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Development, Installation and Operation of the Mpc&a Operations Monitoring (Mom) System at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Jinr) Dubna, Russia

Description: The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Operations Monitoring (MOM) systems handling at the International Intergovernmental Organization - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) is described in this paper. Category I nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) is used in JINR research reactors, facilities and for scientific and research activities. A monitoring system (MOM) was installed at JINR in April 2003. The system design was based on a vulnerability analysis, which took into account the specifics of the Institute. The design and installation of the MOM system was a collaborative effort between JINR, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Financial support was provided by DOE through BNL. The installed MOM system provides facility management with additional assurance that operations involving nuclear material (NM) are correctly followed by the facility personnel. The MOM system also provides additional confidence that the MPC&A systems continue to perform effectively.
Date: July 12, 2009
Creator: Kartashov, V. V.; Pratt, W.; Romanov, Y. A.; Samoilov, V. N.; Shestakov, B. A.; Duncan, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Age Dating of Mixed SNM--Preliminary Investigations

Description: Recently we investigated the nuclear forensics problem of age determination for mixed special nuclear material (SNM). Through limited computational mixing experiments and interactive age analysis, it was observed that age dating results are generally affected by the mixing of samples with different assays or even by small radioactive material contamination. The mixing and contamination can be detected through interactive age analysis, a function provided by the Decay Interaction, Visualization and Analysis (DIVA) software developed by NSTec. It is observed that for mixed SNM with two components, the age estimators typically fall into two distinct clusters on the time axis. This suggests that averaging or other simple statistical methods may not always be suitable for age dating SNM mixtures. Instead, an interactive age analysis would be more suitable for age determination of material components of such SNM mixtures. This work was supported by the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS).
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Yuan, D., Guss, P. P., Yfantis, E., Klingensmith, A., Emer, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

Description: Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Long, DeAnn & Murphy, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

Description: In the past, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site has been performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation Department. Calibration and performance tests on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor were performed but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor because it had never been put into service. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no program in place to test them quarterly. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Manager at the time decided that the program needed to be strengthened and MC&A took over performance testing of all SNM portal monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with creating a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, writing procedures, troubleshooting/repairing, validating the process, control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and running the program.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Murphy, Mike
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of the MPC and A Operations Monitorying (MOM) System at JSC PO Sevmas

Description: The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the JSC 'PO' Sevmash', Severodvinsk, Russia. The MOM system was made operational at Sevmash in September, 2008. This paper will discuss the objectives of the MOM system installed at Sevmash and indicate how the objectives influenced the development of the conceptual design. The paper will also describe activities related to installation of the infrastructure and the MOM system at Sevmash. Experience gained from operation of the system and how the objectives are being met will also be discussed. The paper will describe how the MOM system is used at Sevmash and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, future activities including potential expansion of the MOM system, operator training, data sharing and analysis, procedure development, repair and maintenance will be included in the paper.
Date: July 11, 2010
Creator: Monogarov, A.; Taranenko, V.; Serov,A; Duncan, C; Brownell, L; Pratt, W.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence against correlations between nuclear decay rates and Earth-Sun distance

Description: We have reexamined our previously published data to search for evidence of correlations between the rates for the alpha, beta-minus, beta-plus, and electron capture decays of 22Na, 44Ti, 108Agm, 121Snm, 133Ba, and 241Am and the Earth?Sun distance. We find no evidence for such correlations and set limits on the possible amplitudes of such correlations substantially smaller than those observed in previous experiments.
Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Norman, Eric B.; Browne, Edgardo; Shugart, Howard A.; Joshi, Tenzing H. & Firestone, Richard B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of 3He detectors for Active Interrogation

Description: 3He proportional counters have long been used as neutron detectors for both passive and active detection of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The optimal configuration of these detectors as far as gas pressure, amount of moderating material, and size are concerned is highly dependent on what neutron signatures are being used to detect and identify SNM. We present here a parametric study of the neutron capture response of 3He detectors, based on Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The neutron capture response of the detectors has been modeled as a function of time after an incident neutron pulse.
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Seabury, E.H. & Chichester, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of Actinides via Nuclear Isomer De-Excitation

Description: This dissertation discusses a data collection experiment within the Actinide Isomer Identification project (AID). The AID project is the investigation of an active interrogation technique that utilizes nuclear isomer production, with the goal of assisting in the interdiction of illicit nuclear materials. In an attempt to find and characterize isomers belonging to 235U and its fission fragments, a 232Th target was bombarded with a monoenergetic 6Li ion beam, operating at 45 MeV.
Date: July 22, 2009
Creator: Francy, Christopher J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast digitization and discrimination of prompt neutron and photon signals using a novel silicon carbide detector

Description: Current requirements of some Homeland Security active interrogation projects for the detection of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) necessitate the development of faster inspection and acquisition capabilities. In order to do so, fast detectors which can operate during and shortly after intense interrogation radiation flashes are being developed. Novel silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor Schottky diodes have been utilized as robust neutron and photon detectors in both pulsed photon and pulsed neutron fields and are being integrated into active inspection environments to allow exploitation of both prompt and delayed emissions. These detectors have demonstrated the capability of detecting both photon and neutron events during intense photon flashes typical of an active inspection environment. Beyond the inherent insensitivity of SiC to gamma radiation, fast digitization and processing has demonstrated that pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in combination with amplitude discrimination can further suppress unwanted gamma signals and extract fast neutron signatures. Usable neutron signals have been extracted from mixed radiation fields where the background has exceeded the signals of interest by >1000:1.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Blackburn, Brandon W.; Johnson, James T.; Watson, Scott M.; Chichester, David L.; Jones, James L.; Ruddy, Frank H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A dual neutron/gamma source for the Fissmat Inspection for Nuclear Detection (FIND) system.

Description: Shielded special nuclear material (SNM) is very difficult to detect and new technologies are needed to clear alarms and verify the presence of SNM. High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded SNM, such as highly enriched uranium (HEU), since neutrons can penetrate gamma-ray shielding and gamma-rays can penetrate neutron shielding. Both source particles then induce unique detectable signals from fission. In this LDRD, we explored a new type of interrogation source that uses low-energy proton- or deuteron-induced nuclear reactions to generate high fluxes of mono-energetic gammas or neutrons. Accelerator-based experiments, computational studies, and prototype source tests were performed to obtain a better understanding of (1) the flux requirements, (2) fission-induced signals, background, and interferences, and (3) operational performance of the source. The results of this research led to the development and testing of an axial-type gamma tube source and the design/construction of a high power coaxial-type gamma generator based on the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction.
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Doyle, Barney Lee (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); King, Michael; Rossi, Paolo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); McDaniel, Floyd Del (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Morse, Daniel Henry; Antolak, Arlyn J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department