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Preparation and physical properties of metal slurry fuels

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the physical properties of slurries and the use of a metal-soap additive to prepare stable slurries of commercial magnesium, aluminum, and boron powders in a MIL-F-5624 grade JP-3 base fuel. Results regarding the slurry density, apparent viscosity, apparent surface tension, stability, and fuel-flow characteristics are provided.
Date: March 18, 1952
Creator: Gibbs, James B. & Cook, Preston N., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NACA research on slurry fuels through 1954

Description: Report presenting a review of NACA research on slurry fuels through 1954. Slurry fuels are defined as suspensions of metals in hydrocarbons, which may offer more flight range or thrust than can be obtained with conventional hydrocarbons. Magnesium is the primary metal of interest at this time for high thrust and boron for long-range flight.
Date: April 21, 1955
Creator: Olson, Walter T. & Breitwieser, Roland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the physical properties of petrolatum-stabilized magnesium-hydrocarbon slurry fuels

Description: Magnesium-hydrocarbon slurries containing a moderate proportion of petrolatum have physical properties such that they offer promise as experimental aircraft fuels. The settling of the magnesium is greatly retarded by the petrolatum, and the slurries can easily be remixed to their original condition after storage. Successive batches which have closely similar properties can be prepared readily. The apparent viscosity of these slurries increased rapidly with increasing magnesium concentration, with increasing petrolatum concentration, and with decreasing temperature. As the apparent viscosity increased, the extent of settling and the ease of remixing both decreased. Although no quantitative correlation was found between the properties of the slurry and those of the petrolatum, and no one petrolatum gave slurries which were best in all respects, one of the five petrolatum used was judged to be superior to the others.
Date: January 6, 1954
Creator: Pinns, Murray L. & Goodman, Irving A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary study of the preparation of slurry fuels from vaporized magnesium

Description: "Slurry fuels containing extremely small particles of magnesium were prepared by concentrating the dilute slurry product resulting from the shock-cooling of magnesium metal vapors with a liquid hydrocarbon spray. A complete description of the equipment and procedure used in preparing the fuel is given. Ninety-five percent by weight of the solid particles formed by this process passed through a 100-mesh screen. The particle-size distribution of the screened fraction of one run, as determined by sedimentation analysis, indicated that 73 percent by weight of the metal particles were finer than 2 microns in equivalent spherical diameter" (p. 1).
Date: February 4, 1954
Creator: Witzke, Walter R.; Prok, George M. & Walsh, Thomas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of slurries of 50 percent boron in JP-4 fuel in 5-inch ram-jet burner

Description: Report presenting the performance of slurries of 50 percent boron in MIL-F-5624A grade JP-4 fuel evaluated in a 5-inch ramjet burner. Boron slurries were found to give higher heat outputs than JP-4 fuel only at fuel-air ratios above stoichiometric for JP-4 fuel. Testing found that it was also possible to determine the flow properties of particular batches of slurry before burning by flowing them through a bench system which would simulate the actual fuel system that would use the slurry.
Date: June 10, 1954
Creator: Reynolds, Thaine W. & Haas, Donald P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of surface-active additives on physical properties of slurries of vapor-process magnesium

Description: The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.
Date: November 3, 1955
Creator: Pinns, Murray L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MULTIFACTOR RATIO ANALYSIS (FACTOR ANALYSIS) OF CORROSION DATA USING LOGARITHMIC TRANSFORMATIONS

Description: A simplified analysts method for the examination of complex corrosion data is presented in terms of data from slurry corrosion toroid experiments. This method facilitates the assignment of average effects to specific imposed experimental variables in a test series. It is based on statistical analysis of variance procedures but emphasizes the use of averages and presents results relative to a chosen reference experimental condition. The use of the logarithm of attack rate results in the expression of the effects of variables as ratios or multiplicative terms. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1958
Creator: Compere, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of physical and combustion properties of several residual fuel oils and magnesium - fuel-oil slurries in a ram-jet-type combustor

Description: Report presenting an experimental investigation using a 1 7/8-inch diameter burner to determine the suitability of residual fuel oils as carriers in magnesium slurries. Four residual fuel oils with varying viscosities were investigated by themselves and in slurries of 50 percent magnesium. Results regarding the settling characteristics, blow-out velocity, and combustion efficiency are provided.
Date: June 23, 1953
Creator: Cook, Preston N., Jr.; Evans, Vernida E. & Lezberg, Erwin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Starting characteristics and combustion performance of magnesium slurry in 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine mounted in connected-pipe facility

Description: The starting characteristics and combustion performance of slurry type fuels, consisting of 50 percent magnesium powder in a hydrocarbon carrier, have been investigated in a flight-type, 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine in a connected-pipe facility. Quick, dependable starting of the engine was obtained by the use of a disk which blocked part of the combustor area downstream of the flame holder. Acceptable performance was achieved with a short fuel-air mixing length by the development of a fuel-distribution control sleeve.
Date: January 28, 1954
Creator: Gibbs, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-Scale Test of a Non-Plugging Bubbler Used in Large Tanks Containing High Yield Stress Slurries

