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Solidification and Separation of Ice From Saline Water

Description: From Introduction: "The principal objective of this investigation is to promote fundamental understanding of the mechanism of solidification of aqueous solutions, and the effects of externally applied electrical and magnetic fields on solidification."
Date: March 1964
Creator: Adams, Clyde M., Jr. & Rohatgi, Pradeep K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Combined Experimental and Computational Approach for the Design of Mold Topography that Leads to Desired Ingot Surface and Microstructure in Aluminum Casting.

Description: A thermomechanical study of the effects of mold topography on the solidification of Aluminum alloys at early times is provided. The various coupling mechanisms between the solid-shell and mold deformation and heat transfer at the mold/solid-shell interface during the early stages of Aluminum solidification on molds with uneven topographies are investigated. The air-gap nucleation time, the stress evolution and the solid-shell growth pattern are examined for different mold topographies to illustrate the potential control of Aluminum cast surface morphologies during the early stages of solidification using proper design of mold topographies. The unstable shell growth pattern in the early solidification stages results mainly from the unevenness of the heat flux between the solid-shell and the mold surface. This heat flux is determined by the size of the air-gaps formed between the solidifying shell and mold surface or from the value of the contact pressure. Simulation results show that a sinusoidal mold surface with a smaller wavelength leads to nucleation of air-gaps at earlier times. In addition, the unevenness in the solid-shell growth pattern decreases faster for a smaller wavelength. Such studies can be used to tune mold surfaces for the control of cast surface morphologies.
Date: July 12, 2005
Creator: Dr. Zabaras, N. & Tan, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulating Interface Growth and Defect Generation in CZT – Simulation State of the Art and Known Gaps

Description: This one-year, study topic project will survey and investigate the known state-of-the-art of modeling and simulation methods suitable for performing fine-scale, fully 3-D modeling, of the growth of CZT crystals at the melt-solid interface, and correlating physical growth and post-growth conditions with generation and incorporation of defects into the solid CZT crystal. In the course of this study, this project will also identify the critical gaps in our knowledge of modeling and simulation techniques in terms of what would be needed to be developed in order to perform accurate physical simulations of defect generation in melt-grown CZT. The transformational nature of this study will be, for the first time, an investigation of modeling and simulation methods for describing microstructural evolution during crystal growth and the identification of the critical gaps in our knowledge of such methods, which is recognized as having tremendous scientific impacts for future model developments in a wide variety of materials science areas.
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Henager, Charles H.; Gao, Fei; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Lin, Guang; Bylaska, Eric J. & Zabaras, Nicholas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Use of Synroc to Solidify the Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Description: This report is a literature evaluation on the Synroc process for determining the potential for application to solidification of the Cs/Sr strip product from advanced aqueous fuel separations activities.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Tripp, Julia & Maio, Vince
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INOR-037: Encapsulation of hazardous metals with organic modified minerals

Description: The authors studies have focused on the development of new materials for the control, treatment, and long term storage of hazardous metals. The process involves the introduction of hazardous cations into the matrix of clays through aqueous ion-exchange methods. These cations are subsequently encapsulated within the clay by treating the material with a variety of organic silanes. This treatment results in the formation of organic coatings which are chemically bonded to the surface of the clay. The coatings are hydrophobic in nature, and may restrict the diffusion of water into and out of the pores contained within the clay. The goal of this process is to reduce the undesirable migration of hazardous metals from the ion-exchanged clays into the environment. A smectic type clay, bentonite, has been the primary inorganic matrix for this study. Bentonite, which is a form of montmorillonite, consists of two-dimensional sheets of aluminosilicates. Like other smectite clays, these sheets are separated by an interlayer which contains cations and water. The reactive groups within the alkyl silanes react with hydroxyl groups on the clay surface, as well as water contained on and within the clay. The authors results show that there is little difference in the metal content of the coated and noncoated clays. The cations are not removed from the clay by exposure to the silane. The clays also maintain their general structure and cystallinity upon surface modification. The organic coatings are stable to 500{degrees}C when heated under nitrogen. The ability of these systems to encapsulate the cations and prevent their migration into the environment is currently being evaluated.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Song, Kang; Wasserman, R. & Yuchs, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Projection Methods for Interdendritic Flows

