194 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Combustion of Solid Fuels in Thin Beds

Description: From Introduction: "The investigations described in this report are a continuation and extension of these commercial and pilot-scale tests to include an investigation of the ignition and burning of solid fuels in thin beds, as on traveling - or chain grate stokers and a study of pure crossfeed combustion."
Date: 1957
Creator: Carman, E. P.; Graf, E. G. & Corey, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Binder Enhanced Refuse Derived Fuel

Description: Patent relating to refuse derived fuels and more particularly to binder enhanced refuse derived fuel pellets and utilization of such pellets in solid-fuel fired furnaces.
Date: April 12, 1995
Creator: Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J. & Ohlsson, Oscar O.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures

Description: The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to demonstrate feeding of dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi). This is the Phase III of the ongoing program. Earlier Phases 1 and II successfully demonstrated feeding into pressures up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). The final report for those phases was submitted in April 2005. Based on the previous work done in Phases I & II using Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL, a Phase III feeder system was designed and built to accomplish the target of feeding the coal into a pressure of 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi) and to be capable of feed rates of up to 550 kilograms (1,200lbs) per hour. The drive motor system from Phase II was retained for use on Phase III since projected performance calculations indicated it should be capable of driving the Phase III pump to the target levels. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted on weigh cells in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated to105 kg/cm{sup 2} (1,500psi) to accommodate the final pressure requirement of a proposed Phase IV of the program. A screw conveyor and batch hopper were added to transfer coal at atmospheric pressure from the shop floor up into the test rig to enable continuous feeding up to the capacity of the receiving vessel. Control & monitoring systems were up-rated from the Phase II ...
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Aldred, Derek L. & Saunders, Timothy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

Description: Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Turhollow, A.; Downing, M. & Butler, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-scale biomass plantings in Minnesota: Scale-up and demonstration projects in perspective

Description: Scale-up projects are an important step toward demonstration and commercialization of woody biomass because simply planting extensive acreage of hybrid poplar will not develop markets. Project objectives are to document the cost to plant and establish, and effort needed to monitor and maintain woody biomass on agricultural land. Conversion technologies and alternative end-uses are examined in a larger framework in order to afford researchers and industrial partners information necessary to develop supply and demand on a local or regional scale. Likely to be determined are risk factors of crop failure and differences between establishment of research plots and agricultural scale field work. Production economics are only one consideration in understanding demonstration and scale-up. Others are environmental, marketing, industrial, and agricultural in nature. Markets for energy crops are only beginning to develop. Although information collected as a result of planting up to 5000 acres of hybrid poplar in central Minnesota will not necessarily be transferable to other areas of the country, a national perspective will come from development of regional markets for woody and herbaceous crops. Several feedstocks, with alternative markets in different regions will eventually comprise the entire picture of biofuels feedstock market development. Current projects offer opportunities to learn about the complexity and requirements that will move biomass from research and development to actual market development. These markets may include energy and other end-uses such as fiber.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Kroll, T. & Downing, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Description: The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on ...
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Calo, Joseph; Fletcher, Thomas & Sayre, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NMR imaging and hydrodynamic analysis of neutrally buoyant non-Newtonian slurry flows

Description: The flow of solids loaded suspension in cylindrical pipes has been the object of intense experimental and theoretical investigations in recent years. These types of flows are of great interest in chemical engineering because of their important use in many industrial manufacturing processes. Such flows are for example encountered in the manufacture of solid-rocket propellants, advanced ceramics, reinforced polymer composites, in heterogenous catalytic reactors, and in the pipeline transport of liquid-solids suspensions. In most cases, the suspension microstructure and the degree of solids dispersion greatly affect the final performance of the manufactured product. For example, solid propellant pellets need to be extremely-well dispersed in gel matrices for use as rocket engine solid fuels. The homogeneity of pellet dispersion is critical to allow good uniformity of the burn rate, which in turn affects the final mechanical performance of the engine. Today`s manufacturing of such fuels uses continuous flow processes rather than batch processes. Unfortunately, the hydrodynamics of such flow processes is poorly understood and is difficult to assess because it requires the simultaneous measurements of liquid/solids phase velocities and volume fractions. Due to the recent development in pulsed Fourier Transform NMR imaging, NMR imaging is now becoming a powerful technique for the non intrusive investigation of multi-phase flows. This paper reports and exposes a state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methodology that can be used to study such flows. The hydrodynamic model developed for this study is a two-phase flow shear thinning model with standard constitutive fluid/solids interphase drag and solids compaction stresses. this model shows good agreement with experimental data and the limitations of this model are discussed.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Bouillard, J.X. & Sinton, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

Description: A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M. & Mulligan, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition analysis of a porous energetic material. 2. Ignition at a closed heated end

