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Preknock vibrations in a spark-ignition engine cylinder as revealed by high-speed photography

Description: "The high-speed photographic investigation of the mechanics of spark-ignition engine knock recorded in three previous reports has been extended with use of the NACA high-speed camera and combustion apparatus with a piezoelectric pressure pickup in the combustion chamber. The motion pictures of knocking combustion were taken at the rate of 40,000 frames per second. Existence of the preknock vibrations in the engine cylinder suggested in Technical Report no.727 has been definitely proved and the vibrations have been analyzed both in the high-speed motion pictures and the pressure traces" (p. 223).
Date: September 11, 1944
Creator: Miller, Cearcy D. & Logan, Walter O., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The significance of the time concept in engine detonation

Description: Report presenting an experimental technique developed by means of which the variables affecting the time element in the detonation process in a spark-ignition engine can be controlled and approximately measured. Results indicated that higher maximum permissible pressures can be used if the rate of compression of the end gas is increased. Suggestions for future study are provided.
Date: January 1943
Creator: Leary, W. A. & Taylor, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

Description: "Chemical reactions can demonstrably occur in a fuel-air mixture compressed in the working cylinder of an Otto-cycle (spark ignition) internal-combustion engine even before the charge is ignited by the flame proceeding from the sparking plug. These are the so-called "prelinminary reactions" ("pre-flame" combustion or oxidation), and an exact knowledge of their characteristic development is of great importance for a correct appreciation of the phenomena of engine-knock (detonation), and consequently for its avoidance. Such reactions can be studied either in a working engine cylinder or in a combustion bomb" (p. 1).
Date: June 1943
Creator: Mühlner, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A high-speed motion-picture study of normal combustion, knock and preignition in a spark-ignition engines

Description: Combustion in a spark-ignition engine was investigated by means of the NACA high-speed motion-picture cameras. This camera is operated at a speed of 40,000 photographs a second and therefore makes possible the study of changes that take place in the intervals as short as 0.000025 second. When the motion pictures are projected at the normal speed of 16 frames a second, any rate of movement shown is slowed down 2500 times. Photographs are presented of normal combustion, of combustion from preignitions, and of knock both with and without preignition. The photographs of combustion show that knock may be preceded by a period of exothermic reaction in the end zone that persists for a time interval of as much as 0.0006 second. The knock takes place in 0.00005 second or less.
Date: July 24, 1940
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.; Spencer, R. C. & Miller, Cearcy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Knock Characteristics in Spark-Ignition Engines

Description: This paper presents a discussion of three potential sources of error in recording engine knocking which are: the natural oscillation of the membrane, the shock process between test contacts, and the danger of burned contacts. Following this discussion, the paper calls attention to various results which make the bouncing-pin indicator appear fundamentally unsuitable for recording knock phenomena.
Date: March 1940
Creator: Schütz, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The optical system of the NACA 400,000-frame-per-second motion-picture camera

Description: Report presenting the optical principle of the NACA ultrahigh-speed camera. Simplified sketches are included illustrating the optical principle and main design features of the camera, but without minor design details. A detailed description of the camera is provided as well as some sample photographs taken with the camera.
Date: August 1947
Creator: Miller, Cearcy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study by high-speed photography of combustion and knock in a spark-ignition engine

Description: "The study of combustion in a spark-ignition engine given in Technical Report no. 704 has been continued. The investigation was made with the NACA high-speed motion-picture camera and the NACA optical engine indicator. The camera operates at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second and makes possible the study of phenomena occurring in time intervals as short as 0.000025 second. Photographs are presented of combustion without knock and with both light and heavy knocks, the end zone of combustion being within the field of view" (p. 15).
Date: December 9, 1941
Creator: Miller, Cearcy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection

Description: "The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m." (p. 1).
Date: February 1939
Creator: Schey, Oscar W. & Clark, J. Denny
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A simple model for cyclic variations in a spark-ignition engine

