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Northward Market Extension for Passive Solar Water Heaters by Using Pipe Freeze Protection with Freeze-Tolerant Piping: Preprint

Description: Conference paper regarding research in freeze-protection methods that could extend market acceptance for passive solar domestic water heating systems in more northern climates if the U.S.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M. & Krarti, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on Solar Pool Heating Quantitative Survey

Description: This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar pool-heating systems from the perspective of residential pool owners.
Date: May 6, 1999
Creator: Synapse Infusion Group, Inc. (Westlake Village, California)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

Description: This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Cassard, H.; Denholm, P. & Ong, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

Description: This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Huggins, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, December 1994--January 1995

Description: This progress report summarizes activities, experiments, and testing performed on a variety of solar heating and cooling systems in conjunction with four technical research tasks. Areas of focus include: Unique solar system components; Rating and certification of domestic water heating systems; and, Advanced residential solar domestic hot water systems.
Date: March 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immersible solar heater for fluids

Description: An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Hazen, T.C. & Fliermans, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

Description: This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.
Date: August 18, 1999
Creator: Corporation, Symmetrics Marketing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of a solar domestic hot water demand-side management program on an electric utility and its customers

Description: A methodology to assess the economic and environmental impacts of a large scale implementation of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems is developed. Energy, emission and demand reductions and their respective savings are quantified. It is shown that, on average, an SDHW system provides an energy reduction of about 3200 kWH, avoided emissions of about 2 tons and a capacity contribution of 0.7 kW to a typical Wisconsin utility that installs 5000 SDHW system. The annual savings from these reductions to utility is {dollar_sign}385,000, providing a return on an investment of over 20{percent}. It is shown that, on average, a consumer will save {dollar_sign}211 annually in hot water heating bills. 8 refs., 7 figs.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Trzeniewski, J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A. & Beckman, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility solar water heating workshops

Description: The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Barrett, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

Description: The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C. & Milbourne, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

P50/P90 Analysis for Solar Energy Systems Using the System Advisor Model: Preprint

Description: To secure competitive financing for a solar energy generation project, the economic risk associated with interannual solar resource variability must be quantified. One way to quantify this risk is to calculate exceedance probabilities representing the amount of energy expected to be produced by a plant. Many years of solar radiation and metereological data are required to determine these values, often called P50 or P90 values for the level of certainty they represent. This paper describes the two methods implemented in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM) to calculate P50 and P90 exceedance probabilities for solar energy projects. The methodology and supporting data sets are applicable to photovoltaic, solar water heating, and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P. & Kasberg, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department