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The effects of structured approaches to computer implementation in small businesses: a study of the relationships between level of systematic approach and implementation time, implementation cost, user satisfaction and level of integration

Description: The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of systematic approach to computer integration on implementation cost, implementation time, user satisfaction, and level of integration in small business environments. It is believed that decreased costs and implementation time result from the use of systematic approaches to computer integration. Systematic approaches may also result in higher user satisfaction and a higher level of system integration.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Savoie, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

Description: Over the past decade, numerous companies have been formed to commercialize research results from leading U.S. academic and research institutions. Emerging small businesses in areas such as Silicon Valley, Boston`s Route 128 corridor, and North Carolina`s Research Triangle have been especially effective in moving promising technologies from the laboratory bench to the commercial marketplace--creating new jobs and economic expansion in the process. Unfortunately, many of the U.S. national laboratories have not been major participants in this technology/commercialization activity, a result of a wide variety of factors which, until recently, acted against successful commercialization. This {open_quotes}commercialization gap{close_quotes} exists partly due to a lack, within Los Alamos in particular and the DOE in general, of in-depth expertise and experience in such business areas as new business development, securities regulation, market research and the determination of commercial potential, the identification of entrepreneurial management, marketing and distribution, and venture capital sources. The immediate consequence of these factors is the disappointingly small number of start-up companies based on technologies from Los Alamos National Laboratory that have been attempted, the modest financial return Los Alamos has received from these start-ups, and the lack of significant national recognition that Los Alamos has received for creating and commercializing these technologies.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Brice, R.; Cartron, D.; Rhyne, T.; Schulze, M. & Welty, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Owner-Managers and Corporate Managers: a Comparative Study of Achievement Motivation, Risk Taking Propensity and Preference for Innovation

Description: Despite the economic significance of entrepreneurship, relatively little is known about the entrepreneur, particularly how the entrepreneur differs from the corporate manager. This problem is both cause and symptom of the discord regarding definitions of the entrepreneur, rendering sampling, research replication and generalizations about entrepreneurs problematic. As a result, inquiry has failed to adequately establish how entrepreneurs differ from managers, a problem partially stemming from a dearth of methodologically rigorous comparisons of entrepreneurs with managers. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of psychological constructs to predict a proclivity for entrepreneurship. Moreover, differences in types of small business owner-managers were also investigated. Included in the research model were three common themes in the entrepreneurship literature: achievement motivation, risk taking propensity and preference for innovation. Also incorporated were the interactions of the psychological constructs, as well as individual and firm demographic variables.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Stewart, Wayne H. (Wayne Howard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot

Description: This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. An analysis of hourly load data indicates that the offices and retail stores in our sample provided significant demand response, while the restaurants did not. Thermostat data provides further evidence that restaurants attempted to precool and reduce AC service during event hours, but were unable to because their air-conditioning units were undersized. On a 100 F reference day, load impacts of all participants during events averaged 14%, while load impacts of office and retail buildings (excluding restaurants) reached 20%. Overall, pilot participants including restaurants had 2007-2008 summer energy savings of 20% and bill savings of 30%. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to ...
Date: September 25, 2009
Creator: Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth & Rasin, Josh
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats

Description: This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. Overall results show that pilot participants had energy savings of 20%, and the potential for an additional 14% to 20% load drop during a 100 F demand response event. In addition to the efficiency-related bill savings, participants on the dynamic rate saved an estimated 5% on their energy costs compared to the standard rate. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.
Date: August 12, 2009
Creator: Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth & Rasin, Josh
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

Description: Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.
Date: June 8, 2009
Creator: Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E. & Williford, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishing the Southeastern Regional Alliance (SRA) program in development of technology commercialization. Final report