Description: We propose a simple model that explains important characteristics of cyclic combustion variations in spark-ignited engines. A key model feature is the interaction between stochastic, small-scale fluctuations in engine parameters and nonlinear deterministic coupling between successive engine cycles. Prior-cycle effects are produced by residual cylinder gas which alters mean in-cylinder equivalence ratio and subsequent combustion efficiency. The model`s simplicity allows rapid simulation of thousands of engine cycles, permitting in-depth statistical studies. Additional mechanisms for stochastic and prior-cycle effects can be added to evaluate their impact on overall engine performance. We find good agreement with experimental data.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Daw, C.S.; Green, J.B. Jr.; Kennel, M.B.; Thomas, J.F.; Finney, C.E.A. & Connolly, F.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Alcohol and Gasoline in Farm Engines

Description: "Owing to the fact that there are not on the American market any engines designed especially for alcohol, the experiments so far made have been with alcohol in the gasoline and kerosene engines familiar to the American market. The purpose of these experiments is twofold: (1) To determine what can be done with alcohol in the existing engines, and (2) to learn what changes in the mechanism of the engines are necessary to secure the highest efficiency in the use of alcohol as a fuel. ...It has seemed best to publish as a Farmers' Bulletin the essential facts brought out by the experiments made, with some popular matter on the use of gas engines for farm purposes, leaving the details and the more technical results of the tests to be published later, and such publication is therefore recommended." -- p. 2
Date: 1907
Creator: Lucke, Charles Edward, 1876-1951 & Woodward, Sherman M. (Sherman Melville), b. 1871
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computed Performance of a Composite Engine Based on Experimental Data for a Single-Cylinder Conventional Aircraft Engine Converted to Compression-Ignition Operation

Description: Memorandum presenting a determination of the performance of a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine modified to operate on a compression-ignition cycle with a compression ratio of 8.0. Experimental data were obtained at an inlet-manifold pressure of 100 inches of mercury absolute, fuel-air ratios of 0.040 and 0.025, and engine exhaust pressures of 30 to 100 inches of mercury absolute. Results regarding single-cylinder-engine experimental data and full-scale-engine calculations are provided.
Date: February 3, 1947
Creator: McCoy, J. Arnold & Szel, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cycle-by-cycle combustion variations in spark-ignited engines

Description: Under constant nominal operating conditions, internal combustion engines can exhibit substantial variation in combustion efficiency from one cycle to the next. Previous researchers have attempted to explain these variations as resulting from stochastic, linear, or chaotic physical processes. Our investigations indicate that cyclic combustion variations can be explained as the result of interactions between a global low-dimensional nonlinearity and small-scale, high-dimensional processes that perturb the nonlinearity. Using this approach, we have proposed a simple model that accurately simulates experimentally observed patterns in cyclic combustion variations. Our model also explains the apparent discrepancies among previous investigators regarding the basic nature of cyclic variations. Further, it appears that symbol dynamics are useful for characterizing the observed model and experimental behavior.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Daw, C.S.; Finney, C.E.A. & Connolly, F.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engine system electronics for high-temperature and high-voltage electronics, materials, and components for under-hood applications. Project accomplishment summary

Description: The purpose of the project was to develop the technology needed to build the next family of automotive ignition systems while improving the performance and reliability of the ignition systems presently in use. This was accomplished by learning from the industrial partner where the state of the art stood and understanding the problems that needed to be solved before fundamental advancements could be made. Then, resources from the DOE facilities were matched to the challenges presented by the industrial partner. The role of the industrial partner was to describe the state of the art concerning the manufacturing and performance of automotive ignition systems to organizations at the DOE facilities. The role of DOE facilities was to apply basic research and development techniques to the problems presented by the industrial partner while advancing the capabilities available to DOE Defense Programs.
Date: November 11, 1996
Creator: Sohns, C.W. & Van Uum, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alvar variable compression engine development. Final report

