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Solar Electricity - The Power of Choice, First Quarter 2001

Description: Solar Electricity--The Power of Choice (formerly NREL PV Working With Industry) is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research and development activities performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. This issue is devoted to NREL's renewables workshop for farmers and ranchers, presented at the National Western Stock Show in Denver; the PV Industry Roadmap; the Siemens Solar Industries celebration of 200 MW of cumulative PV module production; and a profile of ''PV Beyond the Horizon'' initiative. The editorialist for this issue is Tim Anderson of the University of Florida.
Date: April 26, 2001
Creator: Poole, L.; Schnelten, K. & Moon, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint

Description: International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.
Date: October 1, 2012
Creator: Wohlgemuth, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of IEC 62804 Draft Round Robin Testing

Description: Three crystalline silicon module designs were distributed in five replicas each to five laboratories for testing according to the IEC 62804 (Committee Draft) system voltage durability qualification test for crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules. The stress tests were performed in environmental chambers at 60 degrees C, 85% relative humidity, 96 h, and with module nameplate system voltage applied.
Date: September 1, 2013
Creator: Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Koch, S.; Weber, T.; Berghold, J.; Hoffmann, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Quality Assurance Standards

Description: Tests to make quantitative predictions about photovoltaic (PV) modules are needed. This presentation proposes the creation of international quality assurance standards for PV modules.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Kurtz, S.; Hacke, P.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kempe, M. & Yamamichi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Production and Performance of Polycrystalline Silicon Technology Photovoltaic Modules in the Field: Preprint

Description: Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Energy production and performance of polycrystalline silicon technology photovoltaic modules in the field. Six polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules--two apiece from three manufacturers--were simultaneously deployed outdoors on the performance and energy ratings testbed at NREL's Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) in June 2000. In situ electrical performance and energy production from these modules obtained under ambient conditions in the field between June 2000 and August 2001 are compared. The average effective efficiency--derived from module energy out divided by solar energy in calculations averaged on a weekly basis--is analyzed and compared with module current-voltage measurements performed at standard reporting conditions (SRC). The effective efficiencies exhibit seasonal variations correlated with average module temperatures--becoming larger at colder temperatures. The performance ratios (PRs) defined as the effective efficiency divided by the efficiency at SRC, range from 78% to 96%, depending on the module and time of the year. The PRs exhibit seasonal variations that range from 11% to 15%.
Date: October 1, 2001
Creator: del Cueto, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Considerations for How to Rate CPV

Description: The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies for Achieving Mid-Term Market-Competitive PV Modules

Description: This paper reviews the current commercial status of CuInSe2 alloys (collectively, CIS) and CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) modules, comparing the performance of commercial products with the results achieved for solar cell and prototype module champions. We provide an update for these PV cell and module technologies, and also compare CIS and CdTe performance levels to the results achieved by the crystalline Si PV industry. This comparison shows that CIS and CdTe module technology presently offers the best (and perhaps only) approach for significantly exceeding the cost/performance levels established by crystalline Si PV technologies. A semi-empirical methodology is used for comparing ''champion'' solar cell and prototype module data with performance achieved on manufacturing lines. Using a conservative assumption that thin-film technologies will eliminate the 40% of PV module costs arising from the Si wafer or ribbon, we estimate the future performance of all established PV module candidates, and conclude that, based on 2004 knowledge about each PV technology, CIS and CdTe should provide cost-competitive advantages over crystalline Si.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: von Roedern, B.; Zweibel, K. & Ullal, H. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE/NREL Fundamental and Exploratory Research into Solar Cells: Preprint

Description: This conference paper describes the U.S. Department of Energy / National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports fundamental and exploratory research into solar cells. The purpose of the following set of research projects is twofold: (1) to provide fundamental experimental and theoretical foundations to existing photovoltaic (PV)/solar cell technologies, and (2) to explore whole new possibilities in PV/solar cell technologies, however revolutionary or unconventional they might be. As surely as a number of revolutionary new solar cell technologies will most likely involve high-risk, long-term R&D to bring them to fruition, and may also well be needed as a complement to a future energy portfolio, so we also need timely results. As such, one of the primary driving motives for this effort is the possibility of developing one or more''leapfrog'' technologies. These are technologies that have the distinct possibility of''leaping ahead'' of existing technologies rather than taking the more characteristic development time of 10 to 20 years.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: Matson, R. & McConnell, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of Local Open-Circuit Voltage on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Mixed-Phase Si:H and SiGe:H Solar Cells (Poster)

Description: By combining SKPM and AFM, they have developed a method to measure the local V{sub oc} distribution in mixed-phase solar cells. The results clearly show the nanocrystalline aggregation. The V{sub oc} is smaller in the nanocrystalline aggregates than in the surrounding amorphous matrix, and the transition from the low to high V{sub oc} is a gradual change. Although there are some lateral charge redistributions, a clear distinction between the amorphous and nanocrystalline regions has been observed. The current SKPM results and previous C-AFM results provide extra support for the two-diode model for explaining the carrier transport in the mixed-phase solar cells.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Jiang, C.-S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Yan, B.; Yang, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties of High Efficiency CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells

Description: We present experimental results in three areas. Solar cells with an efficiency of 19% have been fabricated with an absorber bandgap in the range of 1.1-1.2 eV. Properties of solar cells fabricated with and without an undoped ZnO layer were compared. The data show that high efficiency cells can be fabricated without using the high-resistivity or undoped ZnO layer. Properties of CIGS solar cells were fabricated from thin absorbers (1 {micro}m) deposited by the three-stage process and simultaneous co-deposition of all the elements. In both cases, solar cells with efficiencies of 16%-17% are obtained.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Ramanathan, K.; Keane, J. & Noufi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Mapping of AR Coating Thickness on Si Solar Cells Using GT-FabScan 6000

Description: A new technique for rapid mapping of the thickness of an antireflection (AR) coating on a solar cell is described. A filtered, reflectance (intensity) image of the AR-coated wafer is generated by a CCD camera mounted on a GTFabScan. This image is converted into a thickness image using a transformation relating local AR thickness to the local intensity in the image plane. The thickness map is generated in <100 ms.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Sopori, B.; Amieva, J.; Butterfield, B. & Li, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection of Photocarriers in Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N{sub y}As{sub 1-y} Solar Cells

Description: Collection of photocarriers in Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N{sub y}As{sub 1-y} solar cells is limited by the poor quality of the Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N{sub y}As{sub 1-y}. Some reports have shown collection of photocarriers outside of the depleted layer in annealed Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N{sub y}As{sub 1-y}, but the key to achieving the higher collection has been unclear. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the diffusion and collection lengths that contribute to the photocurrent in Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N{sub y}As{sub 1-y} solar cells. The data imply that the effective {mu}{tau} product for the lightly doped Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N{sub y}As{sub 1-y} material may vary when a field is applied. We conclude that the fields present in most of our best Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N{sub y}As{sub 1-y} cells are large enough to aid collection of photocarriers.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Kurtz, S.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Ptak, A. J.; King, R. R.; Law, D. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Principles and Applications of Reflectometery in PV Manufacturing: Preprint

Description: Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Principles, system config, and applications of new reflectometer are described. System can be used for rapid measurement of physical parameters of solar cells in commercial production.
Date: October 1, 2001
Creator: Sopori, B.; Zhang, Y.; Faison, R. & Madjdpour, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department