Description: A continuation of an ignition analysis for porous energetic materials subjected to a constant energy flux is presented. In the first part, the analysis was developed for the case of an open-end, semi-infinite material such that gas flow, generated by thermal expansion, flowed out of the porous solid, thereby removing energy from the system. In the present study, the case of a closed end is considered, and thus the thermally-induced gas flow is now directed into the solid. In these studies, an asymptotic perturbation analysis, based on the smallness of the gas-to-solid density ratio and the largeness of the activation energy, is utilized to describe the inert and transition stages leading to thermal runaway. In both cases it is found that the effects of porosity provide a leading-order reduction in the time to ignition relative to that for the nonporous problem, arising from the reduced amount of solid material that must be heated and the difference in thermal conductivities of the solid and gaseous phases. A correction to the leading-order ignition-delay time, however, is provided by the convective flow of gas through the solid, and the sign of this correction is shown to depend on the direction of the gas flow. Thus, gas flowing out of an open-end solid was previously shown to give a positive correction to the leading-order time to ignition. Here, however, it is demonstrated that when the flow of gas is directed into the porous solid, the relative transport effects associated with the gas flow serve to preheat the material, resulting in a negative correction and hence a decrease in the ignition-delay time.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Telegentor, Alexander M.; Margolis, Stephen B. & Williams, Forman A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory illustrations of the transformations and deposition of inorganic material in biomass boilers

Description: Boilers fired with certain woody biomass fuels have proven to be a viable, reliable means of generating electrical power. The behavior of the inorganic material in the fuels is one of the greatest challenges to burning the large variety of fuels available to biomass combustors. Unmanageable ash deposits and interactions between ash and bed material cause loss in boiler availability and significant increase in maintenance costs. The problems related to the behavior of inorganic material now exceed all other combustion-related challenges in biomass-fired boilers. This paper reviews the mechanisms of ash deposit formation, the relationship between fuel properties and ash deposit properties, and a series of laboratory tests in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor designed to illustrate how fuel type, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions impact ash deposit properties.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Baxter, L.L. & Jenkins, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polymer Aging Techniques Applied to Degradation of a Polyurethane Propellant Binder

Description: The oxidative thermal aging of a crosslinked hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) polyurethane rubber, commonly used as the polymeric binder matrix in solid rocket propellants, was studied at temperatures of RT to 125 C. We investigate changes in tensile elongation, mechanical hardening, polymer network properties, density, O{sub 2} permeation and molecular chain dynamics using a range of techniques including solvent swelling, detailed modulus profiling and NMR relaxation measurements. Using extensive data superposition and highly sensitive oxygen consumption measurements, we critically evaluate the Arrhenius methodology, which normally assumes a linear extrapolation of high temperature aging data. Significant curvature in the Arrhenius diagram of these oxidation rates was observed similar to previous results found for other rubber materials. Preliminary gel/network properties suggest that crosslinking is the dominant process at higher temperatures. We also assess the importance of other constituents such as ammonium perchlorate or aluminum powder in the propellant formulation.
Date: July 27, 1999
Creator: Assink, R.A.; Celina, M.; Graham, A.C. & Minier, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic Testing of Gasifier Refractory

Description: The University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department in conjunction with the UND Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have initiated a program to examine the combined chemical (reaction and phase change) and physical (erosion) effects experienced by refractory materials under slagging coal gasification conditions. The goal of this work is to devise a mechanism of refractory loss under these conditions. The controlled-atmospheric dynamic corrodent application furnace (CADCAF) was utilized to simulate refractory/slag interactions under dynamic conditions that more realistically simulate the environment in a slagging coal gasifier than any of the static tests used previously by refractory manufacturers and researchers. High-alumina and high-chromia refractory bricks were tested using slags obtained from two solid fuel gasifiers. Testing was performed at 1475 C in a reducing atmosphere (2% H{sub 2} in N{sub 2}) The CADCAF tests show that high-chrome refractories have greater corrosion resistance than high-aluminum refractories; coal slag readily diffuses into the refractory through its grain boundaries; the refractory grains are more stable than the matrix in the tests, and the grains are the first line of defense against corrosion; calcium and alkali in the slag are more corrosive than iron; and silicon and calcium penetrate the deepest into the refractory. The results obtained from this study are preliminary and should be combined with result from other research programs. In particular, the refractory corrosion results from this study should be compared with refractories removed from commercial gasifiers.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Mann, Michael D.; Seames, Wayne S.; Shukla, Devdutt; Hong, Xi & Hurley, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

Description: A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.
Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Yoon, R.H. & Luttrell, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures

Description: The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to feed dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). This was to be accomplished in two phases. The first task was to review materials handling experience in pressurized operations as it related to the target pressures for this project, and review existing coal preparation processes and specifications currently used in advanced combustion systems. Samples of existing fuel materials were obtained and tested to evaluate flow, sealing and friction properties. This provided input data for use in the design of the Stamet Feeders for the project, and ensured that the material specification used met the requirements of advanced combustion & gasification systems. Ultimately, Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL was used as the basis for the feeder design and test program. Based on the material property information, a Phase 1 feeder system was designed and built to accomplish feeding the coal to an intermediate pressure up to 21 kg/cm{sup 2} (300 psi) at feed rates of approximately 100 kilograms (220lbs) per hour. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated for the final pressure requirement of 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500psi). A program of testing and modification was carried out in Stamet's facility in CA, culminating in successful feeding of coal into the Phase 1 target of 21 kg/cm{sup 2} (300psi) gas pressure in ...
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Aldred, Derek L. & Saunders, Timothy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

