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Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

Description: A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of… more
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Reister, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

Description: In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Kelleher, E. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

Description: The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment… more
Date: June 14, 1979
Creator: Jurgensen, M. F. & Patton, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

Description: This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to p… more
Date: May 15, 2002
Creator: Keiser, J. R. & Gorog, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

Description: As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate … more
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Baxter, Larry L. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA) & Wessel, Richard A. (Babcock & Wilcox Company, Barberton, OH)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

Description: While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC3… more
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E. & Irvin, James H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

Description: University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical… more
Date: June 30, 2007
Creator: Whitty, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

Description: The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pres… more
Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Whitty, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

Description: This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop d… more
Date: June 9, 2008
Creator: Baxter, Larry L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

Description: The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking … more
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers: Final Report

Description: The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) b… more
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Headrick, William L., Jr.; Rezaie, Alireza; Liang, Xiaoting; Karakus, Musa & Wei, Jun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

Description: The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperatur… more
Date: January 7, 2009
Creator: Sinquefeld, Scott; Cantrell, James; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Ball, Alan & Empie, Jeff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

Description: The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the b… more
Date: September 28, 1990
Creator: Gottschlich, D.E. & Roberts, D.L. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Quarterly report, December 15, 1978-March 15, 1979

Description: The objective for the past quarter included reversing the decline in productivity from the methane fermenters, confirming methane and yeast production from acetate, and making trial runs on kraft mill and semichemical mill effluents. Although methane production remained low (20 cc/hr) addition of 2% methanol doubled production. Progress has been made on identifying possible viruses that might be preventing higher methane production. Confirmation that acetate can be used as a substrate for metha… more
Date: March 15, 1979
Creator: Jurgensen, M. F. & Patton, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced sensor development program for the pulp and paper industry

Description: This report describes experimental and theoretical studies toward development of a remote sensing technique for non-intrusive temperature measurement based on optical spectroscopic analysis of recovery boiler. The overall objectives were (a) construction of a fiber-optic system for measurement of spectroscopic emission intensities at several wavelengths and (b) development of a computer program relating these intensities to temperatures of the emitting species. The emitting species for temperat… more
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Allen, J.D.; Charagundla, S.R.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H.G. & Whetstone, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hawaii ethanol from molasses project. Report on plant inspections

Description: Personal inspections were made of several ethanol plants in Europe and the US in order to determine the best commercial processes presently in operation, prepare a conceptual design of a large plant incorporating these processes, describe the processes, and list best estimates of yields, energy requirements, capital costs and operating costs. Information was obtained from fermentation plant manufacturers and alcohol producers concerning their company-sponsored process improvement and new proces… more
Date: September 18, 1979
Creator: Gibson, W. O.; Mashima, K. I.; Roberts, R. R. & Chen, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fundamental studies of black liquor combustion: Report No. 2, Phase 1 (October 1984-November 1986)

Description: The fundamentals of kraft black liquor combustion are being studied in a five year project. This report covers the second and third years of work by The Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for the US Department of Energy. The burning processes are being studied in two continuous flow reactor systems designed to both study overall process and single particle phenomena. Black liquor burning is divided into four distinct phases: drying, volatiles burning, … more
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Clay, D. T.; Lien, S. J.; Grace, T. M.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H. G.; Amin, N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Annual report, June 15, 1977--June 15, 1978

Description: Studies on desugared spent sulfite liquor, DSSL, subjected to ozonation indicate that this complex organic substrate in water solution reacts readily with ozone to produce lower molecular weight organic fragments which can be metabolized by a variety of microorganisms. Ozone uptake is complete up to approximately 15 g/l and results in an increase of 35% BOD and a reduction of 16% COD. The production of BOD is pH dependent with a maximum occurring at aroung pH 3. The production of methane via fe… more
Date: June 15, 1978
Creator: Jurgensen, M. F. & Patton, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

Description: Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluores… more
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Emerson, D. B. & Whitworth, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of black liquor recovery boilers

Description: In the paper making industry, pulpwood chips are digested and cooked to provide the pulp going to the refining and paper mills. Black liquor residue, containing the dissolved lignin binder from the chips, with a concentration of 12 to 16% solids, is further concentrated to 62 to 65% solids and mixed with salt cake, Sodium Sulfate (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The resulting concentrate of black liquor serves both as a fuel for generating steam in the boiler and also as the mother liquid from which other… more
Date: May 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

Description: Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification towa… more
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Brown, Craig; Landalv, Ingvar; Stare, Ragnar; Yuan, Jerry; DeMartini, Nikolai & Ashgriz, Nasser
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

Description: Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, spl… more
Date: March 2, 2010
Creator: Sinquefield, Scott & Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

Description: The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is b… more
Date: May 5, 2001
Creator: Green, M. A.; Barale, P. J.; Fong, C. G.; Luft, P. A.; Reimer, J. A. & Yahnke, M. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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