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Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

Description: Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance for both the wrought and cast duplex alloys; (3) Castings generally have better ...
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W. & Batten, Greg, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 4, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

Description: The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 “Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels” for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope® and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order ...
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Hariharan, Vasudevan & Lundin, Carl, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 3, Guidance Document for the Evaluation of Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel

Description: Volume 3 is comprised of the Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (A890-5A) which is equivalent to wrought 2507. The objective of this work was to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 “Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels” for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). The various tests which were carried out were ASTM A923 Test Method A, B and C (Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test, Charpy Impact Test and Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test), ferrite measurement using Feritscope®, ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method and X-Ray Diffraction, hardness measurement using Rockwell B and C and microstructural analysis using SEM and EDS.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Hariharan, Vasudevan & Lundin, Carl, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

Description: The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope® and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope® were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch ...
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Russell, Steven, W. & Lundin, Carl, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 5, Data Package for ASTM A923 Supporting Inclusion of A890-5 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (Cast Equivalent of 2507)

Description: Volume 5 is the Data Package for the evaluation of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Castings prepared at the end of work comprised in volumes 3 and 4. The document deals with the various evaluation methods used in the work documented in volume 3 and 4. This document covers materials regarding evaluation of the A890-5A material in terms of inclusion in ASTM A923. The various tests which were conducted on the A890-5A material are included in this document.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Hariharan, Vasudevan & Lundin, Carl, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 5, Data Package for ASTM A923 Supporting Inclusion of A890-5A Super Duplex Stainless Steel ( Cast Equivalent of 2507)

Description: Volume 5 is the Data Package for the evaluation of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Castings prepared at the end of work comprised in volumes 3 and 4. The document deals with the various evaluation methods used in the work documented in volume 3 and 4. This document covers materials regarding evaluation of the A890-5A material in terms of inclusion in ASTM A923. The various tests which were conducted on the A890-5A material are included in this document.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Hariharan, Vasudevan & Lundin, Carl, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Whitey SCHe Ball Valves Provide Test Port Isolation

Description: These valves are 1/4-inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as normally closed isolation valves for test ports in the SCHe System between the gage root valve and the pressure indicator.
Date: October 19, 2000
Creator: Miska, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Femtosecond Laser Manufacturing Experiments

Description: The femtosecond laser utilizes an unusually short laser pulse that results in little, if any, metallurgical damage in stainless steel and other materials. Studies of the process demonstrated high quality wall contours (metallurgically clean) when the laser was used to cut grooves in stainless steel discs. This study did prove the feasibility of the process as an alternate potential for the existing process for making burst discs. Significant additional work is required to increase groove reproducibility and produce three-dimensional cuts, requiring development of appropriate tooling and controllers.
Date: January 19, 2000
Creator: Gillespie, L. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive Stress-Strain Properties of 17-7 PH and AM 350 Stainless-Steel Sheet at Elevated Temperatures

Description: Note presenting compressive stress-strain test results for 17-7 PH and AM 350 stainless-steel sheet in the heat-treated and annealed conditions for temperatures from room temperature to 1200 degrees Fahrenheit. Representative stress-strain curves are given for both materials at the test temperatures.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Stein, Bland A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 3, Guidance Document for the Evaluation of Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel

Description: Volume 3 comprises of the Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (A890-5A) which is equivalent to wrought 2507. The objective of this work was to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). The various tests which were carried out were ASTM A923 Test Method A, B and C (Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test, Charpy Impact Test and Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test), ferrite measurement using Feritscope{reg_sign}, ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method and X-Ray Diffraction, hardness measurement using Rockwell B and C and microstructural analysis using SEM and EDS.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Hariharan, Vasudevan & Lundin, Carl, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

Description: The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope{reg_sign} and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope{reg_sign} were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch ...
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Russell, Steven, W. & Lundin, Carl, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Whitey SCHE Gauge and Root Valves

Description: These valves are 1/2 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as isolation valves for pressure instrumentation in the SCHe System between the helium bottle supply manifolds and safety class helium pressure instrumentation, and in lower pressure SCHe supply line.
Date: September 3, 2000
Creator: Miska, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superplastic deformation in two microduplex stainless steels

