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Space Heating Rates for Some Premixed Turbulent Propane-Air Flames

Description: Note presenting measurements of space heating rate, which can yield information that is useful in characterizing turbulent combustion. For Bunsen burner flames stabilized over a field of pipe-induced turbulence, the space heating rate decreased with increasing linear flow and burner diameter and was independent of pilot conditions. Results regarding residual heat values, space conversion rate, turbulent burning velocities, and a comparison of concepts are provided.
Date: June 1956
Creator: Fine, Burton D. & Wagner, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar energy system installed at Mount Rushmore National Visitor Center in Keystone, South Dakota

Description: Information is provided on the system description, the design, and installation of the solar energy system installed at the Mount Rushmore Visitor Center. The system is designed to furnish about 45 percent of the heating for the total facility and about 53 percent partial cooling for the 2000 square-foot observatory. Such items as Acceptance Test Data, a complete set of as-build drawings, system performance data, problems, pictures, and other pertinent materials are included.
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program support for Active Buildings Division, System Development Branch, Office of Solar Applications for Buildings

Description: Program support work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, Office of Solar Applications for Buildings, Division of Active Heating and Cooling is described. Background information and accomplishments are included.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Bankston, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appropriate sizing of solar heating systems

Description: It is generally assumed that a solar heating system should be sized by minimizing its life cycle cost. This study shows, however, that the uncertainty in future economic trends makes the results of such a procedure questionable. The design conditions for minimum cost are extremely broad and all practical systems have a solar fraction within the limited range of 30% to 90%. Thus, by choosing only three collector areas that give systems within this range, one is assured of selecting a nearly optimal system for any realistic economic scenario. Selecting one of these three systems is essentially equivalent to economic optimization, but simpler. Procedures are derived in this paper for determining the sizes of the three systems. The conclusion is that the collector areas should be about 1/8, 1/5, and 1/3 of the building floor area. This rule of thumb eliminates the need to design solar systems individually, allowing the possibility of mass-produced homes with standardized solar heating systems.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Bendt, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy conservation and solar heating for mobile homes

Description: Project activities consisted of retro-fitting six (6) mobile homes with extensive energy-conservation improvements and installing solar-space-heating systems on four (4) of these homes. The intent of the project was to evaluate the potential of mobile homes as a low-cost energy-efficient housing option for low- to moderate income families. Using both hard and soft data, it is estimated that an average fuel reduction in excess of 35% was achieved by the conservation improvements alone. The project lacked the expertise and monitoring instruments to properly evaluate the effectiveness of the four solar installations and had to rely on the personal observations of the four families that received the units.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Energy's solar update. Four regional conferences highlighting the objectives, plans, and experience of the National Commercial Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program and the National Solar Data Program

Description: These proceedings represent the overview and project papers made available to all the participants at each of the regional conferences. Papers not available at time of publication, and additional materials, including a summary and analysis of the Workshop/Panel Sessions are included in the complete proceedings CONF-780701--(Rev.) for which individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (MHR)
Date: July 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

Description: The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: none,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota

Description: A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates around the clock throughout the heating season to heating coils in the ducts. The system achieves its design solar fraction, is efficient, and generally reliable, but not cost-effective. Performance data for the solar system was collected by the National Solar Data Network for three heating seasons from 1978 to 1981. Because of a freeze-up of the collector array in December 1978, the solar system was only partially operational in the 1978 to 1979 heating season. The data in this report were collected in the 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 heating seasons.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Raymond, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

Description: Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.
Date: April 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acidization of a Direct Heat Hydrothermal Well and its Potential in Developing Additional Direct Heat Projects

Description: A matrix acid treatment on a limestone formation in a low temperature hydrothermal production well in South Dakota has resulted in a 40% increase in heat (BTU) available for use in space heating a hospital. The results of this experimental treatment on the Madison Limestone suggest a significant potential may exist for similar applications, particularly throughout the western United States. This paper presents the results of the acid treatment, suggests other possible areas for similar application, and analyzes the economics for successful treatments.
Date: 1981~
Creator: Dolenc, M. R.; Strawn, J. A. & Prestwich, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A REVIEW OF ASSUMPTIONS AND ANALYSIS IN EPRI EA-3409,"HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE CHOICE: REVISION OF REEPS BEHAVIORAL MODELS"

