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Smelting Ores in the Electric Furnace

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the electric smelting of nonferrous ores. As stated in the introduction, "it is the purpose of the present paper to survey the technical and economic changes that have taken place and to determine whether electric smelting of nonferrous ores offers any more promise today than 20 years ago" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: October 1937
Creator: Dean, Reginald S. & von Bernewitz, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting

Description: A low-temperature aluminum smelting process being developed differs from the Hall-Heroult process in several significant ways. The low-temperature process employs a more acidic electrolyte than cryolite, an alumina slurry, oxygen-generating metal anodes, and vertically suspended electrodes. Wetted and drained vertical cathodes are crucial to the new process. Such cathodes represent a significant portion of the capital costs projected for the new technology. Athough studies exist of wetted cathode technology with Hall-Heoult cells, the differences make such a study desirable with the new process. This project is such a study. In Phase 1, titanium diboride, zirconium diboride and composites of these with other materials were tested using a statistically useful test matrix. The materials were consolidated both by hot pressing and by a new method, plasma pressure compaction (P2C�). The materials were subject to controlled electrolysis tests under conditions of the low-temperature smelting process. Post-electrolysis characterizations included quantitative atomic analyses and electron microscopic examinations. These methods allowed evaluating the relative merits of the materials, and the mechanisms of their corrosion. Also, a few tests were performed to determine whether oxygen and carbon dioxide bathing vertically suspended cathodes exhibited different current efficiencies. In Phase 2, additional composite materials were fabricated with P2C�, electrolysis tested, and subsequently characterized. The statistical test matrix was not used in this Phase. However, the materials were tested with electrolysis lasting both five and twenty hours. The project demonstrated that good current efficiencies are obtained with the new process at this scale. All of the materials tested except for aluminum infiltrated aluminum nitride wetted well and gave comparable electrolysis voltages. Both hot pressing and P2C� produce grain structures in the consolidated materials. Grain loss to the product metal is the dominant corrosion mechanism of these materials as cathodes. Grain loss is more of a problem with the composites ...
Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: Brown, Craig W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Melting Aluminum Chips

Description: Report concerning the loss of aluminum experienced during the melting process. This report shows the magnitude of the loss through various experiments. Index begins on page 85.
Date: 1916
Creator: Gillett, H. W. & James, G. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report Submitted to the Trail Smelter Arbitral Tribunal

Description: From Forward: "The first part of this report discusses the details of the plant equipment and procedure. The second part of the report discusses in detail the relationship between between meteorological conditions in the valley and atmospheric diffusion processes. The third part gives the provisional operating regimes in force during the investigation, the amount of sulfur fixed and amount emitted to the atmosphere, and summary of data from the permanent recorders."
Date: 1944
Creator: Dean, R. S. & Swain, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for Producing Secondary Copper

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing production of secondary copper. As stated in the introduction, "the purpose of this report is to present a complete collection of information on secondary copper in a single publication" (p. 1-2). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1961
Creator: Spendlove, Max J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Electrothermic Metallurgy of Zinc

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the electrothermic metallurgy and smelting of zinc. Different smelting methods, processes, and equipment are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: May 1923
Creator: O'Harra, B. Marvel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manganese Investigations - Metallurgical Division: 8. Pyrometallurgical Studies of Manganese Ore

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on investigations conducted on manganese ore used for smelting. Experimental methods and results are presented. This report includes tables, and a photograph.
Date: March 1942
Creator: Miller, Virgil; Petermann, F. B.; Pike, J. A. & Peterson, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction Mills in Montana in 1925

Description: List of reduction mills in Montana, compiled in the course of investigations of mineral resources of Montana. It includes information about each loaction including: the process, character of ore, when the mill was operated, and custom work; equipment and power used; and capacity in tons.
Date: March 1927
Creator: Gerry, C. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process

Description: The smelting process associated with the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was studied by using surrogate materials. Considering the vaporization behaviors of input materials, the operation procedure of smelting was set up as (1) removal of residual salts, (2) melting of metal powder, and (3) removal of dross from a metal ingot. The behaviors of porous MgO crucible during smelting were tested and the chemical stability of MgO in the salt-being atmosphere was confirmed.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Hur, J-M.; Jeong, M-S.; Lee, W-K.; Cho, S-H.; Seo, C-S. & Park, S-W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mining, Milling, and Smelting Methods, San Manuel Copper Corporation, Pinal County, Arizona

