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NUCLEAR PROPULSION--AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

Description: The use of nuclear energy in the space programs is discussed. Nuclear rocket development is reviewed, and the Nevada rocket development station, nuclear electric propulsion and power generation, and advanced research projects are discussed. (J.R.D.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Finger, H.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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RADIOISOTOPE FUELED AUXILIARY POWER UNIT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 1, January 2-April 2, 1957

Description: Progress on an isotope-fueled auxiliary power unit is reported. Based on the power requirements of 260 W, it was concluded that Ce/sup 144/ should be used as fuel. Estimates were made of fuel availability and unit cost and weight at power levels of 133, 300, 500, and 1000 W(e). Fuel development, boiler development, system and operational considerations, and the power conservation system are discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 31, 1962
Creator: Silverstein, C.C. & Behmer, R.E. comps.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SURVEY OF METEOROID PROPERTY AND DISTRIBUTION DATA RELEVANT TO SNAP 8 REACTOR AND SHIELD DESIGN

Description: A survey of existing literature relative to the properties and distributions of meteoroids is presented. Of major interest is prediction of the criteria which may be used to calculate the imparing effect of this meteoroidal phenomenon on the SNAP 8 space system and/or its components and other space vehicle structures. (auth)
Date: April 30, 1963
Creator: Harder, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear Propulsion--Background and Environmental Conditions

Description: A general review is presented of space propulsion projects with respect to materials requirements. The characteristics and requirements of Pluto (nuclear ramjet) are described. The general requirements for propulsion in space and the classes of nuclear rockets are outlined. Materials requirements and problems are discussed in detail for the heat transfer nuclear rocket (Rover). (D.L.C.)
Date: May 1, 1963
Creator: Rothman, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SNAP 7 PROGRAM: TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 4, August 1, 1961-October 31, 1961

Description: Progress during the period includes completion of the SNAP 7C system tests, completion of safety analysis for the SNAP 7A and C systems, assembly and initial testing of SNAP 7A, assembly of a modified reliability model, and assembly of a 10-W generator. Other activities include completion of thermal and safety analyses for SNAP 7B and D generators and fuel processing for these generators. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 31, 1963
Creator: West, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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APPLICATIONS OF SNAP REACTOR SYSTEMS TO COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES

Description: Methods are presented for determining the electric power requirements of a given communications mission in terms of mission and orbit parameters. Analyses were made of possible applications of available and projected space auxiliary power units in these satellites. The satellitc as a communication node is discussed. Example calculations are given. (M.C.G.)
Date: July 30, 1962
Creator: Wimmer, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SNAP Radioisotope Space Programs Quarterly Progress Report No. 9, October 1 Through December 31, 1961

Description: All Phase I and Phase II testing was completed. Both launches of Phase I were successful, neither Phase II launches were successful. Test data recovered on Phase I launchings included optical coverage of re-entry and the trajectory and weather data; no telemetry canister temperature data were obtained. No test data were obtained on Phase II experiments. Reduction of Phase I test data was begun. The Phase II (Sub-subtask 7.3.2) was terminated December 20, 1961, when no test data were recovered for comparison with the analytically predicted results. The Sub-subtask 7.3.3 program (Generator Re-entry Burnup Study) was completed and terminated December 29, 1961. The study objectives were met. The Sub-subtask 7.3.4 program (High Altitude Sampling) was terminated when it was completed November 30, 1961. All study objectives were met. Topical reports were prepared on Sub-subtasks on the work performed in the reporting period that was not included in the topical reports is included. Checkout and troubleshooting operations on the last two subroutines and main radioisotope shielding code were completed. Results from several runs of a simple check problem compared well with published data. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aerodynamic Re-Entry Analysis. Task 2. Thermoelectric Generator Summary Report

Description: An analytical trajectory and aerothermodynamic analysis of a satellite containing a Task 2 thermoelectric generator was completed. A 300-statute mile circular polar orbit was used for this analysis and the launch was assumed to be from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Results of this study show that upon natural decay from a successful mission, the radio-cerium fuel will burn up in space at high altitude, thus only a very minor amount of radio cerium will be released to the stratosphere. A complete analyses of the fate of the radio-cerium fuel following various aborted launching attempts also was carried out. Charts summarizing the various assumed failures and locations of the fuel following failure are shown. A technical discussion of the methods used in performing the analysis is included in the report. (auth)
Date: December 27, 1960
Creator: Oehrli, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ELECTRIC PROPULSION APPLICATIONS FOR SNAP SYSTEMS