Description: SRA was formed to create a proactive network of public and private leaders for invigorating economic development on a regional basis. This Cooperative R&D Agreement (CRADA) was established to evaluate various activities of potential cooperation and support the development of SRA. This was to cultivate partnerships between Oak Ridge and the stakeholders involved in SRA`s creation. Job creation has been attributed to smaller enterprises than to growth of large industry, so to insure that smaller enterprises share the benefits of technological advances in DOE laboratories and other regional resources, technology transfer endeavors must be made. This project was created to address these issues and develop a model of collaboration between the public sector stakeholders that affect the smaller business` life.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Tornatzky, L.G. & Jamison, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Product and market study for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Building resources for technology commercialization: The SciBus Analytical, Inc. paradigm

Description: The study project was undertaken to investigate how entrepreneurial small businesses with technology licenses can develop product and market strategies sufficiently persuasive to attract resources and exploit commercialization opportunities. The study attempts to answer two primary questions: (1) What key business development strategies are likely to make technology transfers successful, and (2) How should the plan best be presented in order to attract resources (e.g., personnel, funding, channels of distribution)? In the opinion of the investigator, Calidex Corporation, if the business strategies later prove to be successful, then the plan model has relevance for any technology licensee attempting to accumulate resources and bridge from technology resident in government laboratories to the commercial marketplace. The study utilized SciBus Analytical, Inc. (SciBus), a Los Alamos National Laboratory CRADA participant, as the paradigm small business technology licensee. The investigator concluded that the optimum value of the study lay in the preparation of an actual business development plan for SciBus that might then have, hopefully, broader relevance and merit for other private sector technology transfer licensees working with various Government agencies.
Date: February 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forecast of contracting and subcontracting opportunities: Fiscal year 1998

Description: This report describes procurement procedures and opportunities for small businesses with the Department of Energy (DOE). It describes both prime and subcontracting opportunities of $100,000 and above which are being set aside for 8(a) and other small business concerns. The report contains sections on: SIC codes; procurement opportunities with headquarters offices; procurement opportunities with field offices; subcontracting opportunities with major contractors; 8(a) contracts expiring in FY 1998; other opportunities to do business with DOE; management and operating contractors--expiration dates; Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) staff directory; and small business survey. This document will be updated quarterly on the home page.
Date: January 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Energy-Related Inventions Program: Evaluation challenges and solutions

Description: This paper describes results of evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP), focusing on the methodological challenges faced by the evaluators and solutions implemented. Operated jointly by US DOE and NIST, ERIP is one of the longest running commercialization assistance programs in US. The evaluation suggest that ERIP is a cost-effective federal investment. By the end of 1994, 24% of ERIP technologies had entered the market, producing total cumulative sales of $961 million (1994 dollars). With $124 million in program appropriations 1975-94, ERIP has an 8:1 return. At least 757 job-years were directly supported by ERIP technologies in 1994, and 6, 646 job-years of employment have been created over the past decade. The sales and employment supported by ERIP technologies are associated with $4.4 million in 1994 federal tax returns. Many issues must be addressed to fairly appraise public investments in technology commercialization programs, such as the need to track the program participants for extended periods, complexities in accounting for spinoff technologies, determining the validity of program evaluations, and dealing with performance data that are dominated by a small number of highly successful technologies.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Brown, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Case for Government-Industry Partnerships

Description: Government-industry partnerships are necessary for small businesses to successfully launch new and innovative ideas into the market place. Small businesses, the cornerstone for economic job creation, expansion and retention, is hampered with the need to fund new and innovative technologies from profits which generally occur in a cyclic manner. This cyclic funding leads to ramp ups and development during profitable years, and delays and abeyance during years of downturn. Government-industry partnerships directly addresses this problem by offering funding assistance in the form of resources eliminating the ''peaks and valleys'' of development. This paper will detail a case study of this type of assistance.
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Purgert, Robert M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1999

Description: This booklet presents technical abstracts of Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 under the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. SBIR research explores innovative concepts in important technological and scientific areas that can lead to valuable new technology and products. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications, as described by the awardee, are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research described in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.
Date: December 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Status Report as of January 2000