Description: The Alvar engine is an invention by Mr. Alvar Gustafsson of Skarblacka, Sweden. It is a four stroke spark ignition internal combustion engine, having variable compression ratio and variable displacements. The compression ratio can be varied by means of small secondary cylinders and pistons which are communicating with the main combustion chambers. The secondary pistons can be phase shifted with respect to the main pistons. The engine is suitable for multi-fuel operation. Invention rights are held by Alvar Engine AB of Sweden, a company created to handle the development of the Alvar Engine. A project was conceived wherein an optimised experimental engine would be built and tested to verify the advantages claimed for the Alvar engine and also to reveal possible drawbacks, if any. Alvar Engine AB appointed Gunnar Lundholm, professor of Combustion Engines at Lund University, Lund, Sweden as principal investigator. The project could be seen as having three parts: (1) Optimisation of the engine combustion chamber geometry; (2) Design and manufacturing of the necessary engine parts; and (3) Testing of the engine in an engine laboratory NUTEK, The Swedish Board for Industrial and Technical Development granted Gunnar Lundholm, SEK 50000 (about $6700) to travel to the US to evaluate potential research and development facilities which seemed able to perform the different project tasks.
Date: March 30, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate emission characteristics of a port-fuel-injected SI engine

Description: Particulate emissions from spark-ignited (SI) engines have come under close scrutiny as they tend to be smaller than 50 nm, are composed mainly of volatile organic compounds, and are emitted in significant numbers. To assess the impact of such emissions, measurements were performed in the exhaust of a current-technology port-fuel-injected SI engine, which was operated at various steady-state conditions. To gain further insights into the particulate formation mechanisms, measurements were also performed upstream of the catalytic converter. At all engine speeds, a general trend was observed in the number densities and mass concentrations: a moderate increase at low loads followed by a decrease at mid-range loads, which was followed by a steep increase at high loads. Within reasonable bounds, one could attribute such a trend to three different mechanisms. An unidentified mechanism at low loads results in particulate emissions monotonically increasing with load. At medium loads, wherein the engine operates close to stoichiometric conditions, high exhaust temperatures lead to particulate oxidation. At high loads, combustion occurs mostly under fuel-rich conditions, and the contribution from combustion soot becomes significant. Estimates of the number of particles emitted per kilometer by a vehicle carrying the current test engine were found to be lower than those from a comparable diesel vehicle by three orders of magnitude. Similar estimates for mass emissions (grams of particulates emitted per kilometer) were found to be two orders of magnitude lower than the future regulated emission value of 0.006 (g/km) for light-duty diesel vehicles. Moreover, considering the fact that these particles have typical lifetimes of 15 min, the health hazard from particulate emissions from SI engines appears to be low.
Date: March 2, 2000
Creator: Gupta, S.; Poola, R.; Lee, K. O. & Sekar, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report

Description: A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.
Date: April 27, 1995
Creator: Cernansky, N.P. & Miller, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of oxygen-enrichment system for alternative fuel vehicles

Description: This report presents results on the reduction in exhaust emissions achieved by using oxygen-enriched intake air on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that used Indolene and M85 as test fuels. The standard federal test procedure (FTP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) off-cycle (REP05) test were followed. The report also provides a review of literature on the oxygen membrane device and design considerations. It presents information on the sources and contributions of cold-phase emissions to the overall exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and on the various emission standards and present-day control technologies under consideration. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FTP and off-cycle emissions are discussed on the basis of test results. Conclusions are drawn from the results and discussion, and different approaches for the practical application of this technology in LDVs are recommended.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R. & Ng, H.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospectus of ignition enhancement in a two-stroke SI engine

Description: Conventional two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engines have difficulty meeting the ignition requirements of lean fuel-air mixtures and high compression ratios, due to their breaker operated, magneto-coil ignition systems. In the present work, a breakerless, high-energy electronic ignition system was developed and tested with and without a platinum-tipped electrode spark plug. The high-energy ignition system showed an improved lean-burn capability at high compression ratios relative to the conventional ignition system. At a high compression ratio of 9:1 with lean fuel-air mixtures, the maximum percentage improvement in the brake thermal efficiency was about 16.5% at 2.7 kW and 3000 rpm. Cylinder peak pressures-were higher ignition delay was lower, and combustion duration was shorter at both normal and high compression ratios. Combustion stability as measured by the coefficient of variation in peak cylinder pressure was also considerably improved with the high-energy ignition system.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Manivannan, P.V.; Ramesh, A.; Poola, R.B. & Dhinadgar, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical Diagnostic Equipment for Research on Critical Processes in Spark-Ignition Engines

