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Design and Installation Manual for Thermal Energy Storage, Second Edition

Description: The second addition is a substantial revision of the original work. A new chapter on latent heat storage, an appendix on units and conversions, and an index have been added. The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Nield, Kenneth J.; Rohde, Raymond R. & Wolosewicz, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Installation Manual for Thermal Energy Storage

Description: The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating system, and stand-alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.
Date: February 1979
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Nield, Kenneth J.; Rohde, Raymond R. & Wolosewicz, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipe burst problems :Vasquez residence system inspection.

Description: This report documents the investigation regarding the failure of CPVC piping that was used to connect a solar hot water system to standard plumbing in a home. Details of the failure are described along with numerous pictures and diagrams. A potential failure mechanism is described and recommendations are outlined to prevent such a failure.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Black, Billy D.; Menicucci, David F. & Harrison, John (Florida Solar Energy Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar ventilation preheating

Description: The sun`s energy can be used to warm outside fresh air before it enters a building`s ventilation system; the outside air is warmed as it flows through tiny holes in a dark-colored, south-facing wall, and additional heating is supplied by the building`s heating system. The systems have efficiencies on the order of 75% and have other advantages as well. Opportunities for their application, requirements, and cost are described in this information sheet. Important terms are defined.
Date: May 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program support for Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch

Description: The technical monitoring of 16 DOE research and development projects in the solar controls and passive cooling areas is reviewed. Two of these projects have been concluded and the remainder are now in their final stages of completion. A second major task to provide assistance in program planning included the preparation and review of several program element plans, participation at planning meetings and workshops, preparation of energy displacement projections, and a variety of supplementary administrative tasks. The review of unsolicited proposals was provided on a continuing basis and aid was supplied in the preparation and evaluation of PRDA and RFP solicitations as required by DOE headquarters.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Martin, M. & Wahlig, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eighth national passive solar conference. Final report

Description: The Eighth National Passive Solar Conference was held near Santa Fe, New Mexico at the Glorieta Conference Center on September 5 to 11, 1983. Nearly 900 people from all across the nation and the world attended the conference. Close to 200 technical papers were presented, 50 solar product exhibits were available; 34 poster sessions were presented; 16 solar workshops were conducted; 10 renowned solar individuals participated in rendezvous sessions; 7 major addresses were delivered; 5 solar home tours were conducted; 2 emerging architecture sessions were held which included 21 separate presentations; and commercial product presentations were given for the first time ever at a national passive solar conference. Peter van Dresser of Santa Fe received the prestigious Passive Solar Pioneer Award, posthumously, from the American Solar Energy Society and Benjamin T. Buck Rogers of Embudo received the prestigious Peter van Dresser Award from the New Mexico Solar Energy Association. This report reviews conference organization, attendance, finances, conference evaluation form results, and includes press coverage samples, selected conference photos courtesy of Marshall Tyler, and a summary with recommendations for future conferences. The Appendices included conference press releases and a report by the New Mexico Solar Industry Development Corporation on exhibits management.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Owen, A. & Zee, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of passive solar buildings

Description: The use of simulation analyses as both a design and an evaluation tool is discussed. The reasons and techniques of simulation analysis are described and various possibilities discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

Description: The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC variables are created for the new fields.
Date: January 9, 2012
Creator: Troyan, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using RPS Policies to Grow the Solar Market in the United States

