capability

Description: In response to the need for tapping national energy resources, an improved high temperature sealing material has been developed through the sponsorship of the Department of Energy. Parker Seal was selected as one of the technology transferees from L'Garde Inc. and has optimized this transferred technology for further improved performance capabilities and acceptable plant processing. This paper summarizes Parker Seal's testing and evaluation efforts on L'Garde's Y267 transferred technology for a new geothermal and stream service material. This new product, Parker's E962-85 is described in this paper.
Date: October 8, 1982
Creator: Barsoumian, Jerry L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department