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Comparison of 43Sn/43Pb/14Bi Solder and Standard 60Sn/40Pb Solder by Thermocyclic Fatigue Analysis

Description: The thermocyclic fatigue behavior of the low-melting solder 43Sn/43Pb/14Bi has been investigated and compared to that of standard 60Sn/4OPb solder via metallographic analysis (using scanning electron microscopy) and evaluation of the degree of fatigue development (using a fatigue scale as a function of thermocycles). Specimens were subjected to shearing strains imposed by several hundred fatigue thermocycles. Both solder types fatigue by the same microstructural failure mechanism as described by other workers. The mechanism is characterized by a preferential coarsening of the solder joint microstructure at the region of maximum stress concentration where cracks originate.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Calderon, Jose Guadalupe
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Processing Properties of Hard-Particle Reinforced Composite Solders

Description: The microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of various composite solder formulations were investigated. Special interest was given in observing the processing properties, microstructural characteristics, fatigue behavior, tensile strength, and the effect of environmental ageing on the composite solder formulations. The solderability parameters wetting and speed of soldering, reflow temperature, and the thermal stability of the resulting composite solder were also examined.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Calderon, Jose Guadalupe
Partner: UNT Libraries

Soldering of Uranium

Description: One of Its Monograph Series, The Industrial Atom.'' The joining of uranium to uranium has been done successfully using a number of commercial soft solders and fusible alloys. Soldering by using an ultrasonic soldering iron has proved the best method for making sound soldered joints of uranium to uranium and of uranium to other metals, such as stainless steel. Other method of soldering have shown some promise but did not give reliable joints all the time. The soldering characteristics of uranium may best be compared to those of aluminum. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Hanks, G. S.; Doll, D. T.; Taub, J. M. & Brundige, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of organic solderability preservatives on solderability retention of copper after accelerated aging

Description: Organic solderability preservatives (OSP`s) have been used by the electronics industry for some time to maintain the solderability of circuit boards and components. Since solderability affects both manufacturing efficiency and product reliability, there is significant interest in maintaining good solder wettability. There is often a considerable time interval between the initial fabrication of a circuit board or component and its use at the assembly level. Parts are often stored under a variety of conditions, in many cases not well controlled. Solder wettability can deteriorate during storage, especially in harsh environments. This paper describes the ongoing efforts at Sandia National Laboratories to quantify solder watability on bare and aged copper surfaces. Benzotriazole and imidazole were applied to electronic grade copper to retard aging effects on solderability. The coupons were introduced into Sandia`s Facility for Atmospheric Corrosion Testing (FACT) to simulate aging in a typical indoor industrial environment. H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} mixed gas was introduced into the test cell and maintained at 35{degrees}C and 70% relative humidity for test periods of one day to two weeks. The OSP`s generally performed better than bare Cu, although solderability diminished with increasing exposure times.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Hernandez, C.L.; Sorensen, N.R. & Lucero, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of lead-free solders for hybrid microcircuits

Description: Extensive work has been conducted by industry to develop lead-free solders for electronics applications. The driving force behind this effort is pressure to ban or tax the use of lead-bearing solders. There has been further interest to reduce the use of hazardous chemical cleaners. Lead-free soldering and low-residue, ``no clean`` assembly processing are being considered as solutions to these environmental issues. Most of the work has been directed toward commercial and military printed wiring board (PWB) technology, although similar problems confront the hybrid microcircuit (HMC) industry, where the development of lead-free HMC solders is generally lagging. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for designing a variety of critical, high reliability hybrid components for radars. Sandia has consequently initiated a project, as part of its Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing program, to develop low-residue, lead-free soldering for HMCs. This paper discusses the progress of that work.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R. & Robinson, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capillary flow of solder on chemically roughened PWB surfaces

Description: The Center for Solder Science and Technology at Sandia National Laboratories has developed a solderability test for evaluating fundamental solder flow over PWB (printed wiring boards) surface finishes. The work supports a cooperative research and development agreement between Sandia, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), and several industrial partners. An important facet of the effort involved the ``engineering`` of copper surfaces through mechanical and chemical roughening. The roughened topography enhances solder flow, especially over very fine features. In this paper, we describe how etching with different chemical solutions can affect solder flow on a specially designed ball grid array test vehicle (BGATV). The effects of circuit geometry, solution concentration, and etching time are discussed. Surface roughness and solder flow data are presented to support the roughening premise. Noticeable improvements in solder wettability were observed on uniformly etched surfaces having relatively steep peak-to-valley slopes.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Hosking, F.M.; Stevenson, J.O. & Yost, F.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature solder alloys for underhood applications. Progress report

