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Description: Studies on the use of coagulant aids in the lime-soda treatment of large- volume, low-level radioactive liquid waste revealed that a combination of Hagan Aids No. 50 and No. 18 gave fairly good results under most conditions. The effects of feed solution concentrations, mode and point of addition, and water temperature were studied. (C.J.G.)
Date: August 22, 1960
Creator: Subbaratnam, T; Cowser, K E & Struxness, E G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The need for, and the adequacy of, the sodium carbonate washing technique in chemical purification of tributyl phosphate-hydrocarbon extractant prior to its re-use in radiochemical processing was examined, primarily in terms of Ru, Zr, and Nb activities. Operating experience from ORNL Purex and Thorex Pilot Plants is compared with Hanford operations and upper limits for activities are suggested. Recommendations are made for development studies with the ORNL Power Reactor Fuel Processing Pilot Plant. (W.D.M.)
Date: March 24, 1960
Creator: Davis, W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-segregating electrolytes for molten carbonate fuel cells

Description: Current MCFCs use a Li/K carbonate mixture; the segregation increases the K concentration near the cathode, leading to increase cathode solubility and performance decline. ANL is developing molten carbonates that have minimal segregation; the approach is using Li-Na carbonates. In screening tests, fully developed potential distributions were obtained for 4 Li/Na compositions, and performance data were used to compare these.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Krumpelt, M.; Kaun, T. & Lanagan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Hirasaki, George J.; Miller, Clarence A.; Pope, Gary A. & Jackson, Richard E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

Description: This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.
Date: March 31, 2006
Creator: Green, David A.; Nelson, Thomas O.; Turk, Brian S.; Box, Paul D. & Gupta, Raghubir P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The results of laboratory studies on sodium carbonate ion exchange are shown. The effect of salt concentration, uranium concentration, and possible interference with ion exchange from vanadium, molybdenum, sulfate and chloride are discussed. Various elution systems and the effect of residual uranium are described. A short discussion of ammonium carbonate ion exchange is also presented. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1958
Creator: Hollis, E.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The applicability and refinement of various procedures for the treatment and digestion of C-slags and other uraniferous residues for recovery of U values were studied. The recovery of U from BFC-6 was investigated, placing emphasis on procedures which will not chemically alter the Cu and Sn media. Methods of U recovery from various residues resulting from Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ digestion of miscellaneous U-bearing materials, to reduce the U/sub 3/C/sub 8/ content below 0.05%, are discussed. (W.L.H.)
Date: June 15, 1953
Creator: Fleck, H. & Summer, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995

Description: This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng & Gholson, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

Description: The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting ...
Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Sheth, Atul; Agrawal, Pradeep & Yeboah, Yaw D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion resistance of inconel 690 to sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and sodium meta silicate at 900 and 1100{degrees}C

Description: Corrosive attack of Inconel 690 coupons was not observed following 3 day exposure tests to calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, and sodium meta silicate at 900 {degrees}C. However, melt line attack was evident on coupons exposed to sodium meta silicate and sodium carbonate tested for 3 days at 1100 {degrees}C. In addition, intergranular attack (IGA), approximately 0.67 mils/day, was observed on the Inconel 690 coupon exposed to calcium carbonate at 1100 {degrees}C. Calcium carbonate did not completely remove the glass coating at 950 {degrees}C. In fact, it was comparable to the results obtained by exposing a glass coated coupon at 950 {degrees}C in air. Therefore, calcium carbonate is not recommended for cleaning the DWPF melter pour spout. Both sodium carbonate and sodium meta silicate appear to remove most of the glass. However, these cleaning agents will remain on the metal surface following exposure at 950 {degrees}C resulting in very rough surface and a potential for corrosive attack when heated to 1100 {degrees}C.
Date: January 29, 1997
Creator: Imrich, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

Description: The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: McDermott, M.D.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Rosenberg, K.E. & Wells, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Quarterly report, July 1995--September 1995

Description: The objective of this research is to develop cost-effective surfactant flooding technology by using surfactant simulation studies to evaluate and optimize alternative design strategies taking into account reservoir characteristics, process chemistry, and process design options such as horizontal wells. Task 1 is the development of an improved numerical method for our simulator that will enable us to solve a wider class of these difficult simulation problems accurately and affordably. Task 2 is the application of this simulator to the optimization of surfactant flooding to reduce its risk and cost.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Pope, G.A. & Sepehrnoori, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department