Description: The application of SNAP systems to electric propulsion was investigated. A review is given of the basic analysis involved in establishing optimum power levels and payload capabilities for electric spacecraft, and several typical missions are analyzed to determine the usefulness of the SNAP systems which are under development or systems which are based on the current SNAP technology. In general, it is found that SNAP power units in the range of 60 to 180 kw offer significant mission capability when used in conjunction with initial spacecraft weights of about 10,000 lb in a low-level orbit. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Morse, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SNAP 7 Program Task 8--Strontium-90 Fueled Thermoelectric Generator Development. Quarterly Progress Report No. 3, May 1, 1961 Through July 31, 1961

Description: The SNAP 7 program is being conducted for the purpose of developing 4 radioisotope fueled thermoelectric power generation systems. An important phase of this program is the processing of Sr/sup 90/ into heat sources for these systems. The thermoelectric reliability breadboard model and the operating model of the 10-watt thermoelectric generator were assembled and prepared for tests. The SNAP 7B and 7D 60-watt thermoelectric generators were designed, materials were received, and fabrication of components was initiated. Fuel process engineering, nuclear chemistry audit, and manufacturing fuel processing equipment achievements are discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 31, 1962
Creator: West, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Cesium-137 Power Program. Quarterly Report No. 3

Description: Progress made in the development of the Cs/sup 137/ fueled thermoelectric generator for marine power applications is reported. Information is given on thermoelectric generator design, shielding, power conversion system, hazards evaluation, fuel element forming and cladding, fabrication, and heat transfer. Cs/sup 137/ energy calculations are presented along with shielding calculations. The development and fabrication of cesium polyglass for fuel application are included. (N.W.R.)
Date: October 31, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Phase I Mechanical and Thermochemical Test Series. SNAP Aerospace Safety Program

Description: A description is given of the test series conducted in conjunction with the SNAP Aerospace Safety Program. The principal objective of the tests was to obtain data and information for evaluating the hazards occurring before, during, and after the flight of the SNAP 10A reactor. The results of these tests will provide a means for developing criteria to guide in the design of inherently safe SNAP systems. (auth)
Date: June 30, 1963
Creator: Pfahler, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Application of SNAP 2 to Manned Orbital Space Stations

Description: The results of a study of the installation and operational characteristics of a SNAP reactor system integrated with a manned space station are presented. The reference system selected was an 11 kw(e) version of a SNAP 2 system employing multiple power conversion units coupled to a single reactor source. Of prime importance is the reactor radiation shield required for the manned system and the use of design features which minimize the shield weight. The weight of the radiation shield is highly dependent upon the geometrical configuration of the space station and the reactor since shadow'' shielding of the manned compartments is required for minimum weight systems. The installation and shielding requirements of the 11 kw(e) system were considered for two types of space station configurations; one was a 10 ft dia cylindrical station with a reactor separation distance of 50 ft and the other a 150 ft dia toroidal station with the reactor located in the hub. The weight of the power system installed in the cylindrical space station was about 9000 lb of which 6000 lb was required for shielding. The weight of the system for a toroidal station was approximates 25,000 lbs of which 20,000 lbs was required for shielding. However, these weights are relatively insensitive to power level and doubling or tripling the power output will only increase these weights by a small percentage. In addition, the designs developed for these two concepts permit the replacement of the reactor and power conversion system with the radiation shields becoming essentially a permanent part of the space station. Hence the large weight penalty associated with the reactor shield only has to be incurred once during the life of the space station. Because of the dominance of the reactor shield weights for manned systems, parametric curves of shielding weight are …
Date: December 16, 1962
Creator: Rosenburg, H. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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NUCLEAR AEROSPACE SAFETY PROBLEMS

Description: Safety problems that have arisen in the conquest of space and are of a nuclear origin are discussed. Space radiation such as cosmic radiation, geomagnetically trapped corpuscular radiation, and solar flare radiation and radiations inherent in nuclear auxilliary power systems are considered. Problems created by the use of nuclear propulsion systems are emphasized. Launch pad problems and core disposal are discussed (M.C.G.)
Date: April 22, 1963
Creator: King, L.D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aerospace Safety Re-Entry Analytical and Experimental Program, SNAP 2 and 10A (Interim Report)