Description: The equipment requested under grant Contract No. DE-FG02-95TE00065 was used in several projects investigating the behavior of fuel in spark-ignition engines. It has been a crucial piece of these efforts in understanding how new direct-injected engine sprays behave, as well as a key part in the determination of how liquid fuel enters the engine during port-fuel injection.
Date: August 8, 1999
Creator: Hochgreb, Simone
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spark Ignited Turbulent Flame Kernel Growth

Description: An experimental study of the effects of spark power and of incomplete fuel-air mixing on spark-ignited flame kernel growth was conducted in turbulent propane-air mixtures at 1 atm, 300K conditions. The results showed that increased spark power resulted in an increased growth rate, where the effect of short duration breakdown sparks was found to persist for times of the order of milliseconds. The effectiveness of increased spark power was found to be less at high turbulence and high dilution conditions. Increased spark power had a greater effect on the 0-5 mm burn time than on the 5-13 mm burn time, in part because of the effect of breakdown energy on the initial size of the flame kernel. And finally, when spark power was increased by shortening the spark duration while keeping the effective energy the same there was a significant increase in the misfire rate, however when the spark power was further increased by increasing the breakdown energy the misfire rate dropped to zero. The results also showed that fluctuations in local mixture strength due to incomplete fuel-air mixing cause the flame kernel surface to become wrinkled and distorted; and that the amount of wrinkling increases as the degree of incomplete fuel-air mixing increases. Incomplete fuel-air mixing was also found to result in a significant increase in cyclic variations in the flame kernel growth. The average flame kernel growth rates for the premixed and the incompletely mixed cases were found to be within the experimental uncertainty except for the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case where the growth rate was significantly lower. The premixed and 6%-RMS-fluctuation cases had a 0% misfire rate. The misfire rates were 1% and 2% for the 13%-RMS-fluctuation and 24%-RMS-fluctuation cases, respectively; however, it drastically increased to 23% in the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Santavicca, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homogeneous charge engines -- Basis of cyclic variations. Final report

Description: The objectives of the Grant required investigations of cyclic variations in a homogeneous-charge engine initially with gas combustion and the air from ranging from near quiescent to the incorporation of swirl and tumble by valve inserts. Later experiments were performed with unleaded gasoline. The measurements included local velocity and cylinder pressure through the four strokes of a single-cylinder engine, under motored and firing conditions and with examination of the flame kernel growth by combinations of photography and flame-ionization gauges. In all cases, the measurements of in-cylinder characteristics were linked to performance as measured in terms of speed and its variability, load and emissions. The experiments progressed to consider deviations from homogeneous charge and included consideration of stratified charge with local injection of a rich mixture in the vicinity of the spark gap so as to establish a flame kernel which would propagate securely into an overall weak mixture.
Date: June 30, 1997
Creator: Whitelaw, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Description: This project was aimed at developing and using numerical tools which incorporate the second law of thermodynamics to better understand engine operation and particularly the combustion process. A major activity of this project was the continual enhancement and use of an existing engine cycle simulation to investigate a wide range of engine parameters and concepts. The major motivation of these investigations was to improve engine efficiency. These improvements were examined from both the first law and second law perspective. One of the most important aspects of this work was the identification of the combustion irreversibilities as functions of engine design and operating parameters. The combustion irreversibility may be quantified in a number of ways but one especially useful way is by determining the destruction of exergy (availability) during the combustion process. This destruction is the penalty due to converting the fuel exergy to thermal energy for producing work. The engine cycle simulation was used to examine the performance of an automotive (5.7 liter), V-8 spark-ignition engine. A base case was defined for operation at 1400 rpm, stoichiometric, MBT spark timing with a bmep of 325 kPa. For this condition, the destruction of exergy during the combustion process was 21.0%. Variations of many engine parameters (including speed, load, and spark timing) did not alter the level of destruction very much (with these variations, the exergy destruction was within the range of 20.5-21.5%). Also, the use of turbocharging or the use of an over-expanded engine design did not significantly change the exergy destruction. The exergy destruction during combustion was most affected by increased inlet oxygen concentration (which reduced the destruction due to the higher combustion temperatures) and by the use of cooled EGR (which increased the destruction). This work has demonstrated that, in general, the exergy destruction for conventional engines is fairly ...
Date: September 30, 2009
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department