Description: This project was completed in January 1996 after a panel of four Licensing Executive Society members met in Boston (December 1995) to discuss the requirements for, incentive of and barriers to licensing horn independent inventors and small businesses. Three team members from Mohawk Research Corporation reviewed and analyzed the discussion notes to reach a series of recommendations which are contained in a report which was submitted in February under separate cover. This completes this project.
Date: January 12, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase II awards, 2000

Description: The SBIR program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed below, this publication describes the technical efforts and commercialization possibilities for SBIR Phase II awards in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. It is intended for the educated layman, and maybe of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities.
Date: December 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small business initiative

Description: In mid 1993, the DOE Defense Programs initiated the Small Business Initiative (SBI) which was designed to provide technical support to the Nation`s small businesses. The initial participating facilities were Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and Sandia National Laboratory. The Allied-Signal Kansas City Plant and the Savannah River Site came on board, later. The program was designed to keep the DOE-DP technical skills honed, to maintain baseline technology capabilities vital to safeguarding the nation into the 21st century, and to share technical resources with the small business community. The approach utilized to accomplish this was to establish mutually beneficial technology partnerships with small businesses that could leverage advanced technologies and improve the US position in the global economy. Through the fourth quarter of FY96, $3.819M of $4.002M of SBI funds were costed. Four hundred fifty-four technical assistance requests were received during the year and 438 were completed. Total reported private sector impact resulting from technical assistance for the FY was $184M. Six new SBI Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) were initiated during the year. Nine new user agreements were signed during the year. The Tennessee Governor`s School for Manufacturing, the first of its kind in the nation, was conducted during June and July.
Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Eason, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Veteran-Owned Small Businesses: Planning and Data System for VA's Verification Program Need Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has made significant changes to its verification processes for service-disabled and other veteran-owned small businesses to improve operations and address program weaknesses, but continues to face challenges in establishing a stable and efficient program to verify firms on a timely and consistent basis. Since December 2011, VA has instituted a number of significant operational changes, including revising standard operating procedures and enhancing quality assurance protocols for its verification program. However, GAO found that VA did not have a comprehensive, long-term strategic plan for the program and had prioritized addressing immediate operational challenges, contributing to programmatic inefficiencies. In response to this observation, VA's Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) initiated action in late October 2012 to compile a strategic planning document that encompassed the verification program. VA's OSDBU appears to have partially applied key leading strategic planning practices in its initial planning effort. But the plan lacks performance measures to assess whether the desired outcomes are being achieved and has a short-term focus that is not typically associated with a strategic plan. VA also has not shared the plan with key stakeholders, including congressional staff. Further, the verification program's data system has shortcomings that have hindered VA's ability to operate, oversee, and monitor the program. Among other things, the system does not collect important data and has limited reporting and workflow management capabilities. VA plans to modify or replace the system, but has not directly tied this effort into its long-term strategic planning efforts to ensure that the new system meets the verification program's long-term information needs."
Date: January 14, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role and Contributions of Independent Sales Representatives in the Relationship Between Merchandise Suppliers and Small Retailers: Dynamic Interactions in the Channel

Description: Small retailers are searching for a basis of competitive advantage to compete against larger retailers. The independent sales representative (rep) may represent such a basis. Little is known about how the role of reps and their performance is perceived by suppliers and retailers. We do not know what is expected from reps, if the reps' performance meets suppliers and retailers expectations, or whether met expectations lead to a basis of competitive advantage. Primarily, the study was designed to identify the role and contributions reps in the interactions between the supplier and retailer in the channel of distribution.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Gruben, Kathleen H. (Kathleen Hall)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determinants of Small Firm Performance: the Importance of Selected Managerial Personality Traits, Perceived Environmental Uncertainty, Scanning Activities, and Managerial Goal Setting Activities

