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Solar Energy of the North

Description: The concept of this project was to design a solar array that would not only provide electricity for the major classroom building of the campus but would also utilize that electricity to enhance the learning environment. It was also understood that the project would be a research and data gathering project.
Date: January 12, 2012
Creator: Finance, Davis St. Peter Director of Faclities ( retired) Charles Bonin Vice President of Administration &
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

Description: State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

Description: The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC’s web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.
Date: September 10, 2011
Creator: Weissman, Jane M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

Description: Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV’s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based ...
Date: June 11, 2012
Creator: Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

Description: The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.
Date: September 26, 2013
Creator: Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L & Pitchumani, Ranga
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Development of Interconnection Standards in Six States In 2007-2008

Description: This paper discusses the process of developing standards for the interconnection of photovoltaic systems and other generators under ten megawatts to the electric grid. State utility commission rulemakings in 2007-2008 in Florida, New Mexico, North Carolina, Maryland, Illinois and Utah provide the basis for analysis of what is and should be considered in the development of standards, and how the process can be improved. State interconnection standards vary substantially, and many utilities have discretion to establish additional or different requirements, creating literally hundreds of sets of rules. This lack of uniformity imposes a significant cost on project developers and installers to track and comply with applicable rules. As well, burdensome provisions and uncertain costs and timelines present formidable barriers to entry, which advocates have limited resources to challenge. For a better process, the author proposes: establishing federal standards as a baseline, involving solar advocates, and developing a utility cost-recovery mechanism.
Date: April 1, 2008
Creator: Keyes, Jason B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Funding Solar Projects at Federal Agencies: Mechanisms and Selection Criteria (Brochure)

Description: Implementing solar energy projects at federal facilities is a process. The project planning phase of the process includes determining goals, building a team, determining site feasibility and selecting the appropriate project funding tool. This fact sheet gives practical guidance to assist decision-makers with understanding and selecting the funding tool that would best address their site goals. Because project funding tools are complex, federal agencies should seek project assistance before making final decisions. High capital requirements combined with limits on federal agency energy contracts create challenges for funding solar projects. Solar developers typically require long-term contracts (15-20) years to spread out the initial investment and to enable payments similar to conventional utility bill payments. In the private sector, 20-year contracts have been developed, vetted, and accepted, but the General Services Administration (GSA) contract authority (federal acquisition regulation [FAR] part 41) typically limits contract terms to 10 years. Payments on shorter-term contracts make solar economically unattractive compared with conventional generation. However, in several instances, the federal sector has utilized innovative funding tools that allow long-term contracts or has created a project package that is economically attractive within a shorter contract term.
Date: March 1, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

Description: The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.
Date: March 1, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screening analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen concepts.

Description: A screening analysis was performed to identify concentrating solar power (CSP) concepts that produce hydrogen with the highest efficiency. Several CSP concepts were identified that have the potential to be much more efficient than today's low-temperature electrolysis technology. They combine a central receiver or dish with either a thermochemical cycle or high-temperature electrolyzer that operate at temperatures >600 C. The solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of the best central receiver concepts exceed 20%, significantly better than the 14% value predicted for low-temperature electrolysis.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Diver, Richard B., Jr. & Kolb, Gregory J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Save with Solar, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Fall 2000)

Description: This is the second issue of the third volume (Fall 2000) of a technical bulletin produced for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). It is intended for Federal solar energy champions, that is, energy officers, contracting officials, facility managers, and others who participate in projects in which solar and other renewable energy technologies are installed in Federal government facilities in order to meet the directives of Executive Order 13123 and the President's Million Solar Roofs Initiative. This issue recognizes the contributions of the Federal agencies and specific individuals who enabled the government to meet its goal of installing 2,000 solar energy systems (and related systems) on Federal roofs by the year 2000. Although only about 30 solar energy champions were given awards, they represent hundreds of government employees who are working to save energy, money, and the environment through energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Date: November 8, 2000
Creator: Eiffert, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report of research supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-96ER14635: Photochemical studies of two component systems within the restricted spaces of zeolites.

Description: Most chemistry in nature occurs within a closed and confined space. In contrast to this time-evolved [m?] organic chemists have focused their interests in developing reaction methods in solution. The price for this is paid in terms of non-selectivity in product formation, expensive reagents, and enormous wastes. Eventually 'man-developed' solution methods to make molecules have to be replaced by more selective, more environmentally friendly, and less expensive strategies. One approach in this direction would be to use controlled environments. The project focused towards developing energy efficient methods to prepare energy rich molecules that were useful to the public. In this context synthetic zeolites, the counterpart of naturally occurring minerals, were explored as the reaction media.
Date: May 5, 2002
Creator: Ramamurthy, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Save with Solar Newsletter, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Spring 1999

Description: ''Save with Solar'' is a quarterly bulletin produced under the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program for all those who are planning or working on installations of solar and other renewable energy technologies in the Federal government's facilities. Contents include technical information about today's solar technologies and information about the programs, policies, procurement practices, and incentives that support the deployment of renewable energy in the Federal sector. Among the topics covered in this issue is a two-page article about how solar energy is being used by the National Science Foundation in NSF outposts in Antarctica. The newsletter also describes projects that meet the goals of the President's Million Solar Roofs Initiative.
Date: May 26, 1999
Creator: Eiffert, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

Description: This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Margolis, R. & Zuboy, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2010 Solar Program Peer Review Report: An Independent Evaluation of Program Activities for FY2009 and FY2010

Description: This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program's 2010 Program Review meeting, held on May 24?27, 2010, in Washington, D.C.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Program, DOE Solar Energy Technologies
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

Description: On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.
Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Liu, Bing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department