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Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

Description: This paper describes the research and development program at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Jorgensen, G.; Williams, T. & Wendelin, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a System using CPC Collectors to Collect Solar Energy and to Produce Industrial Process Steam

Description: A system has been designed to use CPC collectors to collect solar energy and to generate steam for industrial process heat purposes. The system is divided into two loops with the collectors in the collector loop to operate a pre-heater and the collectors in the boiler loop to heat water to elevated pressures and temperatures. A flash boiler is used to throttle the heated water to steam. Two types of CPC collectors are chosen. In the collector loop the CPC collectors are fitted with concentric tube receivers. In the boiler loop the collectors employ heat pipes to transmit heat. This design is able to alleviate the scaling and plumbing problems. A fragile receiver tube can also be employed without rupture difficulties. The thermal processes in the collectors were analyzed using a computer modeling. The results were also used to develop a thermodynamic analysis of the total system. Calculations show that the design is technically feasible. The CPC collector is shown to have an efficiency that is very weakly dependent on its operating temperatures, which makes the collector particularly attractive in high temperature applications.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Solar Energy Group.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic Panels

Description: The main objective of the Bexar County Parking Garage Photovoltaic (PV) Panel project is to install a PV System that will promote the use of renewable energy. This project will also help sustain Bexar County ongoing greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy efficiency goals. The scope of this project includes the installation of a 100-kW system on the top level of a new 236,285 square feet parking garage. The PV system consists of 420 solar panels that covers 7,200 square feet and is tied into the electric-grid. It provides electricity to the office area located within the garage. The estimated annual electricity production of the PV system is 147,000 kWh per year.
Date: January 23, 2012
Creator: Weir, Golda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

Description: DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.
Date: January 1, 2011
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bonded Bracket Assmebly for Frameless Solar Panels

Description: In February 2011 the US Department of Energy announced their new Sunshot Initiative. The Sunshot goal is to reduce the total cost of solar energy systems by about 75 percent before the end of the decade. The DOE estimated that a total installed cost of $1 per watt for photovoltaic systems would be equivalent to 6¢/kilowatt hour (kWh) for energy available from the grid. The DOE also estimated that to meet the $1 per watt goal, PV module costs would need to be reduced to $.50 per watt, balance of systems costs would need to be reduced to $.40 per watt, and power electronic costs would need to reach $.10 per watt. To address the BOS balance of systems cost component of the $1 per watt goal, the DOE announced a funding opportunity called (BOS-X) Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reductions. The DOE identified eight areas within the total BOS costs: 1) installation labor, 2) installation materials, 3) installation overhead and profit, 4) tracker, 5) permitting and commissioning, 6) site preparation, 7) land acquisition, 8) sales tax. The BOS-X funding announcement requested applications in four specific topics: Topic 1: Transformational Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Modules Topic 2: Roof and Ground Mount Innovations Topic 3: Transformational Photovoltaic System Designs Topic 4: Development of New Wind Load Codes for PV Systems The application submitted by ARaymond Tinnerman reflected the requirements listed in Topic #2, Roof and Ground Mount Innovations. The goal of topic #2 was to develop technologies that would result in the extreme reduction of material and labor costs associated with applications that require physical connections and attachments to roof and ground mount structures. The topics researched in this project included component cost reduction, labor reduction, weight reduction, wiring innovations, and alternative material utilization. The project objectives included: 1) The ...
Date: January 30, 2013
Creator: Murray, Todd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services

Description: With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V. & Guo, Xinxin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar Energy of the North

Description: The concept of this project was to design a solar array that would not only provide electricity for the major classroom building of the campus but would also utilize that electricity to enhance the learning environment. It was also understood that the project would be a research and data gathering project.
Date: January 12, 2012
Creator: Finance, Davis St. Peter Director of Faclities ( retired) Charles Bonin Vice President of Administration &
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nano-composite Structures for OPV Devices

Description: Improved material for use in organic photovoltaics (OPV) devices, also called polymer-solar cells (PSC), has been developed. Increased ordering of the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells has been achieved by the use of inert silica spheres in conjunction with suitable fullerene derivatives. Silica spheres with average diameters between 10 and 15 nm, consistent with the exciton diffusion length in the active layer, have been added. The potential for significantly improved device performance due to a higher degree of photon absorption, enabled by increased light scattering, and a maximized interface between electron donor and acceptor, ensuring efficient exciton dissociation, has been demonstrated. A method allowing for the covalent attachment of fullerene derivatives to the silica sphere surface has been developed.
Date: November 23, 2010
Creator: Richter, Henning
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Strategies to Improve Heliostat Tracking at Solar Two

Description: This paper investigates dhlerent strategies that can be used to improve the tracking accuracy of heliostats at Solar Two. The different strategies are analyzed using a geometrical error model to determine their performance over the course of a day. By using the performance of heliostats in representative locations of the field aad on representative days of the year, an estimate of the annual performance of each strategy is presented.
Date: January 14, 1999
Creator: Jones, S. A. & Stone, K. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Side-by-Side Comparisons of Evacuated Compound Parabolic Concentrator and Flat Plate Solar Collector Systems

Description: Three liquid-based solar heating systems employing different types of solar collectors were tested side by side near Chicago, Illinois for one year. The three different types of collectors were: (1) a flat plate collector with a black-chrome coated absorber plate and one low-iron glass cover; (2) an evacuated-tube compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with a concentration ratio of 1.1, oriented with tubes and troughs along a north-south axis; and (3) an evacuated-tube CPC collector with a concentration ratio of 1.3 and one low-iron glass cover, with tubes and troughs oriented along an east-west axis. Results indicate that the flat plate collector system was the most efficient during warm weather, but the CPC systems were more efficient during cold weather, but the CPC systems were more efficient during cold weather, and the CPC systems operated under conditions too adverse for the flat plate collector. The computer simulation model ANSIM was validated by means of the side-by-side tests. The model uses analytical solutions to the storage energy balance. ANSIM is compared with the general simulation TRNSYS.
Date: October 1983
Creator: McGarity, Arthur E.; Allen, John W. & Schertz, William W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NREL North American Solar Radiation Atlas (Presentation)

Description: This presentation is about NREL's North American Solar Radiation Atlas, which currently includes 48 states (Alaska and Hawaii to be added in the future). It discusses the goals of the Atlas which are to: deliver basic solar performance estimates to general users, deliver a wide variety of additional information to more advanced users, be easy to use, full featured, and extensible.
Date: April 1, 2001
Creator: George, R & Gray-Hann, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997

Description: In 1987, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a five-year Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development (R and D), which has been extended to 2000. Tasks include: (1) upgrade solar radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia; (2) assemble a database of concurrent solar radiation, satellite (METEOSAT), and meteorological data; (3) adapt NREL models and other software for Saudi Arabia; (4) develop procedures, algorithms, and software to estimate solar irradiance; and (5) prepare a grid of solar radiation data for preparing maps and atlases and estimating solar radiation resources and solar energy system performances at locations in Saudi Arabia.
Date: August 20, 1999
Creator: Al-Amoudi, Anmed; Alawaji, Saleh H.; Cornwall, Chris; Mahfoodh, Mohammed bin; Marion, Bill; Maxwell, Eugene L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)

Description: The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.
Date: January 1, 2014
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department