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Energy Distribution of Sputtered Neutral Atoms from a Multilayer Target

Description: Energy distribution measurements of sputtered neutral particles contribute to the general knowledge of sputtering, a common technique for surface analysis. In this work emphasis was placed on the measurement of energy distribution of sputtered neutral atoms from different depths. The liquid Ga-In eutectic alloy as a sample target for this study was ideal due to an extreme concentration ratio gradient between the top two monolayers. In pursuing this study, the method of sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS) was utilized. SIRIS employs a pulsed ion beam to initiate sputtering and tunable dye lasers for resonance ionization. Observation of the energy distribution was achieved with a position-sensitive detector. The principle behind the detector's energy resolution is time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For this specific detector, programmed time intervals between the sputtering pulse at the target and the ionizing laser pulse provided information leading to the energy distribution of the secondary neutral particles. This experiment contributes data for energy distributions of sputtered neutral particles to the experimental database, required by theoretical models and computer simulations for the sputtering phenomenon.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Bigelow, Alan W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sputtering of Bi and Preferential Sputtering of an Inhomogeneous Alloy

Description: Angular distributions and total yields of atoms sputtered from bismuth targets by normally incident 10 keV -50 keV Ne+ and Ar+ ions have been measured both experimentally and by computer simulation. Polycrystalline Bi targets were used for experimental measurements. The sputtered atoms were collected on high purity aluminum foils under ultra-high vacuum conditions, and were subsequently analyzed using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The Monte-Carlo based SRIM code was employed to simulate angular distributions of sputtered Bi atoms and total sputtering yields of Bi to compare with experiment. The measured sputtering yields were found to increase with increasing projectile energy for normally incident 10 keV - 50 keV Ne+ and Ar+ ions. The shapes of the angular distributions of sputtered Bi atoms demonstrated good agreement between experiment and simulation in the present study. The measured and simulated angular distributions of sputtered Bi exhibited an over-cosine tendency. The measured value of the degree of this over-cosine nature was observed to increase with increasing incident Ne+ ion energy, but was not strongly dependent on incident Ar+ ion energy. The differential angular sputtering yield and partial sputtering yields due to Ar ion bombardment of an inhomogeneous liquid Bi:Ga alloy have been investigated, both experimentally and by computer simulation. Normally incident 25 keV and 50 keV beams of Ar+ were used to sputter a target of 99.8 at% Ga and 0.2 at% Bi held at 40° C in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), under which conditions the alloy is known to exhibit extreme Gibbsian surface segregation that produces essentially a monolayer of Bi atop the bulk liquid. Angular distributions of sputtered neutrals and partial sputtering yields obtained from the conversion of areal densities of Bi and Ga atoms on collector foils were determined. The Monte-Carlo based SRIM code was employed to simulate the experiment and obtain the angular ...
Date: December 2014
Creator: Deoli, Naresh T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

High power impulse magnetron sputtering: Current-voltage-timecharacteristics indicate the onset of sustained self-sputtering

Description: The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering.For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.
Date: August 3, 2007
Creator: Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim & Ehiasarian, Arutiun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma"anti-assistance" and"self-assistance" to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

Description: A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contra-productive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Anders, Andre & Yushkov, Georgy Yu.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of III-Nitrides in Cl(2)/Xe,Cl(2)/Ar and Cl(2)/He

Description: The role of additive noble gases He, Ar and Xe to C&based Inductively Coupled Plasmas for etching of GaN, AIN and InN were examined. The etch rates were a strong function of chlorine concentration, rf chuck power and ICP source power. The highest etch rates for InN were obtained with C12/Xe, while the highest rates for AIN and GaN were obtained with C12/He. Efficient breaking of the 111-nitrogen bond is crucial for attaining high etch rates. The InN etching was dominated by physical sputtering, in contrast to GaN and AIN. In the latter cases, the etch rates were limited by initial breaking of the III-nitrogen bond. Maximum selectivities of -80 for InN to GaN and InN to AIN were obtained.
Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Abernathy, C.R.; Cho, H.; Donovan, S.M.; Hahn, Y.B.; Hays, D.C.; Jung, K.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remarks on the theory of fast neutron sputtering

Description: From surface effects in controlled thermonuclear fusion devices and reactors meetirg; Argonne, Illinois, USA (10 Jan 1974). Theoretical estimates of neutron sputtering yields are in serious disagreement with experiment, unlike the situation with ion sputtering. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are sought without success. It is shown that chunk ejection by neutrons is not due to single neutron events nor to the dynamic interference of cascades. The need for more complete experimental data to guide development of the theory is emphasized. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Robinson, M.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compression and strong rarefaction in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