Description: This paper revises and extends EPRI report EA-3409, ''Household Appliance Choice: Revision of REEPS Behavioral Models.'' That paper reported the results of an econometric study of major appliance choice in new residential construction. Errors appeared in two tables of that report. We offer revised versions of those tables, and a brief analysis of the consequences and significance of the errors. The present paper also proposes several possible extensions and re-specifications of the models examined by EPRI. Some of these are judged to be highly successful; they both satisfy economic intuition more completely than the original specification and produce a better quality fit to the dependent variable. We feel that inclusion of these modifications produces a more useful set of coefficients for economic modeling than the original specification. This paper focuses on EPRI's models of residential space heating technology choice. That choice was modeled as a nested logit structure, with consumers choosing whether to have central air conditioning or not, and, given that choice, what kind of space heating system to have. The model included five space heating alternatives with central cooling (gas, oil, and electric forced-air; heat pumps; and electric baseboard) and eight alternatives without it (gas, oil, and electric forced-air; gas and oil boilers and non-central systems; and electric baseboard heat). The structure of the nested logit model is shown in Figure 1.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Wood, D.J.; Ruderman, H. & McMahon, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

Description: This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L. & Meyers, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anthracite R&D needs - CRADA 89-001. Final report

Description: The purpose of this research is to foster the development of one or more high performance, anthracite-fired boiler systems suitable for meeting space heating and hot water requirements of large buildings. The boiler system research would include fuel handling, combustion and heat transfer, ash handling, and control systems.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Bartis, J.T. & Inberman, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating costs in the United States

Description: The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. Geothermal district heating systems will become economically feasible in most urban centers north of a line extending roughly from Los Angeles to Baltimore. West of the Rockies high temperature (> 90/sup 0/C) geothermal energy will predominate and will be transported up to 50 miles to the urban centers. East of the Rockies low temperature (60 to 90/sup 0/C) geothermal energy will predominate and will be located within ten miles of the urban centers. Solar heating systems, with conventional heating backup, will become economically feasible throughout the country. The most economical applications will be in suburban and rural areas in the intermountain West and into the Great Plains region. Conventional heating will remain most economic: (1) in urban centers in the South (where annual heat demand is low); (2) in Northern urban centers which are too distant from geothermal resources; and (3) in suburban and rural areas with low solar insolation. Conventional energy will supplement solar energy in most locations.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Bloomster, C.H.; Price, B.A. & Fassbender, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save

Description: A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4'' x 8'' collectors in a typical house.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Newburn, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Space Heating Applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the Vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Phase I Report, August 20, 1979--December 31, 1979

Description: This engineering and economic study is concerned with the question of using the natural heat of the earth, or geothermal energy, as an alternative to other energy sources such as oil and natural gas which are increasing in cost. This document represents a quarterly progress report on the effort directed to determine the availability of geothermal energy within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana (Figure 1), and the feasibility of beneficial use of this resource including engineering, economic and environmental considerations. The project is being carried out by the Tribal Research office, Assinboine and Sioux Tribes, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Poplar, Montana under a contract to the United States Department of Energy. PRC TOUPS, the major subcontractor, is responsible for engineering and economic studies and the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) is providing support in the areas of environment and finance, the results of which will appear in the Final Report. The existence of potentially valuable geothermal resource within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation was first detected from an analysis of temperatures encountered in oil wells drilled in the area. This data, produced by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, pointed to a possible moderate to high temperature source near the town of Poplar, Montana, which is the location of the Tribal Headquarters for the Fort Peck Reservation. During the first phase of this project, additional data was collected to better characterize the nature of this geothermal resource and to analyze means of gaining access to it. As a result of this investigation, it has been learned that not only is there a potential geothermal resource in the region but that the producing oil wells north of the town of Poplar bring to the surface nearly 20,000 barrels a day (589 gal/min) of geothermal fluid in a temperature ...
Date: January 4, 1980
Creator: Spencer, Glenn J. & Cohen, M. Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department