Description: The deformation behavior and mechanisms of superplastic flow in two microduplex stainless steels (SuperDux64 and Nitronic 19D) were studied at {similar_to}0.7T{sub m}. The two steels differed in initial grain size by a factor of 3. Both steels exhibited solute-drag-controlled grain boundary sliding in a high temperature {gamma}+{delta} phase field. In a lower temperature {gamma}+{sigma} phase field, the fine-grained steel ({bar L}=5{mu}m) exhibited climb-controlled grain boundary sliding and the coarser- grained steel ({bar L}=15{mu}m) exhibited solute-drag-controlled slip creep.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Lesuer, D.R.; Nieh, T.G.; Syn, C.K. & Taleff, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydroforming Applications at Oak Ridge

Description: Hydroforming technology is a robust forming process that produces components with high precision and complexity. The goal of this paper is to present a brief description of the sheet hydroforming process with respect to the authors' experience and capabilities. Following the authors' discussion of the sheet-metal forming application, the tubular hydroforming process is described in the context of one of our technology development programs with an automotive industrial partner. After that is a summary of the tubular hydroforming advisor (expert system) development activity, which was a significant part of this overall program based on previous experience in developing a design and manufacturing support hydroforming advisor for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's weapons-component manufacturing needs. Therefore, this paper is divided into three sections: (1) Hydroforming of Stainless Steel Parts, (2) Tubular Hydroforming, and (3) Components of a Tubular Hydroforming Advisor.
Date: March 10, 1999
Creator: Bird, E. L. & Ludtka, G. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implications of early stages in the growth of stress corrosion cracking on component reliability

Description: Environment-induced crack growth generally progresses through several stages prior to component failure. Crack initiation, short crack growth, and stage 1 growth are early stages in crack development that are summarized in this paper. The implications of these stages on component reliability, derive from the extended time that the crack exists in the early stages because crack velocity is slow. The duration of the early stages provides a greater opportunity for corrective action if cracks can be detected. Several important factors about the value of understanding short crack behavior include: (1) life prediction requires a knowledge of the total life cycle of the crack including the early stages, (2) greater reliability is possible if the transition between short and long crack behavior is known component life after this transition is short and (3) remedial actions are more effective for short than long cracks.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Jones, R.H. & Simonen, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Britz-Heidbrink Inc. Mini-CRADA, Powder Coating of Animal Enclosures

Description: The goal of this CRADA was to combine the powder coating material and application techniques and laboratory testing capabilities of FM and T with the manufacturing, real-world testing, and practical knowledge available to BHI in a limited study to determine if coated stainless steel would provide the durability needed to justify additional work in this area. The coating materials chosen had to have low reflectivity and be easily sanitized, non-toxic, pleasant in appearance, and durable for the lifetime of the stainless steel product. The materials also had to be capable of withstanding the daily abuse of animal contact, impact with walls or other hard surfaces, and exposure to a variety of lighting and climatic conditions. FM and T and BHI worked together to investigate coating materials that under normal conditions would be exposed, at least weekly, to 180 F to 260 F washing and sanitization procedures that include strong detergents and phosphoric acid. After a proper cleaning method for the bare panels was established, six different powder coatings were selected and tested. The coatings were selected for their known resistance to harsh chemicals. Sample panels of each coating passed 1000 hours of continuous salt fog exposure and 24-hour constant submersion in heated disinfectant solutions. Actual cage panels were then coated and installed in a high-pressure spray washer at a medical research facility for accelerated real-world testing. In the high-pressure spray washer, the panels received the equivalent of one year's exposure to harsh chemicals in one week. In addition to the exposure to the harsh sanitizing chemicals, the test panels never had a chance to get completely dry. In actual use, the panels would have been cleaned once a week and would have been essentially dry the rest of the time. Constant soak in wet conditions is one of the most ...
Date: January 4, 2000
Creator: Smith, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why Do Kraft Recovery Boiler Composite Floor Tubes Crack?

Description: Cracks were first reported in 1992 in co-extruded 304L stainless steel/SA210 Gd Al carbon steel floor tubes of North American black liquor recovery boilers. Since then, a considerable amount of information has been collected on the tube environment, crack characteristics, the stress state of the tubes, and the crack initiation and propagation mechanisms. These studies have identified both operating procedures that apparently can greatly lessen the likelihood of crack formation in the stainless steel layer and alternate materials that appear to be much more resistant to cracking than is 304L stainless.
Date: October 22, 2001
Creator: Keiser, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department