Description: As a follow-up to a bench-top experiment (1), the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) carried out a full-scale test of a "large-diameter" bubbler (LDB) to measure liquid-level and density in high yield stress slurries. The test was the final step in a process to find an instrument that could effectively and economically operate in the existing mixing tank environments. Positive results would lead to implementation of the LDB. This new bubbler replaced two inadequate instruments: an expensive technology, a Holledge probe, which needed replacing twice a year and "standard bubblers," which plugged in as little as four hours of operation. Three LDBs, at different depths, were tested under highly prototypic conditions from November 27, 1996, to January 23, 1997, using the full-scale test facilities at SRS. The instruments were subjected to 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures. The results showed that the LDBs (6.7 cm inside diameter) operated successfully by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry, which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and at approximatley 102 degrees C during days of boiling. A recommendation was made to implement the LDB because none of the three bubblers plugged during the test period to the point of compromising liquid-level measurement. However, after a week's operation at boiling temperatures, several inches of a soft sludge built up within the bubbler tubes. This sludge was easily removed in place with high-pressure water. Since completion of this study, four LDBs have been installed in different tanks throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility at SRS. Their operation has been satisfactory to date.
Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Duignan, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of carbonized RDF, Joint Venture Task No. 7. Topical Report

Description: The overall objective of this research program was to demonstrate EnerTech�s and the Energy & Environmental Research Center�s (EERC) process of slurry carbonization for producing homogeneous, pumpable titels from refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with continuous pilot plant facilities, and to characterize flue gas and ash emissions from combustion of the carbonizd RDF slurry fuel. Please note that �Wet Thermal Oxidation� is EnerTech�s trademark mme for combustion of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel. Carbonized RDF slurry fuels were produced with the EERC�S 7.5-tpd (wet basis) pilot plant facility. A hose diaphragm pump pressurized a 7- lo-wt% feed RDF slurry, with a viscosity of 500 cP, to approximately 2500 psig. The pressurized RDF slurry was heated by indirect heat exchangers to between 5850 -626�F, and its temperature and pressure was maintained in a downflow reactor. The carbonized slurry was flashed, concentrated in a filter press, and ground in an attritor. During operation of the pilot plant, samples of the feed RDF slurry, carbonization gas, condensate, carbonized solids, and filtrate were taken and analyzed. Pilot-scale slurry carbonization experiments with RDF produced a homogeneous pumpable slurry fuel with a higher heating value (HHV) of 3,000-6,600 Btu/lb (as-received basis), at a viscosity of 500 CP at 100 Hz decreasing, and ambient temperature. Greater-heating-value slurry fuels were produced at higher slurry carbonization temperatures. During slurry carbonization, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics in the feed RDF also decompose to form hydrochloric acid and salts. Pilot-scale slurty carbonization experiments extracted 82-94% of the feed RDF chlorine content as chloride salts. Higher carbonization temperatures and higher alkali additions to the feed slurry produced a higher chlorine extraction.
Date: April 30, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

Description: Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive
Date: January 10, 2002
Creator: Apelian,Diran
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Magnesium Particles of Various Equivalent Diameters on Some Physical Properties of Petrolatum-Stabilized Magnesium-Hydrocarbon Slurries

Description: Memorandum presenting the effect of magnesium particles of various equivalent diameters on the apparent viscosity, sedimentation ratio, and redispresibility of petroleum-stabilized magnesium-JP-4 slurries. Powders of the following equivalent diameters were investigated: 2.8, 3.8, 7.2, 9.3, 12.0, and 14.8 microns. An analysis of the experimental error and reproducibility of values of apparent viscosity, sedimentation ratio, and redispersibility of the slurries was also made.
Date: April 8, 1954
Creator: Lamberti, Joseph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REPORT OF SLURRY BLANKET TEST RUN SM-3

Description: Run SM-3 covered 947.4 hours of which 669.2 hours were on slurry. Behavior of the system with slurry concentrations of 200 and 400 g Th/l were explored. Modifications made to the loop since the end of run SM-2 gave a flow of 360 gpm vs 230 gpm previously, and the blanket inlet nozzles were cut down from 2 in. ID to 1 1/2 in. sch 80 pipe, giving a velocity of 35 ft/sec out of the nozzles. The slurry was found to be suspended apparently uniformly in the blanket under the operating conditions and also with the flow reduced to 300 gpm by reducing the alternating current frequency. A further reduction to l97 gpm appeared to give conditions similar to run SM-2, with a much more marked concentration gradient in the blanket. The run was interrupted at 947.4 hr by a pump bearing failure. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1957
Creator: Parsly, L.F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shear Strength Correlations for Kaolin/Water Slurries: A Comparison of Recent Measurements with Historical Data

Description: This report documents testing funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation and performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with Fauske and Associates, LLC (FAI) to determine the behavior of vessel spanning bubbles. The shear strengths of four samples of kaolin/water mixtures obtained by PNNL from FAI were measured and are reported here. The measured shear strengths of these samples were then used to determine how the Rassat correlation fit these new measurements or if a new correlation was needed. These results were then compared with previously reported data.
Date: January 20, 2010
Creator: Burns, Carolyn A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A. & Russell, Renee L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Tension Estimates for Droplet Formation in Slurries with Low Concentrations of Hydrophobic Particles, Polymer Flocculants or Surface-Active Contaminants

Description: In support of the K-Basin project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was requested to evaluate the appropriate surface tension value to use in models predicting the formation of droplets from spray leaks of K-Basin slurries. The specific issue was whether it was more appropriate to use the surface tension of pure water in model predictions for all plausible spray leaks or to use a lower value. The surface tension of K-Basin slurries is potentially affected not only by particles but by low concentrations of nonionic polyacrylamide flocculant and perhaps by contaminants with surfactant properties, which could decrease the surface tension below that of water. A lower surface tension value typically results in smaller droplets being formed with a larger fraction of droplets in the respirable size range, so using the higher surface tension value of pure water is not conservative and thus needs a strong technical basis.
Date: June 10, 2011
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Blanchard, Jeremy & Bamberger, Judith A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department