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STARLITE figures of merit for tokamak current drive -- Economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

Description: The physics efficiency of current drive ({gamma}{sub B} {proportional_to} n{sub e} I{sub 0} R{sub 0}/P{sub CD}), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for {gamma}{sub B} depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Ehst, D.A.; Jardin, S. & Kessel, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Starfire: a commercial tokamak reactor. [Overview of major parameters]

Description: The basic objective of the STARFIRE Project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor. The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A. DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D. & Kokoszenski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

Description: The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachael, A.A.; Graumann, D. & Kokoszenski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STARFIRE: a conceptual design of a commercial tokamak power plant. Paper IAEA-CN-39/E-1

Description: STARFIRE is a conceptual design for a commercial tokamak power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The emphasis of the study is on the simplicity of the engineering design, maintainability, lower electricity cost, and improved safety and environmental features. The reactor has a 7-m major radius and produces 1200 MW of electric power. STARFIRE operates in a steady-state mode with the plasma current driven by a lower hybrid rf system. The plasma purity control and exhaust system is based on the limiter/vacuum concept, which offers unique advantages for commercial power reactors. The blanket utilizes a solid lithium compound for tritium breeding and pressurized water as the coolant.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Abdou, M.A.; Baker, C.C.; DeFreece, D.; Trachsel, C.; Graumann, D. & Kokoszenski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust in tokamaks

Description: A detailed design of a limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust has been developed for the STARFIRE tokamak power plant. It is shown that the limiter/vacuum concept is a very attractive option for power reactors. It is relatively simple and inexpensive and deserves serious experimental verification.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Abdou, M.; Brooks, J. & Mattas, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maintenance considerations of the Starfire Commercial Tokamak

Description: An initial reactor design has been developed for the Starfire Tokamak reactor that incorporates maintenance features to permit reactor and plant operation with a 75% availability. All components of the reactor can be replaced utilizing highly automated remote maintenance techniques. Provisions for contact maintenance are included but would only be utilized on a contingency basis since it is believed that allowable dose rates will be decreased in future years. A modular design approach is used for the reactor and auxiliary subsystems to permit efficient use of remote maintenance. The modular approach minimizes the number of different maintenance operations required and can result in use of simple tasks such as push, pull, turn, etc., maneuvers for module removal. Fault isolation is provided for each replaceable module.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Trachael, C.A.; Zahn, H.S.; Field, R.E. & Stevens, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impurity control system for the STARFIRE commercial fusion reactor

Description: The STARFIRE impurity control system is based on a low-Z coated limiter/vacuum system which collects and pumps about 30% of the particle flux at the edge of the plasma. This pumping efficiency, when combined with about a 1.5-T additional margin in the toroidal magnetic field, is sufficient to maintain the steady-state helium concentration to approx. 10% while permitting a tritium burnup fraction at approx. 10%. In order to keep the heat load on the limiter to reasonable limits, about 80% of the alpha-particle energy is radiated to the first wall by injecting a very small amount of appropriate impurity ions.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: J.N., Brooks; Baker, C.C.; Stevens, H.C. & Trachsel, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the STARFIRE reference commercial tokamak fusion power reactor design

Description: The purpose of the STARFIRE study is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The major features for STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on a continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup, superconducting EF coils outside the TF superconducting coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D. & Barry, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

Description: The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Gohar, Y. & Brooks, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of systems studies for the STARFIRE commercial tokamak

Description: Extensive system and tradeoff studies were performed to support the selection process for the major parameters and design features of the STARFIRE commercial reactor. With a thermal power of 3800 MW, a neutron wall load of 3.5 MW/m/sup 2/ results in a relatively small-size reactor without imposing excessive requirements on the first-wall cooling capability, maximum toroidal-magnetic field, and frequency of structural material requirements. This moderately high-wall load requires that the first-wall coolant be liquid (water or lithium) and the lifetime of the structural material is > 15 MW-y/m/sup 2/. With moderate plasma elongation and beta the required maximum toroidal-field is approx. 11 T. STARFIRE is operated steady-state with no OH coil. The absence of an OH coil makes it possible to design the reactor with a low-aspect ratio (approx. 2.5) and small major radius. However, higher aspect ratios (approx. 3.5-4) are favored when the plasma current is driven with rf because the power required for the current drive, P/sub rf/, is much larger at lower aspect ratio. Since P/sub rf/ increases at lower plasma temperature, the optimum design for STARFIRE requires operation with plasma temperatures higher than those normally selected for designs with OH-driven current.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Abdou, M.A.; Ehst, D.A. & Waganer, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent contributions to fusion reactor design and technology development

Description: The report contains a collection of 16 recent fusion technology papers on the STARFIRE Project, the study of alternate fusion fuel cycles, a maintainability study, magnet safety, neutral beam power supplies and pulsed superconducting magnets and energy transfer. This collection of papers contains contributions for Argonne National Laboratory, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, General Atomic Company, The Ralph M. Parsons Company, the University of Illinois, and the University of Wisconsin. Separate abstracts are presented for each paper. (MOW)
Date: November 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steady-state tokamak reactor with non-divertor impurity control: STARFIRE

Description: STARFIRE is a conceptual design study of a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant. Particular emphasis has been placed on simplifying the reactor concept by developing design concepts to produce a steady-state tokamak with non-divertor impurity control and helium ash removal. The concepts of plasma current drive using lower hybrid rf waves and a limiter/vacuum system for reactor applications are described.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Baker, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STARFIRE-II studies. Summary. [Reactor parameters]