Description: The market for photovoltaics in the United States remains small relative to the nation's solar resource potential. Nonetheless, annual grid-connected PV installations have grown from just 4 MW in 2000 to over 100 MW in 2006, fast enough to the catch the attention of the global solar industry. The state of California deserves much of the credit for this growth. The State's historical rebate programs resulted in roughly 75% of the nation's grid-connected PV additions from 2000 through 2006 being located in California, and the $3 billion California Solar Initiative will ensure that the State remains a mainstay of the US solar industry for years to come. But California is not the only market for solar in the US; other states have recently developed policies that may rival those of the western state in terms of future growth potential. In particular, 25 states, as well as Washington, D.C., have established renewables portfolio standards (RPS), sometimes called quota systems in Europe, requiring electricity suppliers in those states to source a minimum portion of their need from renewable electricity. (Because a national RPS is not yet in place, my focus here is on state policies). Under many of these state policies, solar is not expected to fare particularly well: PV installations simply cannot compete on cost or scale with large wind plants in the US, at least not yet. In response, an expanding list of states have established solar or distributed generation (DG) set-asides within their RPS policies, effectively requiring that some fraction of RPS-driven supply derive from solar energy. The popularity of set-asides for solar and/or DG has increased dramatically in recent years. Already, 11 states and D.C. have developed such RPS set-asides. These include states with outstanding solar resources, such as Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, as well as ...
Date: November 20, 2007
Creator: Wiser, Ryan H & Wiser, Ryan H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on solar heating and cooling. Technical status progress report, March 1996--April 1996

Description: The University of Wisconsin Solar Energy Laboratory is supported by the Department of Energy for the period of April 1995 through March 1996. The grant covers 10 objectives, some of which started in September 1995. Most of the objectives are being worked on as student MS or PhD theses and they form the basis of this report. The students working on some of these projects are not being supported by DOE and are so indicated. A number of additional projects that were not in the grant proposal (and thus are not funded by this DOE Grant), are important to the US solar program, and therefore are included here. Some of the topics discussed in this report are: solar photovoltaic hot water systems; solar heat pump water heating systems; and development of computer simulation model for solar energy systems.
Date: August 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Outlook for renewable energy technologies: Assessment of international programs and policies

Description: The report presents an evaluation of worldwide research efforts in three specific renewable energy technologies, with a view towards future United States (US) energy security, environmental factors, and industrial competitiveness. The overall energy technology priorities of foreign governments and industry leaders, as well as the motivating factors for these priorities, are identified and evaluated from both technological and policy perspectives. The specific technologies of interest are wind, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaics (PV). These program areas, as well as the overall energy policies of Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), Japan, Russia, and the European Community as a whole are described. The present and likely future picture for worldwide technological leadership in these technologies-is portrayed. The report is meant to help in forecasting challenges to US preeminence in the various technology areas, particularly over the next ten years, and to help guide US policy-makers as they try to identify specific actions which would help to retain and/or expand the US leadership position.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Branstetter, L.J.; Vidal, R.C.; Bruch, V.L. & Zurn, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar heat gain coefficient of complex fenestrations with a venetian blind for differing slat tilt angles

Description: Measured bidirectional transmittances and reflectances of a buff-colored venetian blind together with a layer calculation scheme developed in previous publications are utilized to produce directional-hemispherical properties for the venetian blind layer and solar heat gain coefficients for the blind in combination with clear double glazing. Results are presented for three blind slat tilt angles and for the blind mounted either interior to the double glazing or between the glass panes. Implications of the results for solar heat gain calculations are discussed in the context of sun positions for St. Louis, MO.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Klems, J. H. & Warner, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calorimetric measurements of inward-flowing fraction for complex glazing and shading systems

Description: This paper presents a calorimetric measurement of layer-specific inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy for a number of geometric configurations common in fenestrations with shading. The inward-flowing fractions are found to be relatively insensitive to exterior conditions. Results for an interior venetian blind over double glazing agree with thermal model calculations in literature, and are the first layer-specific verification of these calculations. It is argued that a data base of these inward-flowing fractions for a suitably broad class of geometries will make possible the determination of solar heat gain coefficient from noncalorimetric measurements of solar-optical properties of complex fenestration components, a procedure termed solar-thermal separation.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Klems, J.H. & Kelley, G.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne Solar Energy Program Annual Report: 1978