Description: Under a cooperative research and development agreement with General Motors Corporation, lead-free solder systems including the flux, metallization, and solder are being developed for high temperature, underhood applications. Six tin-rich solders, five silver-rich metallizations, and four fluxes were screened using an experimental matrix whereby every combination was used to make sessile drops via hot plate or Heller oven processing. The contact angle, sessile drop appearance, and in some instances the microstructure was evaluated to determine combinations that would yield contact angles of less than 30{degrees}, well-formed sessile drops, and fine, uniform microstructures. Four solders, one metallization, and one flux were selected and will be used for further aging and mechanical property studies.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Drewien, C.A.; Yost, F.G.; Sackinger, S.; Kern, J. & Weiser, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of process parameters on gold elimination from soldered connector assemblies

Description: Minimizing the likelihood of solder joint embrittlement in connectors is realized by reducing or eliminating retained Au plating and/or Au-Sn intermetallic compound formation from the assemblies. Gold removal is performed most effectively by using a double wicking process. When only a single wicking procedure can be used, a higher soldering temperature improves the process of Au removal from the connector surfaces and to a nominal extent, removal of Au-contaminated solder from the joint. A longer soldering time did not appear to offer any appreciable improvement toward removing the Au-contaminated solder from the joint. Because the wicking procedure was a manual process, it was operator dependent.
Date: February 2, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spreading of Sn-Ag solders on FeNi alloys

Description: The spreading of Sn-3Ag-xBi solders on Fe-42Ni has been studied using a drop transfer setup. Initial spreading velocities as fast as {approx}0.5 m/s have been recorded. The results are consistent with a liquid front moving on a metastable, flat, unreacted substrate and can be described by using a modified molecular-kinetic model for which the rate controlling step is the movement of one atom from the liquid to the surface of the solid substrate. Although the phase diagram predicts the formation of two Fe-Sn intermetallics at the solder/substrate interface in samples heated at temperatures lower than 513 C, after spreading at 250 C only a thin FeSn reaction layer could be observed. Two interfacial layers (FeSn and FeSn2) were found after spreading at 450 C.
Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Saiz, Eduardo; Hwang, C-W.; Suganuma, Katsuaki & Tomsia, Antoni P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

Description: The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.
Date: February 5, 2002
Creator: Makhlouf, Makhlouf M. & Apelian, Diran
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of Experiments to Determine Causes of Flex Cable Solder Wicking, Discoloration and Hole Location Defects

Description: Design of Experiments (DoE) were developed and performed in an effort to discover and resolve the causes of three different manufacturing issues; large panel voids after Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL), cable hole locations out of tolerance after lamination and delamination/solder wicking around flat flex cable circuit lands after HASL. Results from a first DoE indicated large panel voids could be eliminated by removing the pre-HASL cleaning. It also revealed eliminating the pre-HASL bake would not be detrimental when using a hard press pad lamination stackup. A second DoE indicated a reduction in hard press pad stackup lamination pressure reduced panel stretch in the y axis approximately 70%. A third DoE illustrated increasing the pre-HASL bake temperature could reduce delamination/solder wicking when using a soft press pad lamination stackup.
Date: April 22, 2009
Creator: Wolfe, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solderability Study of Tin/Lead Alloy Under Steam-Aging Treatment by Electrochemical Reduction Analysis and Wetting Balance Tests

Description: Two types of solder samples, pins and through-holes were tested by SERA™ (Sequential Electrochemical Reduction Analysis) and Wetting Balance after various length of steamaging treatment. It was shown that after steam-aging, both types of specimen gave a similar electrochemical reduction curve, and solderabilty predictions made from SERA™ test agree with results obtained from Wetting Balance test on a qualitative base. Wetting balance test of pin samples after SERA™ test confirmed that SERA™ is a non-destructive testing method -- it even restored solderability. Comparison of electrochemical reduction behavior of samples under different treatment indicates that steam-aging can not reproduce exactly the effect of naturally atmospheric aging, and may not be the best artificial accelerating environment adopted.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Gao, Yang, 1966-
Partner: UNT Libraries