Description: The US Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy has initiated several studies during FY-1985 called Tokamak Power System Studies (TPSS). The TPSS is being carried out by several laboratories, universities and industry with the general objective of developing innovative physics and technology concepts to improve the commercial attractiveness of tokamak power reactors. The effort of Argonne National Laboratory, entitled STARFIRE-II, is an effort to update and improve STARFIRE, which was the last comprehensive conceptual design study in the US of a commercial tokamak power plant. The STARFIRE-II effort has developed a number of goals in order to improve fusion commercial power plants based in part on several recent studies. The primary goals for STARFIRE-II are listed.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Smith, D.L. & Sze, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Importance of shield design in minimizing radioactive-material inventory in tokamaks

Description: An optimization study is carried out for the outboard bulk shielding of the STARFIRE reactor. The optimization criteria used include: (1) reactor accessibility shortly after shutdown; (2) minimization of high-level long-term induced activation; and (3) radiation protection of reactor components. It is shown that with a 1.1 m-thick shield, the biological dose inside the reactor room decreases to approx. 1.5 mrem/h within 24 h after shutdown. It is also shown that more than 90% of the total mass of the radioactive material inventory in STARFIRE has a high potential for recycling within 30 to 50 yr after component replacement or reactor decommissioning.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Jung, J. & Abdou, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Starfire: initial conceptual design of a commercial tokamak power plant

Description: The purpose of the study is to provide a mechanism for the US Department of Energy to further assess the commercial potential of tokamak magnetic confinement for power reactors. The initial reference parameters for a helium cooled option are summarized. This study is placing particular emphasis on utility requirements, safety and maintenance considerations.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.; Trachsel, C.; Graumann, D. & Kokszenski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate applications of fusion power: development of a high-temperature blanket for synthetic-fuel production

Description: This study has shown that utilization of the unique features of a fusion reactor can result in a novel and potentially economical method of decomposing steam into hydrogen and oxygen. Most of the power of fusion reactors is in the form of energetic neutrons. If this power could be used to produce high temperature uncontaminated steam, a large fraction of the energy needed to decomposee the steam could be supplied as thermal energy by the fusion reaction. Proposed high temperature electrolysis processes require steam temperature in excess of 1000/sup 0/C for high efficiency. The design put forth in this study details a system that can accomplish that end.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Howard, P.A.; Mattas, R.F.; Krajcinovic, D.; DePaz, J. & Gohar, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Redeposition of the sputtered surface in limiters

Description: Erosion of the surface coating of a pumped limiter by sputtering may be a critical life-limiting issue for future tokamak reactors. Redeposition of the sputtered material, however, may extend the coating life significantly. This subject has now been studied through the use of a code which models the redeposition of sputtered material which gets ionized in the scrape-off layer. The code also treats the transfer of wall-sputtered material to the limiter. The code uses models of the plasma density and temperature in the scrape-off zone, sheath potential, sputtering coefficients, spatial distribution of the sputtered atoms, and electron impact ionization coefficient for the sputtered atoms. The studies were made for high flux and low flux edge conditions corresponding to FED and STARFIRE limiters and assumed plasma-edge parameters. The results indicate that substantial redeposition from the scrape-off layer ionized neutrals occurs in the cases considered.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Brooks, J.N. & McGrath, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

Description: The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G. & Davis, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic enrichment of fuels for D-T fusion reactors

Description: Isotopic enrichment scenarios using cryogenic distillation were developed for a near-term D-T burning fusion-reactor design (ETF) as well as for a commercial fusion-reactor design (STARFIRE). The analytical results of studies of spent-fuel reprocessing for ETF show that isotopic enrichment can be carried out to meet fuel-purity requirements by a system consisting of a 5-column distillation cascade and two chemical equilibrators. For STARFIRE, the analytical results show that, for a fixed number of columns and chemical equilibrators in a reprocessing syste, the compositions of the recycle streams depend strongly on whether the two fuel streams (plasma exhaust and blanket) are processed separately or mixed and then processed as a single stream.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Misra, B.; Clemmer, R.G. & Finn, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lower-hybrid heating and current drive system for the STARFIRE tokamak

Description: STARFIRE is a commercial tokamak reactor which is designed to operate in a purely steady-state mode with the electron current maintained by momentum transfer from lower-hybrid waves launched from end-fire waveguide arrays. The rf system has been designed for consistency with plasma physics constraints, and its components have been selected with the goal of minimizing the electric power required to maintain the plasma current. The system has been analyzed in the thermal, electrical, magnetic, and radiative environments of reactor operation and appears to provide reliable, low-maintenance performance.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ehst, D.A.; Boley, C.D.; Evans, K. Jr.; Fuja, R.; Jung, J.; Trachsel, C.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Choice of coolant in commercial tokamak power plants

Description: The STARFIRE design study focused on solid tritium breeder blankets in order to minimize the stored chemical energy. The most suitable coolant candidates with solid tritium breeders are water and helium. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of the two coolants. The study shows clear advantages for the choice of pressurized water for the conditions of the STARFIRE tokamak power plant design. The study also identifies those areas where development is required in order to utilize the potential advantages of helium.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Abdou, M.A. & Graumann, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department