Description: Before a reactor is launched into a satellite orbit about the Earth, the hazards to the population must necessarily be considered in the event that the reactor re-enters the Earth' s atmosphere and possibly impacts with the ground. Analytical and experimental efforts for calculating these potential hazards as they apply to SNAP-2 and -10A are described. (auth)
Date: September 30, 1963
Creator: Elliott, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MATERIALS PROBLEMS IN THE ROVER PROGRAM

Description: Problems in fuel element development for the Rover program are discussed. Properties of refractory materials which remain solid above 2500 deg C are described. Tensile and compressive creep properties of graphite were deterndined. The compatibility of fuel element materials with the hydrogenous working fluid was also considered. The effect of composition on the properties of graphite is discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: January 1, 1959
Creator: MacMillan, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SNAP II POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM TOPICAL REPORT NO. 11, ORBITAL FORCE FIELD BOILING AND CONDENSING EXPERIMENT

Description: The characteristics of Rankine space power plants in the zero gravity aspect of the environment of space were lnvestigated. The expected effects of Rankine space power plants are described. Discussions of experimental techniques for studying these phenomena show that this information can be obtained rapidly and economically. Recommendations for a program to supplement SNAP II and slmllar Ranklne space power development efforts in this vital area are made, and consist of: the development and testing of a small system that adequately simulates a complete Ranklne system, first in zero grayity and finally, in the complete orbltal environment; followed by, the development and similar testing of a complete Rankine system using SNAP ll hardware. (auth)
Date: January 15, 1960
Creator: Grevstad, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SNAP 7 Program--Task 8--Strontium-90 Fueled Thermoelectric Generator Development. Quarterly Report No. 6, February 1 Through April 30, 1962

Description: Manufacture, assembly, and pararmetric testing of the first 60-watt thermoelectric generator were completed. All of the Sr-90 fuel process equipment was installed. Equipment checkouts and process dry runs have indicated a number of problems. The problems will probably cause a slight delay in hot operation; however, it is expected that schedule commitments in completing the fuel for the SNAP-7B system will be met. The power output of the Coast Guard SNAP-7A system is decreasing much faster than anticipated. A comparison of power output and hot and cold junction temperature readings with parametric operational data shows that the generator is performing as predicted. A plot of the decay in hot junction temperature (cold junction temperature approximately constant) indicates that the isotope fuel had too much Sr-89 and, therefore, too little Sr- 90. Restoration would consist of changing the high conducting inert gas, helium, to a mixture of helium and argon which has better thermal insulating properties. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1962
Creator: McDonald, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SNAP Radioisotope Space Programs. Quarterly Progress Report No. 11, April 1 Through June 30, 1962. Task 7

Description: The reduction and analysis of data from two re-entry heating tests on simulated SNAP fuel cores were completed. lmportant points in the analysis are presented. ldentification of one test specimen gives support to the following significant conclusions - the computational techniques used in re-entry analysis are highly accurate and the design theory applied to the design of SNAP flight hardware for burnup is conservative. Preparations for a third fuel core ablation test were concluded. For this test, data collection and reduction methods were improved through changes in the telemetry canister, the fuel-simulating alkali metals, changes in camera filters, and modification and calibration of test equipment. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SNAP Programs Task 8--Strontium-90 Fueled Thermoelectric Generator Development. Quarterly Progress Report No. 2, February 1, 1961 Through April 30, 1961

Description: Work in the processing of Sr/sup 90/ into heat sources for 4 radioisotope-fueled thermoelectric power generation systems is described. The design and engineering analysis of these thermoelectric generators are discussed. Fuel process flow and associated equipment requirements for remote conversion of Sr/sup 90/ feed material to strontium titanate pellets are covered. Previously evolved technical standards concerning raw fuel material specification were coordinated. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 31, 1962
Creator: West, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CORE TRANSFER FUNCTION MODELS FOR SNAP SYSTEM KINETICS

Description: A distributed parameter transfer function is developed for SNAP type reactor cores. The coolant may be either boiling, non-boiling, or both. In the boiling case the Bankoff model is used to find the spatial distribution of voids. The transfer functions obtained are not simple polynomials. However, they are readily analyzed for stabilily using the 7090 program TRAFIC, which uses a Nyquist diagram approach. Some general conclusions resulting from these calculations are included. (auth)
Date: April 29, 1963
Creator: Johnson, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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