1,091 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

The breaking strain of neutron star crust

Description: Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Kadau, Kai & Horowitz, C J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Binary neutron star GRB model

Description: In this paper we present the preliminary results of a model for the production of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through the compressional heating of binary neutron stars near their last stable orbit prior to merger. Recent numerical studies of the general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics in three spatial dimensions of close neutron star binaries (NSBs) have uncovered evidence for the compression and heating of the individual neutron stars (NSs) prior to merger. This effect will have significant effect on the production of gravitational waves, neutrinos and, ultimately, energetic photons. The study of the production of these photons in close NSBs and, in particular, its correspondence to observed GRBs is the subject of this paper. The gamma-rays arise as follows. Compressional heating causes the neutron stars to emit neutrino pairs which, in turn, annihilate to produce a hot electron-positron pair plasma. This pair- photon plasma expands rapidly until it becomes optically thin, at which point the photons are released. We show that this process can indeed satisfy three basic requirements of a model for cosmological gamma-ray bursts: 1) sufficient gamma-ray energy release (> 10{sup 51} ergs) to produce observed fluxes, 2) a time-scale of the primary burst duration consistent with that of a ``classical`` GRB ({approximately} 10 seconds), 3) peak of photon number spectrum matches that of ``classical`` GRB ({approximately} 300 keV).
Date: November 11, 1997
Creator: Wilson, J.R.; Salmonson, J.D. & Mathews, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MACHO RR lyrae stars in the galactic bulge: the spatial distribution

Description: We have analyzed a sample of 1150 type ab, and 550 type c RR Lyrae stars found in 24 bulge fields of the MACHO database. These fields cover a range in Galactocentric distances from 0.3 to 1.6 kpc. In combination with the data on the outer bulge fields of Alard (1997) and Wesselink (1987), here we present the surface density distribution of bulge RR Lyrae between 0.3 and 3 kpc. The distribution along the line of sight of the bulge RR Lyrae population was examined on the basis of the mean magnitudes, and it was shown that the bulk of the RR Lyrae population is not barred (Alcock et al. 1998). There is a hint of a bar only in the RR Lyrae of the inner fields closer to the Galactic center. The red giant clump stars in the MACHO fields, however, clearly show a barred distribution, confirming the results of previous studies (e.g. Dwek et al. 1995, Stanek et al. 1996). In the MACHO fields studied there are about 550 clump giants per RR Lyrae star. The RR Lyrae trace metal-poor stars, which are a minor component of the bulge population. The clump giants, however, should trace the bulk of the metal-rich population, foUowing underlying mass of the bulge more closely. Given the different spatial distribution, we concluded that the RR Lyrae and the clump giants trace two dif+erent populations (Alcock et al. 1998). The RR Lyrae would represent the inner extension of the Galactic halo in these fields (Minniti 1996). The observed surface distribution of RR Lyrae in the bulge fields was computed after discarding background RR Lyrae that belong to the Sgr dwarf galaxy (Alard 1996, Alcock et al. 1997). This distribution yields a power law density distribution. There is no turnover or flattening of this distribution ...
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Minniti, D.; Alcock, C. & Alves, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonradial instability strips for post-AGB stars

Description: We test several pre-degenerate (PNN and DO) and degenerate (DB) models for stability against nonradial oscillations. These models lie on the 0.6 M{sub {circle dot}} evolutionary track calculated by Iben. The post-AGB stars have a residual CO core with only a little surface hydrogen and helium. In order to match all the observed pulsators. We use three different surface compositions for the DO stars, and a pure helium surface for the DB white dwarfs. We find 3 DO and 1 DB instability strips that we compare to the available observations. 16 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Stanghellini, L. (Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (Italy)); Cox, A.N. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)) & Starrfield, S.G. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beta-Cephei variables. Lecture 1

Description: In discussing upper-main-sequence stars and their intrinsic pulsations, we need to realize that theory has not yet been able to understand these pulsations. In many discussions the character of the pulsations has been described, and in many cases these theoretical solutions of the stellar pulsation theory may be the actual ones occurring. But the specific driving mechanism, so well known for the yellow and red giants and supergiants, and very recently known for the white dwarf stars, remains the subject for intense discussion. My ideas will pervade all my discussion, but many of them concerning the details such as the cause of the pulsations have not yet been proved correct.
Date: March 14, 1983
Creator: Cox, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the ultraviolet studies of galactic novae

Description: The ultraviolet studies of galactic novae both in outburst and also in quiescence have provided new and fundamental data on these exploding stars. As a direct result of the IUE spectral studies, we have identified a new class of novae in which the outburst occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. We have also been able to determine ejected masses, elemental abundances, and ultraviolet light curves for a wide variety of nova outbursts. 70 refs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Starrfield, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of IUE on studies of the nova outburst: 1986--1990