Description: In spite of recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fluid dynamics for materials processing applications, no significant advances have been made in the numerical discretization of these equations. In this work, the application of two-step projection methods for the numerical simulation of interdendritic flows is, discussed. Unlike previous methods, the methods presented here are constructed for the exact equations which are characterized by variable density and volumetric fraction of the liquid. The drag terms, which describe the momentum loss due to the flow around and through the dendrite structures, are treated implicitly. Numerical examples for shrinkage-induced flow during solidification of an AI-4.5% Cu alloy bar is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Date: February 28, 1999
Creator: Han, Q.; Sabau, A.S. & Viswanathan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials disposition plutonium acceptance specifications for the immobilization project

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has declared approximately 38.2 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium to be excess to the needs of national security, 14.3 tonnes of fuel- and reactor-grade plutonium excess to DOE needs, and anticipates an additional 7 tonnes to be declared excess to national security needs. Of this 59.5 tonnes, DOE anticipates that ~ 7.5 tonnes will be dispositioned as spent fuel at the Geologic Repository and ~ 2 tonnes will be declared below the safeguards termination limit and be discarded as TRU waste at WIPP. The remaining 50 tonnes of excess plutonium exists in many forms and locations around the country, and is under the control of several DOE Offices. The Materials Disposition Program (MD) will be receiving materials packaged by these other Programs to disposition in a manor that meets the �spent fuel standard.� For disposition by immobilization, the planned facilities will have only limited capabilities to remove impurities prior to blending the plutonium feedstocks to prepare feed for the plutonium immobilization ceramic formation process, Technical specifications are described here that allow potential feedstocks to be categorized as either acceptable for transfer into the MD Immobilization Process, or unacceptable without additional processing prior to transfer to MD. Understanding the requirements should allow cost benefit analyses to be performed to determine if a specific material should be processed sufficiently shipment to WIPP. Preliminary analyses suggest that about 45 tonnes of this material have impurity concentrations much lower than the immobilization acceptance specifications. In addition, approximately another 3 tonnes can easily be blended with the higher purity feeds to meet the immobilization specifications. Another 1 tonne or so can be processed in the immobilization plutonium conversion area to yield materials that can be blended to provide acceptable feed for immobilization. The remaining 3 tonnes must be excluded in their ...
Date: June 15, 1998
Creator: Ebbinghaus, B.; Edmunds, T. A.; Gray, L.; Riley, D. C. & Vankonynenburg, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expected radiation effects in plutonium immobilization ceramic

Description: The current formulation of the candidate ceramic for plutonium immobilization consists primarily of pyrochlore, with smaller amounts of hafnium-zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite or perovskite. At a plutonium loading of 10.5 weight %, this ceramic would be made metamict (amorphous) by radiation damage resulting from alpha decay in a time much less than 10,000 years, the actual time depending on the repository temperature as a function of time. Based on previous experimental radiation damage work by others, it seems clear that this process would also result in a bulk volume increase (swelling) of about 6% for ceramic that was mechanically unconfined. For the candidate ceramic, which is made by cold pressing and sintering and has porosity amounting to somewhat more than this amount, it seems likely that this swelling would be accommodated by filling in the porosity, if the material were tightly confined mechanically by the waste package. Some ceramics have been observed to undergo microcracking as a result of radiation-induced anisotropic or differential swelling. It is unlikely that the candidate ceramic will microcrack extensively, for three reasons: (1) its phase composition is dominated by a single matrix mineral phase, pyrochlore, which has a cubic crystal structure and is thus not subject to anisotropic swelling; (2) the proportion of minor phases is small, minimizing potential cracking due to differential swelling; and (3) there is some flexibility in sintering process parameters that will allow limitation of the grain size, which can further limit stresses resulting from either cause.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Van Konynenburg, R.A., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic process equipment for the immobilization of plutonium

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing a ceramic form for immobilizing excess US plutonium. The process used to produce the ceramic form is similar to the fabrication process used in the production of MOX fuel. In producing the ceramic form, the uranium and plutonium oxides are first milled to less than 20 microns. The milled actinide powder then goes through a mixing-blending step where the ceramic precursors, made from a mixture of calcined TiO<sub>2</sub>, Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>, HfO<sub>2</sub> and Gd0<sub>3</sub>, are blended with the milled actinides. A subsequent granulation step ensures that the powder will flow freely into the press and die set. The pressed ceramic material is then sintered. The process parameters for the ceramic fabrication steps to make the ceramic form are less demanding than equivalent processing steps for MOX fuel fabrication. As an example, the pressing pressure for MOX is in excess of 137.0 MPa, whereas the pressing pressure for the ceramic form is only 13.8 MPa. This translates into less die wear for the ceramic material pressing. Similarly, the sintering temperatures and times are also different. MOX is sintered at 1,700°C in 4% H<sub>2</sub> for a 24 hour cycle. The ceramic form is sintered at 1350°C in argon or air for a 15 hour cycle. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is demonstrating this ceramic fabrication process with a series of processing validation steps: first, using cerium as a surrogate for the plutonium and uranium, second, using uranium with thorium as the plutonium surrogate, and third, with plutonium. to this particle size is necessary to ensure essentially complete reaction of the plutonium with the ceramic precursors in subsequent sintering operations. Larger particles will only partially react, leaving islands of plutonium-rich minerals or unreacted plutonium oxide encased in the mineral structure. While this may be acceptable for the desired repository performance, ...
Date: July 24, 1998
Creator: Armantrout, G.; Brummond, W. & Maddux, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

