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The Transmission of Heat into Steam Boilers

Description: Report discussing the results of investigations into the heat-absorbing abilities of the heating surfaces of boilers. Also discusses the laws that determine the rate of heat transfer from furnace gases through metal plates into boiler water and offers suggestions as to how these laws may be applied.
Date: 1912
Creator: Kreisinger, Hengry & Ray, Walter T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second Mechanized In-Service Inspection of EBR-2 Steam Generator

Description: The second mechanized ultrasonic inspection of evaporation EV-702, part of the EBR-II steam-generator system, was completed in March 1978. The 2 1/2 Cr-1 Mo duplex tubes were inspected from the bore (water) side for flaws and changes in wall thickness and for evaluating the condition of the braze between the tubes. An addition to this second inspection was the use of an ultrasonic probe to search for circumferential flaws. The inspection equipment was thoroughly checked and routinely calibrated, using a reference standard containing electrical-discharge-machined notches. Notches as small as 1.6 mm long by 0.25 mm deep were readily detected.
Date: November 1978
Creator: Longua, K. J.; Whitham, G. K.; Allen, C. C. & Larson, H. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of LMFBR Reheat in Western Europe--1972: Report of the United States of America LMFBR Sodium Reheat Team Visit to France , Germany (FRG), Netherlands, and United Kingdom, May 22-June 6, 1972

Description: From summary: This report describes the trips to Western European countries designing and constructing LMFBR demonstration plants for the purpose of determining the directions being taken by these countries to provide acceptable quality steam to commercially available steam turbines.
Date: March 1973
Creator: Weber, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First Mechanized In-Service Inspection EBR-II Steam Generator

Description: A mechanized ultrasonic test system was developed and built at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct the first in-service inspection of the 2.25 Cr- 1 Mo steel duplex tubing in the EBR-II steam-generator system. This inspection required tube inspection from the bore side, complete volumetric examination, wall-thickness measurement, and evaluation of the braze condition. The test equipment was thoroughly checked and routinely calibrated, using a standard containing artificial flaws. Artificial flaws as small as 1.6 mm long by 0.23 mm deep were readily detected.
Date: September 1977
Creator: Longua, K. J.; Whitham, G. K. & Reimann, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation and Quantification of Corrosion Deposits in the Power Industry

Description: The presence of deposits on the secondary side of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator systems is one of the main contributors to the high maintenance costs of these generators. Formation and transport of corrosion products formed due to the presence of impurities, metals and metallic oxides in the secondary side of the steam generator units result in formation of deposits. This research deals with understanding the deposit formation and characterization of deposits by studying the samples collected from different units in secondary side system at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES). Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) have been used for studying the phases, morphologies and compositions of the iron oxides formed at Unit 1 and Unit 2 of secondary side of steamgenerator systems. Hematite and magnetite were found to be the dominant phases of iron oxides present in the units. Fe, Cr, O, Ni, Si, Cl and Cu were found in samples collected from both the units. A qualitative method was developed to differentiate iron oxides using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based on temporal response of iron oxides to a high power laser beam. A quantitative FTIR technique was developed to identify and quantify iron oxides present in the different components of the secondary side of the steam generator of CPSES. Amines are used in water treatment to control corrosion and fouling in pressurized water reactors. CPSES presently uses an amine combination of dimethylamine (DMA), hydrazine and morpholine to control the water chemistry. Along with the abovementioned amines, this study also focuses on corrosion inhibition mechanismsof a new amine DBU (1, 8-diazabicyclo [5.4.0] undec-7-ene). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves were used to study the interaction mechanism between DBU solution and inconel alloys 600 and 690 at steamgenerator operating ...
Date: May 2007
Creator: Namduri, Haritha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Flow Accelerated Corrosion Experience at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

Description: Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a major concern in the power industry as it causes thinning of the pipes by the dissolution of the passive oxide layer formed on the pipe surface. Present research deals with comparing the protection offered by the magnetite (Fe3O4) versus maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) phases thickness loss measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used in distinguishing these two elusive phases of iron oxides. Representative pipes are collected from high pressure steam extraction line of the secondary cycle of unit 2 of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES). Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) is used for morphological analysis. FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used for phase analysis. Morphological analysis showed the presence of porous oxide surfaces with octahedral crystals, scallops and "chimney" like vents. FTIR revealed the predominance of maghemite at the most of the pipe sections. Results of thickness measurements indicate severe thickness loss at the bend areas (extrados) of the pipes.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Nakka, Ravi Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization of Iron Oxide Deposits Formed at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

Description: The presence of deposits leading to corrosion of the steam generator (SG) systems is a major contributor to operation and maintenance cost of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. Formation and transport of corrosion products formed due to the presence of impurities, metallic oxides and cations in the secondary side of the SG units result in formation of deposits. This research deals with the characterization of deposit samples collected from the two SG units (unit 1 and unit 2) at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques have been used for studying the compositional and structural properties of iron oxides formed in the secondary side of unit 1 and unit 2. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was found to be predominant in samples from unit 1 and maghemite (g-Fe2O3) was found to be the dominant phase in case of unit 2. An attempt has been made to customize FTIR technique for analyzing different iron oxide phases present in the deposits of PWR-SG systems.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Namduri, Haritha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

Description: Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Choi, J.; Ludwig, P. & Brand, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings: Chicago, Illinois. Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

Description: Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.
Date: October 1, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam and hot-water heating plants : inspection and preventive maintenance service

Description: "This Technical Manual is a guide to first and second echelon maintenance services of domestic type steam and hot-water boilers and heating systems." Discusses methods of training personnel, operation and preventive maintenance, procedures for placing equipment in service and for taking it temporarily out of service, and inspections.
Date: June 1947
Creator: United States. War Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

Description: Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam; system balancing.
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Choi, J.; Ludwig, P. & Brand, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department