Description: Much of the previous research on organizational performance deals with the larger businesses. As such, the owner/managers of small firms and researchers interested in small businesses have had to work with planning models which were not formulated with small businesses in mind. Therefore, the general purpose of this study is to help correct this deficiency and add to the body of knowledge concerning the contributions specific factors make toward increasing the performance of small firms. Specifically, selected managerial personality traits, managerial perceived environmental uncertainty, managerial scanning habits, and managerial goal setting activities are utilized to develop three models. The three models are used to determine the relationship the factors have to each other and the contribution the variables make toward the performance of the firm. The firms included in this study are located in a South Central metropolitan area. The firms have between 2 and 100 employees, sales of less than 3 million dollars, and have been in operation 2 years or longer. This study utilizes regression analysis and path analysis to determine the effects the factors have on each other and their contribution to the firm's performance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSx) is utilized to run the regression analysis. An Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by the Method of Maximum Likelihood (LISREL) is utilized for the path analysis. Using path analysis, the third model demonstrates a total coefficient of determination for structural equations of 0.09. However, only two of the four factors have a t value of 2.0 or greater. The study also indicates the personality trait of dogmatism is inversely related to managerial scanning -.349 p <.01. Perceived environmental uncertainty is negatively correlated to performance at -.215 p <.05. None of the remaining factors demonstrated significant relationship to the firm's performance.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Walker, Jim L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Small Businesses: Limited Information Available on Contract Bundling's Extent and Effects

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed contract bundling and its effect on small businesses, focusing on: (1) whether the government has met the governmentwide goal of awarding 23 percent of its federal prime contracts to small businesses; (2) what the federal government knows about the extent of contract bundling and its effect on small businesses; and (3) the Small Business Administration's (SBA) efforts to oversee contract bundling by federal agencies."
Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Businesses: Tax Compliance Benefits and Opportunities to Mitigate Costs on Third Parties of Miscellaneous Income Reporting Requirements

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Third parties, often businesses, reported more than $6 trillion in miscellaneous income payments to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in tax year 2006 on Form 1099-MISC. Payees are to report this income on their tax returns. It has been long known that if these payments are not reported on 1099-MISCs, it is less likely that they will be reported on payee tax returns. In 2010, the reporting requirements were expanded to cover payments for goods and payments to corporations, both previously exempt, beginning in 2012. This testimony summarizes recent GAO reports and provides information on (1) benefits of the current requirements in terms of improved compliance by taxpayers and reduced taxpayer recordkeeping, (2) costs to the third-party businesses of the current 1099-MISC reporting requirement, and (3) options for mitigating the reporting burden for third-party businesses. GAO has not assessed the expansion of 1099-MISC reporting to payments for goods."
Date: November 18, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Avoiding the Haircut: Potential Ways to Enhance the Value of theUSDA's Section 9006 Program

Description: Section 9006 of Title IX of The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (the '2002 Farm Bill') established the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program (the 'Section 9006 program'). Administered by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Section 9006 program provides grants, loan guarantees, and - perhaps in the future - direct loans to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses for assistance with purchasing renewable energy systems and making energy efficiency improvements. In the three rounds of Section 9006 funding to date (FY03-FY05), roughly 40% of all grant dollars in aggregate have been awarded to 'large' (defined as > 100 kW) wind projects. Such projects are also typically eligible for the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC) codified in Section 45 of the US tax code. Because the PTC provides a significant amount of value to a wind project, most 'large wind' applicants to the Section 9006 program have also tried to take advantage of the PTC. Through what are known as 'anti-double-dipping' or, more colloquially, 'haircut' provisions, however, the size of the PTC is reduced if a project receives certain other forms of governmental support. Specifically, Section 45(b)(3) of the US tax code reduces the size of the PTC in proportion to the aggregate amount of government grants, tax-exempt or subsidized financing, or other Federal tax credits that a project receives over time, relative to its overall capital cost (with the proportion not to exceed 50%). The legislative and regulatory history surrounding the PTC's haircut provisions suggests that grants and direct loans (but not loan guarantees) provided under the Section 9006 program will cause a PTC haircut. Focusing exclusively on 'large wind' projects, this report demonstrates that the magnitude of the haircut can be significant: Section 9006 grants lose between 11% and 46% of ...
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Bolinger, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department