Description: CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation ...
Date: April 20, 2001
Creator: Akers, David J.; Shirey, Glenn A.; Zitron, Zalman & Maney, Charles Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust

Description: Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Daniels, J.I. & Baskett, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

Description: The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burn-up and neutron economy of accelerator-driven reactor

Description: It is desirable to have only a small reactivity change in the large burn-up of a solid fuel fast reactor, so that the number of replacements or shuffling of the fuel can be reduced, and plant factor accordingly increased. Also, this reduces the number of control rods needed for the change in burn-up reactivity. In subcritical operation, power controlled by beam power is suggested, but this practice is not as economical as the use of control rods and makes more careful operation of the accelerator is required due to changes in the wake field. In subcritical operation, even a slightly subcritical one, the safety problems associated with a hard neutron spectrum can be alleviated. Neutron leakage from a flattened core, which is needed for operation of the critical fast reactor can be lessen by using the non flat core which has good neutron economy. For generating nuclear energy, it is essential to have a high neutron economy, although breeding the fuel is not welcomed in the present political climate, as is needed for transmuting long lived fission products. In contrast to the breeder, the accelerator driven reactor can separate the energy production from fuel production and processing. Thus, it is suited for non-proliferation of nuclear material by prohibiting the processing and production of fuel in the unrestricted area so this can be only done in international controlled areas which are restricted and remote.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Takahashi, H.; Yang, W.; An, Y. & Yamazaki, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A rheometer for measuring the material moduli for granular solids. Final report, August 7, 1990--February 6, 1995

Description: A great many industrial processes involve interaction between solids and fluids (i.e. gases or liquids). Combustion, gasification of solid fuels, shales or solid wastes, drying of particles, calcining, particle heating, regenerative heat exchangers, oxidation or reduction of ores, metal surface treatments and catalytic and thermal cracking are some of such processes. Solids and fluids serve different roles and several combinations of solids and fluids can arise in a practical situation. Thus, when considering processes or plants it is necessary to be clear as to the particular purpose served by the fluids and the solids. Heating and drying of solids, for example, involve heat and mass transfer only, whereas combustors, gasifiers etc. have the additional complication of chemical reactions which have to be carried out simultaneously with heat and mass transfer. Again, there are many processes where just the flow of granular particles take place, for example, the flow of food grain, coal or sand particles through bin, silo, hoppers, chutes, conveyor belts, inclined planes etc. In most of these cases, a theoretical modeling of the process requires a complete and thorough understanding of the phenomena involved and constitutive modeling of the constituents along with the usual balance laws. In a process, where both a fluid and a solid constituents are involved, it is essential to model both the constituents such that the models accurately describes the characteristics of the constituent concerned. While there are many different models available for fluids, the models for granular materials lack from an understanding of the material parameters.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Rajagopal, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Description: The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.
Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: Hurt, Robert; Calo, Joseph; Fletcher, Thomas H. & Sayre, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

Description: CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 ...
Date: September 23, 2005
Creator: Shirey, Glenn A. & Akers, David J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION

Description: Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: McDaniel, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for {open_quotes}Production of mild gasification co-products{close_quotes} project

Description: The SGI International Liquids From Coal (LFC) Process is a mild pyrolysis, or mild gasification, treatment that upgrades low-rank coals by removing almost all of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter. The process produces two value-added co-products: a Coal Derived Liquid (CDL) and a solid Process Derived Fuel (PDF). A third co-product, a low-heating-value non-condensible gas, is recirculated and combusted in a commercial sized plant to provide drying and pyrolysis process heat. The LFC Process consists of three basic steps. The first step, drying, involves essentially inert gas convectively raising the coal temperature and removing most of the moisture. The drying temperature is limited to ensure that no hydrocarbon gases evolve, and the flow rate is limited below fluidization levels for most of the coal particles. The second step, pyrolysis, consists of additional inert gas heating that raises the temperature of the dried coal so that more than half of the volatile matter is removed under a controlled temperature history that is characteristic for each particular coal and customer demand. The third step, finishing or conditioning, consists of exposure to a cooling inert gas that quenches the pyrolysis reaction, followed by controlled exposure to oxygen for the purposes of stabilization. The processed solid char is then brought to moisture equilibrium (much less than the parent coal`s equilibrium level), and, if necessary, a dust suppressant is added to the PDF. The PDF co-product is environmentally more attractive than the parent coal because a large fraction of the organic sulfur is removed with the volatile matter, and the heating value of the fuel is increased with a concurrent increase in combustion efficiency. When subjected to appropriate finishing steps, the PDF represents a stable, economically transportable, high-heat-value reactive combustion fuel with stable flame characteristics similar to natural gas.
Date: December 4, 1994
Creator: Horne, D. A. & Castro, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department