Description: Gas compression and strong rarefaction have been observed for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges using a copper target in argon. Time-resolved ion saturation currents of 35 probes were simultaneously recorded for HIPIMS discharges operating far above the self-sputtering runaway threshold. The argon background pressure was a parameter for the evaluation of the spatial and temporal development of the plasma density distribution. The data can be interpreted by a massive onset of the sputtering flux (sputter wind) that causes a transient densification of the gas, followed by rarefaction and the replacement of gas plasma by the metal plasma of sustained self-sputtering. The plasma density pulse follows closely the power pulse at low pressure. At high pressure, the relatively remote probes recorded a density peak only after the discharge pulse, indicative for slow, diffusive ion transport.
Date: November 11, 2010
Creator: Horwat, David & Anders, Andre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

Description: High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.
Date: October 13, 2010
Creator: Anders, Andre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conformal Deep Trench Coating with both Conducting and InsulatingMaterials

Description: A thin film coating system has been developed for deposition of both conductive and insulating material. The system employs an RF discharge plasma source with four straight RF antennas, which is made of or covered with the deposition material, thus serving simultaneously as a sputtering target. The average deposition rate of the copper thin film can be as high as 500 nm/min when operated in CW mode. Film properties under different plasma conditions have been investigated experimentally. By adjusting RF power, gas pressure, duty factor, and substrate biasing conditions, several thin film coating schemes can be achieved, one of which has been demonstrated to be suitable for conformal deep trench coating. Conformal coating over trenches of high aspect ratio (>6:1) has been demonstrated at both micron and submicron scales.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Ji, Lili; Kim, Jung-Kuk; Ji, Qing; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Chen, Ye & Gough, Rick A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-sputtering far above the runaway threshold: an extraordinary metal ion generator

Description: When self-sputtering is driven far above the runaway threshold voltage, energetic electrons are made available to produce"excess plasma" far from the magnetron target. Ionization balance considerations show that the secondary electrons deliver the necessary energy to the"remote" zone. Thereby, such a system can be an extraordinarily prolific generator of useable metal ions. Contrary to other known sources, the ion current to a substrate can exceed the discharge current. For gasless self-sputtering of copper, the useable ion current scales exponentially with the discharge voltage.
Date: December 16, 2008
Creator: Andersson, Joakim & Anders, Andre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001)

Description: Pattern formation on surfaces undergoing low-energy ion bombardment is a common phenomenon. Here, a recently developed in situ spectroscopic light scattering technique was used to monitor periodic ripple evolution on Si(001) during Ar(+) sputtering. Analysis of the rippling kinetics indicated that under high flux sputtering at low temperatures the concentration of mobile species on the surface is saturated, and, surprisingly, is both temperature and ion flux independent. This is due to an effect of ion collision cascades on the concentration of mobile species. This new understanding of surface dynamics during sputtering allowed us to measure straighforwardly the activation energy for atomic migration on the surface to be 1.2+0.1 eV. The technique is generalizable to any material, including high temperature and insulating materials for which surface migration energies are notoriously difficult to measure.
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Chason, Eric; Erlebacher, Jonah, Aziz, Michael J.; Floro, Jerrold A. & Sinclair, Michael B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Femtosecond laser postionization of sputtered and laser desorbed atoms

Description: This paper examines the photoionization efficiency of a femtosecond laser ionization source on several atomic species. Use of femtosecond laser ionization pulses to photoionize the desorbing flux from a sample surface is examined. Example of mass spectra produced is given using 248 nm pulse on sputtered Au. Al and Mo have widely different ionization potentials and show that 248 nm pulses are more efficient at photoionization than longer wavelengths; this is enhanced for Mo with high ionization potential. It is concluded that efficient photoionization occurs for atoms with ionization potentials low enough for two-photon ionization to occur.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Pellin, M.J.; Lykke, K.R. & Calaway, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing, Structure, and Tribological Property Interrelationships in Sputtered Nanocrystalline ZnO Coatings

Description: Solid lubricant coatings with controlled microstructures are good candidates in providing lubricity in moving mechanical assembly applications, such as orthopedics and bearing steels. Nanocrystalline ZnO coatings with a layered wurtzite crystal structure have the potential to function as a lubricious material by its defective structure which is controlled by sputter deposition. The interrelationships between sputtered ZnO, its nanocrystalline structure and its lubricity will be discussed in this thesis. The nanocrystalline ZnO coatings were deposited on silicon substrates and Ti alloys by RF magnetron sputtering with different substrate adhesion layers, direct current biases, and temperatures. X-ray diffraction identified that the ZnO (0002) preferred orientation was necessary to achieve low sliding friction and wear along with substrate biasing. In addition, other analyses such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were utilized to study the solid lubrication mechanisms responsible for low friction and wear.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Tu, Wei-Lun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Experiments on the bombardment of metallic surfaces with 15-keV deuterons

Description: These data were taken in the period 1962 to 1964 in support of the high- energy plasma experiments in the Livermore controlled thermonuclear program. Because of a recent extension of interest in the impurity problem in toroidal systems the information is being distributed outside of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Information is included on effects of deuteron bombardment on stainless steel, Cu, W, and Ti. (JRD)
Date: December 1, 1973
Creator: Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C. & Goodman, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department