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Program support for Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch

Description: The technical monitoring of 16 DOE research and development projects in the solar controls and passive cooling areas is reviewed. Two of these projects have been concluded and the remainder are now in their final stages of completion. A second major task to provide assistance in program planning included the preparation and review of several program element plans, participation at planning meetings and workshops, preparation of energy displacement projections, and a variety of supplementary administrative tasks. The review of unsolicited proposals was provided on a continuing basis and aid was supplied in the preparation and evaluation of PRDA and RFP solicitations as required by DOE headquarters.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Martin, M. & Wahlig, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eighth national passive solar conference. Final report

Description: The Eighth National Passive Solar Conference was held near Santa Fe, New Mexico at the Glorieta Conference Center on September 5 to 11, 1983. Nearly 900 people from all across the nation and the world attended the conference. Close to 200 technical papers were presented, 50 solar product exhibits were available; 34 poster sessions were presented; 16 solar workshops were conducted; 10 renowned solar individuals participated in rendezvous sessions; 7 major addresses were delivered; 5 solar home tours were conducted; 2 emerging architecture sessions were held which included 21 separate presentations; and commercial product presentations were given for the first time ever at a national passive solar conference. Peter van Dresser of Santa Fe received the prestigious Passive Solar Pioneer Award, posthumously, from the American Solar Energy Society and Benjamin T. Buck Rogers of Embudo received the prestigious Peter van Dresser Award from the New Mexico Solar Energy Association. This report reviews conference organization, attendance, finances, conference evaluation form results, and includes press coverage samples, selected conference photos courtesy of Marshall Tyler, and a summary with recommendations for future conferences. The Appendices included conference press releases and a report by the New Mexico Solar Industry Development Corporation on exhibits management.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Owen, A. & Zee, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of passive solar buildings

Description: The use of simulation analyses as both a design and an evaluation tool is discussed. The reasons and techniques of simulation analysis are described and various possibilities discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options

Description: An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S. & Roach, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Communication strategy to commercialize passive solar energy

Description: Although certain technical and economic issues remain to be clarified, passive solar market development is increasingly dependent upon communications such as information dissemination, education, training and promotional activities. Target audiences are identified as both recipients and disseminators of passive solar communications. Form and quality of information are discussed in terms of the stages of an innovation adoption decision-making process. Several communication-related barriers which impede the commercialization of passive solar are discussed and general information and education responses are suggested. The paper ends with a statement of precepts which should guide passive solar communication programs.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wolcott, D. R. & Shoemaker, F. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance estimation using correlation methods

Description: Correlation methods of prediction have advantages in greatly simplifying the time and complexity of performance predictions of passive solar buildings but are severely constrained in the number of variables which can be considered. Their accuracy is generally adequate for design purposes provided they are applied to buildings which correspond reasonably closely to the reference designs used in developing the correlations. The most simplified correlation procedures (such as the SLR method) are amenable to use with hand calculators, especially if pre-calculated tables are available corresponding to the weather data for the location of interest. When reporting the results of these calculations, the designer should be especially careful to specify the range of validity of the analysis, especially as pertains to both operating characteristics and design parameters. Correlation techniques are especially amenable to use in microcomputer routines which can be used in a design office. Very quick answers can be obtained during the schematic design and design development phases of a building to aid in deciding between different design options. This would include trade-offs between various conservation options and passive solar options.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling-load implications for residential passive-solar-heating systems

Description: Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Jones, R.W. & McFarland, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of the art in passive solar heating

Description: The state of the art is outlined according to four major categories: passive solar practice, evaluation, design air, and products and materials. Needed future research activities and joint industry/government activities are listed. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

Description: A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive-solar design manual for the United States Navy

Description: A passive solar design manual for single-family detached residences and dormitory-type buildings is being developed. The design procedure employed in the manual is a simplification of the original monthly solar load ratio (SLR) method. The new SLR correlations involve a single constant for each system. The correlation constant appears as a scale factor permitting the use of a universal performance curve for all passive systems. Furthermore, by providing location-dependent correlations between the annual solar heating fraction (SHF)* and the minimum monthly SHF, we have eliminated the need to perform an SLR calculation for each month of the heating season.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Wray, W.O.; Biehl, F.A.; Kosiewicz, C.R. & Miles, C.R. Durlak, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive solar calculation methods. Final report