Description: In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.
Date: January 25, 1999
Creator: Borisov, G B; Jardine, L J & Mansourov, O A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

Description: In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Borisov, G B; Jardine, L & Mansourov, O A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Melt and Resolidification of Surface Layers Using Intense, Pulsed Ion Beams Final Report

Description: The emerging technology of pulsed intense ion beams has been shown to lead to improvements in surface characteristics such as hardness and wear resistance, as well as mechanical smoothing. We report hereon the use of this technology to systematically study improvements to three types of metal alloys - aluminum, iron, and titanium. Ion beam tieatment produces a rapid melt and resolidification (RMR) of the surface layer. In the case of a predeposited thin-fihn layer, the beam mixes this layer into the substrate, Ieading to improvements that can exceed those produced by treatment of the alloy alone, In either case, RMR results in both crystal refinement and metastable state formation in the treated surface layer not accessible by conventional alloy production. Although more characterization is needed, we have begun the process of relating these microstructural changes to the surface improvements we discuss in this report.
Date: October 2, 1998
Creator: Renk, Timothy J. Turman, Bob Senft, Donna Sorensen, Neil R. Stinnett, Regan Greenly, John B. Thompson, Michael O. Buchheit, Rudolph G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimates and computations for melting and solidification problems

Description: In this paper we focus on melting and solidification processes described by phase-field models and obtain rigorous estimates for such processes. These estimates are derived in Section 2 and guarantee the convergence of solutions to non-constant equilibrium patterns. The most basic results conclude with the inequality (2.31). The estimates in the remainder of Section 2 illustrate what obtains if the initial data is progressively more regular and may be omitted on first reading. We also present some interesting numerical simulations which demonstrate the equilibrium structures and the approach of the system to non-constant equilibrium patterns. The novel feature of these calculations is the linking of the small parameter in the system, {delta}, to the grid spacing, thereby producing solutions with approximate sharp interfaces. Similar ideas have been used by Caginalp and Sokolovsky [1]. A movie of these simulations may be found at http:www.math.cmu.edu/math/people/greenberg.html.
Date: July 16, 2003
Creator: Greenberg, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Combined Experimental and Computational Approach for the Design of Mold Topography that Leads to Desired Ingot Surface and Microstructure in Aluminum Casting.

Description: A coupled thermomechanical, thermal transport and segregation analysis of aluminum alloys solidifying on uneven surfaces is presented here. Uneven surfaces are modelled as sinusoids with different wavelengths and amplitudes. Effects of various coupling mechanisms between the solid-shell deformation, air-gap formation, heat transfer, fluid flow and segregation, near the mold-metal interface, are observed for different mold topographies during the early stages of solidification of an aluminum alloy. The role of inverse segregation, arising from shrinkage driven flow in the melt, melt superheat and varying mold surface topography on nucleation of air-gaps and evolution of stresses in the solidifying shell is examined. The numerical model consists of a volume-averaged solidification model coupled with a small-deformation model combining elasto-viscoplastic deformation in the solidifying shell with air-gap nucleation and imperfect contact at the metal/mold interface. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface is either contact pressure or air-gap dependent and is modelled using the actual contact pressure or air-gap size obtained from the contact sub-problem at the metal-mold interface. Variation in heat transfer leads to variations in fluid flow, segregation and stresses developing in the solid and mushy-zone, which in turn affect the morphology of the growing solid-shell. A wavelength range that leads to a reduction in equivalent stresses, segregation and growth front morphology unevenness, in the evolving solid-shell, is obtained for varying solute concentrations. One of the main objectives of the current analysis is to seek optimal mold surface topographies that minimize surface defects leading to desired cast surface morphologies.
Date: September 28, 2005
Creator: Dr. Zabaras, N. & Samanta, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department