Description: In this review I will concentrate on the improvements in our understanding of the nova outburst that have occurred since the IUE meetings in London in 1986 and Goddard in 1988 and those results that have occurred as a direct result of studies with the IUE satellite. These involve the four outbursts that have occurred in the LMC, the numerous recurrent novae outbursts, and a number of archival studies. As a direct result of IUE studies done since 1986, we can now state that fast novae become super-Eddington at maximum, that many novae decline at the same rate, and that neon novae may be more numerous than thought previously. In addition, we have found that there are differences in the outburst characteristics between novae with giant secondaries and those with compact secondaries. 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Starrfield, S. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neon novae, recurrent novae, and type I supernovae

Description: Over the past few years, we have been investigating the effects of accretion onto massive white dwarfs and its implications for their growth in mass toward the Chandrasekhar limit, in attempts to identify a possible relationship between SN I and novae. In our studies we have considered accretion at various mass accretion rates onto a variety of different white dwarf masses. We have found that there is a critical white dwarf mass above which a significant fraction of the accreted mass can remain on the white dwarf after the outburst. Below this value of the white dwarf mass, all of the accreted mass, plus core material dredged up into the envelope, is ejected as a result of the explosion. Our latest results include accretion and boundary layer heating produced by the infalling material. From these studies, we have identified some members of the class of recurrent novae, those involving a thermonuclear runaway, as the novae that are occurring on very massive white dwarfs and evolving toward an SN I explosion. One of the outgrowths of our uv studies of novae in outburst has been the identification of a class of novae which eject material that is very rich in the elements from oxygen to aluminum. We have shown that these outbursts occur on ONeMg white dwarfs, which are necessarily very massive white dwarfs. 11 refs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Starrfield, S.; Sparks, W.M.; Truran, J.W.; Shaviv, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Astronomy & Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PG1159 variables

Description: A 0.6 solar mass model is discussed that has a temperature ranging from 100,000 K for its surface effective temperature to a maximum of almost 200 million K, and then a decrease to about 85 million K at the center. This temperature inversion is caused by strong neutrino losses at the high central densities. These internal densities range from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup +6/ g/cm/sup 3/ from the surface to the center. For luminosities considerably lower than the 1.075 x 10/sup 35/ erg/sec for this model, the central temperature inversion disappears and the central density grows larger. For the PG1159 class of stars however, there is always this inversion.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Cox, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Type I supernova models vs observations

Description: This paper explores tHe observational consequences of models for Type I supernovae based on the detonation (or deflagration) of the degenerate cores of white dwarfs or intermediate mass (approx. = 9 M/sub sun/) stars. Such nuclear burning can be initiated either at the center of the core or near its edge. The model examined in most detail is that of a 0.5M/sub sun/ C/O white dwarf which undergoes an edge-lit He/C/O detonation after accreting 0.62 M/sub sun/ of he at 10/sup -8/ M/sub sun//yr. The light curve resulting from this model is found to be in excellent agreement with those observed for Type I supernovae, particularly those in the fast subclass. The physical processes involved in the detailed numerical calculations which lead to this conclusion are quantitatively elucidated by simple analytic models, and effects of uncertainties in the input physics are explored.
Date: November 3, 1980
Creator: Weaver, T.A.; Axelrod, T.S. & Woosley, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relativistic (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of compact interacting binary systems

Description: We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamic code for describing the evolution of astrophysical systems in three spatial dimensions. The application of this code to several test problems is presented. Preliminary results from the simulation of the dynamics of accreting binary white dwarf and neutron star systems are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Mathews, G.J.; Evans, C.R. & Wilson, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A High-Dispersion Spectral Analysis of the Ba II Star HD 204075 (ζ Capricorni)

Description: Report discussing a double differential curve of growth analysis for the Ba II star S Capricorni. Both the sun and � Virginis (G9 II-III) were used as comparison stars. The observational material consists of equivalent widths, central depths, and half-widths for 1100 spectral lines measured on direct-intensity tracings of plates obtained by J. L. Greenstein at the coude focus of the 200-in telescope. The plates cover the spectral regions 3880-4825 A and 5100-6720 A at reciprocal dispersions of 2.3 and 3.4 A/mm, respectively. Atmospheric abundances have been derived for 37 elements.
Date: March 1971
Creator: Tech, Jack L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radial and nonradial periods and growth rates of an AI Velorum model

Description: Walraven, Walraven, and Balona recently discovered several new periodicities in addition to the well-known fundamental and first overtone periods of the high-amplitude {delta} Scuti star AI Velorum. Linear nonadiabatic pulsation calculations were performed for an AI Velorum model of mass 1.96 M{sub {circle dot}}, 24.05 L{sub {circle dot}}, and T{sub eff}7566 K for the radial and low-degree nonradial modes to help verify the tentative identifications made by Walraven, et al. Comparison of the calculated periods with the observations suggests some alternatives to the identifications proposed by Walraven, et al.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Guzik, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transverse momentum and centrality dependence of high-ptnon-photonic electron suppression in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 200 GeV

Description: The STAR collaboration at RHIC reports measurements of theinclusive yield of non-photonic electrons, which arise dominantly fromsemi-leptonic decays of heavy flavor mesons, over a broad range oftransverse momenta (1.2<pt<10 gevc) in pp, dAu, and AuAucollisions at sqrt sNN = 200 GeV. The non-photonic electron yieldexhibits unexpectedly large suppression in central AuAu collisions athigh pt, suggesting substantial heavy quark energy loss at RHIC. Thecentrality and \pt dependences of the suppression provide constraints ontheoretical models of suppression.
Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVIDENCE IN CRATER AGES FOR PERIODIC IMPACTS ON THE EARTH