Description: An analytical treatment related to the generation of space specific weighting factors is presented using a recursion relationship which employs a heat balance of both the outside and inside surface. After which the multizone problem is discussed, the analysis of which is facilitated through the use of the calculated weighting factors. The use of frequency domain methods is detailed such that the amplitude ratio and phase shift characteristics for a sinusoidal excitation are derived for the thermal load resulting from radiation heat gain/loss and space air temperature fluctuations. The results of a parametric study related to variable floor properties, radiation distributions and space sizes are presented. The weighting factors generated for each perturbation were used to define the expected differences in space response characteristics. Additional studies made using methods available for use in calculating thermal loads without the program peculiar aspects inherent in the first comparison. The Appendix, in addition to containing the tabulated results of the parametric study, also includes a specific discussion for each of the tasks outlined within the statement of work.
Date: June 15, 1979
Creator: Cumali, Z.O.; Sezgen, A.O. & Sullivan, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar atrium: a hybrid solar heating and cooling system. Technical progress report No. 6, December 19, 1978-March 19, 1979

Description: A program of applied research is described for the design, construction and monitoring of an innovative concept of solar heating and cooling called solar atrium adaptable to residences and smaller commercial and institutional buildings. It is designed to be constructed of materials and equipment that are economical and readily available. Progress on construction is reported. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Ueland, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modifications to the FCHART/SLR version 2. 0 program

Description: A number of errors have been detected in the FCHART/SLR computer code as it pertains to the thermal performance of passive solar energy systems. Along with minor coding changes, major revisions in the code have been made to improve the computer models used to predict the effects of overhangs on incident solar radiation and the radiation absorbed in attached sunspaces. Modifications to the code were also made to improve the handling of mullions and to reduce the effort required to describe the placement of overhangs. The theoretical basis of these changes, along with the associated alterations to the code, are given. For the cases examined, the program as modified now agrees to within 15% of published LANL passive system performance correlations. This new code has been designated as Version 2.1 and is presently operational at SSEC.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Hill, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings

Description: A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Wray, W.O. & Best, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summer-heat-gain control in passive-solar-heated buildings: fixed horizontal overhangs

Description: An aspect of passive cooling relates to cooling load reduction by the use of solar controls. When there is a substantial winter heating requirement, and when the winter heating needs are met in part by a passive solar heating system, then the potential aggravation of summer cooling loads by the heating system is an important design issue. A traditional solution is the use of a fixed, horizontal shading overhang. An approach to quantitative design rules for the sizing of a shading overhang to minimize total annual space conditioning energy needs is outlined.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Jones, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive solar heating for buildings

Description: A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. A survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the U.S., is provided. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Additional solar/load ratio correlations for direct gain buildings

Description: Solar/load ratio (SLR) correlations have been developed for two new reference direct gain designs. The new reference designs are identical to the originals except that the glazing air gap has been increased from 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. and a vector average of the local hourly windspeed was used in the thermal network calculations rather than an assumed average value of 15 m.p.h. Both of these modifications are realistic and enhance the predicted performance of direct gain buildings. A comprehensive set of mass sensitivity calculations has been performed in order to provide information needed to select an appropriate set of parameters for new lightweight direct gain designs for which additional SLR correlations will be developed. Representative results are reported.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Wray, W.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive-Solar-Heating Analysis: a new ASHRAE manual

Description: The forthcoming ASHRAE book, Passive Solar Heating Analysis, is described. ASHRAE approval procedures are discussed. An overview of the contents is given. The development of the solar load ratio correlations is described, and the applicability of the analysis method is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive retrofits for Navy housing

Description: A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Hibbert, R.; Miles, C.; Jones, R.; Peck, C.; Anderson, J.; Jacobson, V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of the art in passive solar heating and cooling

Description: Progress since the Albuquerque Passive Conference is discussed in terms of the major design approaches in buildings actually being constructed. Advantages and problem areas of each are described. Major areas where further work is needed are presented in detail.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling load estimation methods

Description: Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: McFarland, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of simplified design aids based on the results of simulation analysis

Description: The Solar Load Ratio method for estimating the performance of passive solar heating systems is described. It is a simplified technique which is based on correlating the monthly solar savings fraction in terms of the ratio of monthly solar radiation absorbed by the building to total monthly building thermal load. The effect of differences between actual design parameters and those used to develop the correlations is estimated afterwards using sensitivity curves. The technique is fast and simple and sufficiently accurate for design purposes.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance simulation and prediction

Description: Computational procedures useful during the passive solar design process are discussed. Analysis tools are described suitable for each of the three phases of design: rules of thumb for the concept development phase, quick-and-dirty techniques for the design development phase, and the monthly solar load ratio method for the final design phase. Issues are discussed regarding the role of simulation analysis during the design process.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation methods

Description: Correlation methods have been developed to provide a quick and relatively simple technique for estimating the performance of passive solar systems. The correlations are done with respect to data generated from simulation models. The techniques and accuracies are described. Both the Solar Load Ratio and Un-Utilizability methods are described. The advantages and limitations of correlation methods as design tools are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department