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the mining, milling, and smelting practices of copper in Pinal County, Arizona. Physicality, history, geology, methods, and uses are presented. This report includes maps, tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1962
Creator: Dale, Vernon B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open Schedules for Gold and Silver Ores and Concentrates at Western Custom Smelters

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the smelting schedules for the operators of silver and gold mines. As stated in the introduction, "the paper discusses smelting schedules, general smelting practices that have a bearing on rates, and the reasons for penalties or credits for certain constituents of ores" (p. 1). This report includes tables.
Date: December 1936
Creator: Gardner, E. D. & Allsman, Paul T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

Description: Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y. & Vaubert, V.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for technetium in natural tin metallurgical residues

Description: Possible instability of baryons inside the nuclei might result in accumulation of rare isotopes in natural ores. In this respect, isotopes of technetium have certain advantages that can be useful in the search for technetium in nonradioactive ores by chemical methods. In this paper, we review the history of technetium research and discuss a new approach to the search for natural technetium associated with tin ores which appears to offer a rare possibility of discovering a smelting operation by-product such as flue dust, in which the volatile technetium heptoxide (Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}), like rhenium heptoxide (Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}), would be expected to concentrate. Our concept of a search for technetium in these materials would be based on the assumption that traces of rhenium could occur in the ore and could be traced most easily by neutron activation of small samples. Such a procedure would confirm that an enrichment from the ore to the flue dust actually occurs with the rhenium and therefore should occur with technetium. Furthermore, this occurrence should identify the best location to search for technetium.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Parker, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report

Description: The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Dosaj, V.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of High-Alumina Slags in the Blast Furnace

Description: Technical report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the results of investigations studying the effects of alumina composition on the viscosity of iron slag.
Date: 1928
Creator: Joseph, T. L. (Thomas Leonard), b. 1894; Kinney, S. P. (Selwyne Perez), 1890-1976 & Wood, C. E. (Carl Edwin), b. 1900
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

Description: A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.
Date: January 25, 2004
Creator: Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira & Lurz, Joshua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical chemistry of aluminum salt cake

Description: Component phases of Al salt cake or products from processing salt cake, resist dissolution, a key first step in most analysis procedures. In this work (analysis support to a study of conversion of salt cake fines to value-added oxide products), analysis methods were adapted or devised for determining leachable salt, total halides (Cl and F), Al metal, and elemental composition. Leaching of salt cake fines was by ultrasonic agitation with deionized water. The leachate was analyzed for anions by ion chromatography and for cations by ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy. Only chloride could be measured in the anions, and charge balances between cations and chloride were near unity, indicating that all major dissolved species were chloride salts. For total halides, the chloride and fluorides components were first decomposed by KOH fusion, and the dissolved chloride and fluoride were measured by ion chromatography. Al metal in the fines was determined by a hydrogen evolution procedure adapted for submilligram quantities of metallic Al: the Al was reacted with HCl in a closed system containing a measured amount of high-purity He. After reaction, the H/He ratio was measured by mass spectroscopy. Recoveries of Al metal standards (about 30mg) averaged 93%. Comparison of the acid evolution with caustic reaction of the Al metal showed virtually identical results, but reaction was faster in the acid medium. Decomposition of the salt cake with mineral acids left residues that had to be dissolved by fusion with Na carbonate. Better dissolution was obtained by fusing the salt cake with Li tetraborate; the resulting solution could be used for accurate Al assay of salt cake materials by classical 8-hydroxyquinolate gravimetry.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Smith, F.P. & Snyder, C.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

Description: This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

Description: Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB{sub 2} cathode surface. The use of TiB{sub 2}, however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB{sub 2} is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB{sub 2}. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB{sub 2} from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000{degrees}C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB{sub 2}THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Besmann, T. M.; Miller, J. H.; Cooley, K. C.; Lowden, R. A. & Starr, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

Description: This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.
Date: October 30, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kennecott Utah Copper Retrofits Smelting Applications from Air-Fuel to Oxy-Fuel Burners: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Best Practices Mining Technical Case Study

Description: This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects.
Date: August 6, 2001
Creator: United States. Department of Energy.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boron nitride coatings and materials for use in aggressive environments

Description: Boron nitride coatings and structures have demonstrated significant resistance to many corrosive environments. These coatings may have application in the protection of sensors needed for measuring a variety of properties such as temperature and chemistry. In addition, boron nitride materials may offer advantages as structural materials in high temperature materials processing. In this study, BN is assessed for use in aluminum smelting.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Besmann, T.M.; Lee, W.Y.; Young, J.P. & Xiao, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department