Description: Recent evidence has indicated that the impact of a comet or asteroid may have been responsible for mass extinction at the ends of both the Cretaceous and the Eocene. Quantitative analysis by Raup and Sepkoski showed that mass extinctions occur with a 26-Myr period, similar to the period seen in qualitative pelagic records by Fischer and Arthur. To account for the possibility of periodic comet showers, Davis et al. proposed that such showers could be triggered by an unseen solar companion star as it passes through perihelion on a moderately eccentric orbit. To test a prediction implicit in this model we examined records of large impact craters on the Earth. We report here that most of the craters occur in a 28.4-Myr cycle. Within measurement errors, this period and its phase are the same as those found in the fossil mass extinctions. The probability that such agreement is accidental is 1 in 10.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Alvarez, W. & Muller, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence for Distinct Components of the Galactic Stellar Halo from 838 RR Lyrae Stars Discovered in the LONEOS-I Survey

Description: We present 838 ab-type RR Lyrae stars from the Lowell Observatory Near Earth Objects Survey Phase I (LONEOS-I). These objects cover 1430 deg{sup 2} and span distances ranging from 3-30kpc from the Galactic Center. Object selection is based on phased, photometric data with 28-50 epochs. We use this large sample to explore the bulk properties of the stellar halo, including the spatial distribution. The period-amplitude distribution of this sample shows that the majority of these RR Lyrae stars resemble Oosterhoff type I, but there is a significant fraction (26%) which have longer periods and appear to be Oosterhoff type II. We find that the radial distributions of these two populations have significantly different profiles ({rho}{sub OoI} {approx} R{sup -2.26{+-}0.07} and {rho}{sub OoII} {approx} R{sup -2.88{+-}0.11}). This suggests that the stellar halo was formed by at least two distinct accretion processes and supports dual-halo models.
Date: February 23, 2007
Creator: Miceli, A; Rest, A; Stubbs, C W; Hawley, S L; Cook, K H; Magnier, E A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Extinction Toward the Galactic Bulge from RR Lyrae Stars

Description: The authors present mean reddenings toward 3525 RR0 Lyrae stars from the Galactic bulge fields of the MACHO Survey. These reddenings are determined using the color at minimum V-band light of the RR0 Lyrae stars themselves and are found to be in general agreement with extinction estimates at the same location obtained from other methods. Using 3256 stars located in the Galactic Bulge, they derive the selective extinction coefficient R{sub V,VR} = A{sub V}/E(V-R) = 4.2 {+-} 0.2. this value is what is expected for a standard extinction law with R{sub V,BV} = 3.1 {+-} 0.3
Date: November 7, 2007
Creator: Kunder, A; Popowski, P; Cook, K & Chaboyer, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Opacity of stellar matter

Description: New efforts to calculate opacity have produced significant improvements in the quality of stellar models. The most dramatic effect has been large opacity enhancements for stars subject to large amplitude pulsations. Significant improvement in helioseismic modeling has also been obtained. A description and comparisons of the new opacity efforts are give
Date: September 17, 1998
Creator: Rogers, F J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear pulsation masses

Description: The advent of nonlinear pulsation theory really coincides with the development of the large computers after the second world war. Christy and Stobbie were the first to make use of finite difference techniques on computers to model the bumps'' observed in the classical Cepheid light and velocity curves, the so-called Hertzsprung'' sequence. Following this work a more sophisticated analysis of the light and velocity curves from the models was made by Simon and Davis using Fourier techniques. Recently a simpler amplitude equation formalism has been developed that helps explain this resonance mechanism. The determination of Population I Cepheid masses by nonlinear methods will be discussed. For the lower mass objects, such as RR Lyrae and BL Her. stars, we find general agreement using evolutionary masses and nonlinear pulsation theory. An apparent difficulty of nonlinear pulsation theory occurs in the understanding of double'' mode pulsation, which will also be discussed. Recent studies in nonlinear pulsation theory have dealt with the question of mode selection, period doubling and the trends towards chaotic behavior such as is observed in the transition from W Virginis to RV Tauri-like stars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Davis, C.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light curves for ''bump Cepheids'' computed with a dynamically zoned pulsation code

Description: The dynamically zoned pulsation code developed by Castor, Davis, and Davison has been used to recalculate the Goddard model and to calculate three other Cepheid models with the same period (9.8 days). This family of models shows how the bumps and other features of the light and velocity curves change as the mass is varied at constant period. This study, with a code that is capable of producing reliable light curves, shows again that the light and velocity curves for 9.8-day Cepheid models with standard homogeneous compositions do not show bumps like those that are observed unless the mass is significantly lower than the ''evolutionary mass.'' The light and velocity curves for the Goddard model presented here are similar to those computed independently by Fischel, Sparks, and Karp. They should be useful as standards for future investigators.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Adams, T.F.; Castor, J.E. & Davis, C.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department