Description: Annual report of the Solar Energy Program describing work in solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, satellite power systems, bioconversion, central receiver solar thermal power, and wind energy conversion.
Date: February 1979
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Solar District-Heating System Using Seasonal Storage for the Charlestown, Boston Navy Yard Redevelopment Project

Description: A preliminary analysis is presented for a seasonal storage solar heating system for the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston, Massachusetts. The area occupies a prominent location in the Boston Harbor and is being redeveloped for residential and commercial use. The system makes use of two large, buried concrete storage tanks totaling 5700 cubic meters as a water heat store. Other storage facilities, including a dry dock, offer additional solar opportunities for the navy Yard as the redevelopment progresses. The analysis makes extensive use of MINSUN, a computer performance and economic simulation routine written specifically for solar seasonal storage systems. The system performance and economics are analyzed for different collector types and areas, component costs, exogenous economic conditions, and optional inclusion of a heat pump. System cost-effectiveness is defined in relation to an economic break-even situation with respect to a conventional system, and is presented in terms of a solar premium, which is the incremental cost for the solar system per MWH of conventional fuel displaced. The additional analysis and design considerations necessary before an implementation phase are outlined. System implementation is discussed in terms of the roles of the various parties involved and funding/financing possibilities.
Date: September 1982
Creator: Breger, Dwayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural Thermal Stratification in Tanks : Phase 1 Final Report

Description: This report describes how solar system tanks fail to stratify, a new solar system control strategy that allows stratification, a one-dimensional analytical model of thermally stratified tanks, experimental measurement of thermal stratification in tanks, correlation of experimental measurements with empirical constants in the analytical model, and a procedure for designing thermally stratified tanks. Failure to stratify is explained in terms of the critical Richardson number. The key to the new control strategy is to avoid a Richardson number that decreases during solar collection. The analytical model is an approximate solution based on assumptions that (1) the solution is a function of elevation and time, only, (2) plug flow exists, (3) flow rate is constant, (4) the cross-sectional areas of the tank and tank wall are constant, (5) there is a step change of inlet temperature, (6) there is heat transfer between the tank wall and the water, and (7) thermal losses from the tank are negligible. Empirical constants in the theory are determined by adjusting them until the best least-squares fit with experimental data is obtained and correlating the constants with the Fourier and Richardson numbers. The new control strategy allows tanks to stratify and reduces the average collector operating temperature by as much as 20/sup 0/C. The result is up to 20% improvement in system performance. The analytical model and correlation of its empirical constants allow system designers to select from several alternatives the tank configuration that provides the best stratification.
Date: February 1982
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn & Bellinger, F. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seasonal-Storage Solar-Energy Heating System for the Charlestown, Boston Navy Yard National Historic Park

Description: This Phase II study provides further analysis for a seasonal-storage solar-heating system utilizing two existing underground, concrete tanks in the National Historic Park of the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. The initial Phase I study was reported in ANL-82-90. The new results focus on the effect of including a heat pump in the system to extend the useful heat-storage capacity of the tanks. The analysis was performed with MINSUN Version III, a computer simulation model written particularly for seasonal storage systems. Input parameters were derived in Phase I and reviewed and updated for this study. Three collector types were studied with and without a heat pump. Results indicate a definite performance and economic improvement for all collector types by including the heat pump. Flat plate collectors showed substantially greater improvement due to their more pronounced increase in efficiency at the lower inlet temperatures. With the heat pump, all three collectors provide comparable performance, and the flat plates were chosen as the design system due to their lower cost. A design system of 2300 meters sq. flat plate collectors with heat pump was selected. The system provides a solar fraction of 50% for the 2167 MWH annual heat load. The annualized cost of the solar energy supplied is $66.60/MWH which is competitive with the conventional heating alternative for a conventional heating cost of $0.05/kWh. Considerations regarding the implementation and financing of this project are also discussed.
Date: June 1983
Creator: Breger, Dwayne & Michaels, Allan I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department