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Full-Scale Test of a Non-Plugging Bubbler Used in Large Tanks Containing High Yield Stress Slurries

Description: As a follow-up to a bench-top experiment (1), the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) carried out a full-scale test of a "large-diameter" bubbler (LDB) to measure liquid-level and density in high yield stress slurries. The test was the final step in a process to find an instrument that could effectively and economically operate in the existing mixing tank environments. Positive results would lead to implementation of the LDB. This new bubbler replaced two inadequate instruments: an expensive technology, a Holledge probe, which needed replacing twice a year and "standard bubblers," which plugged in as little as four hours of operation. Three LDBs, at different depths, were tested under highly prototypic conditions from November 27, 1996, to January 23, 1997, using the full-scale test facilities at SRS. The instruments were subjected to 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures. The results showed that the LDBs (6.7 cm inside diameter) operated successfully by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry, which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and at approximatley 102 degrees C during days of boiling. A recommendation was made to implement the LDB because none of the three bubblers plugged during the test period to the point of compromising liquid-level measurement. However, after a week's operation at boiling temperatures, several inches of a soft sludge built up within the bubbler tubes. This sludge was easily removed in place with high-pressure water. Since completion of this study, four LDBs have been installed in different tanks throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility at SRS. Their operation has been satisfactory to date.
Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Duignan, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of carbonized RDF, Joint Venture Task No. 7. Topical Report

Description: The overall objective of this research program was to demonstrate EnerTech�s and the Energy & Environmental Research Center�s (EERC) process of slurry carbonization for producing homogeneous, pumpable titels from refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with continuous pilot plant facilities, and to characterize flue gas and ash emissions from combustion of the carbonizd RDF slurry fuel. Please note that �Wet Thermal Oxidation� is EnerTech�s trademark mme for combustion of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel. Carbonized RDF slurry fuels were produced with the EERC�S 7.5-tpd (wet basis) pilot plant facility. A hose diaphragm pump pressurized a 7- lo-wt% feed RDF slurry, with a viscosity of 500 cP, to approximately 2500 psig. The pressurized RDF slurry was heated by indirect heat exchangers to between 5850 -626�F, and its temperature and pressure was maintained in a downflow reactor. The carbonized slurry was flashed, concentrated in a filter press, and ground in an attritor. During operation of the pilot plant, samples of the feed RDF slurry, carbonization gas, condensate, carbonized solids, and filtrate were taken and analyzed. Pilot-scale slurry carbonization experiments with RDF produced a homogeneous pumpable slurry fuel with a higher heating value (HHV) of 3,000-6,600 Btu/lb (as-received basis), at a viscosity of 500 CP at 100 Hz decreasing, and ambient temperature. Greater-heating-value slurry fuels were produced at higher slurry carbonization temperatures. During slurry carbonization, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics in the feed RDF also decompose to form hydrochloric acid and salts. Pilot-scale slurty carbonization experiments extracted 82-94% of the feed RDF chlorine content as chloride salts. Higher carbonization temperatures and higher alkali additions to the feed slurry produced a higher chlorine extraction.
Date: April 30, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

Description: Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive
Date: January 10, 2002
Creator: Apelian,Diran
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MULTIFACTOR RATIO ANALYSIS (FACTOR ANALYSIS) OF CORROSION DATA USING LOGARITHMIC TRANSFORMATIONS

Description: A simplified analysts method for the examination of complex corrosion data is presented in terms of data from slurry corrosion toroid experiments. This method facilitates the assignment of average effects to specific imposed experimental variables in a test series. It is based on statistical analysis of variance procedures but emphasizes the use of averages and presents results relative to a chosen reference experimental condition. The use of the logarithm of attack rate results in the expression of the effects of variables as ratios or multiplicative terms. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1958
Creator: Compere, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REPORT OF SLURRY BLANKET TEST RUN SM-3

Description: Run SM-3 covered 947.4 hours of which 669.2 hours were on slurry. Behavior of the system with slurry concentrations of 200 and 400 g Th/l were explored. Modifications made to the loop since the end of run SM-2 gave a flow of 360 gpm vs 230 gpm previously, and the blanket inlet nozzles were cut down from 2 in. ID to 1 1/2 in. sch 80 pipe, giving a velocity of 35 ft/sec out of the nozzles. The slurry was found to be suspended apparently uniformly in the blanket under the operating conditions and also with the flow reduced to 300 gpm by reducing the alternating current frequency. A further reduction to l97 gpm appeared to give conditions similar to run SM-2, with a much more marked concentration gradient in the blanket. The run was interrupted at 947.4 hr by a pump bearing failure. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1957
Creator: Parsly, L.F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shear Strength Correlations for Kaolin/Water Slurries: A Comparison of Recent Measurements with Historical Data

Description: This report documents testing funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation and performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with Fauske and Associates, LLC (FAI) to determine the behavior of vessel spanning bubbles. The shear strengths of four samples of kaolin/water mixtures obtained by PNNL from FAI were measured and are reported here. The measured shear strengths of these samples were then used to determine how the Rassat correlation fit these new measurements or if a new correlation was needed. These results were then compared with previously reported data.
Date: January 20, 2010
Creator: Burns, Carolyn A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A. & Russell, Renee L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2.0 - Air Quality Assessment, Control, and Analytical Methods Subtask 2.11 - Lactic Acid FGD Additives From Sugar Beet Wastewater

Description: Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) as the SO2 dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ion available in large amounts. Currently lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this use, but this project will develop a new source of inexpensive lactate. Microbial action during the storage and processing of sugar beets forms lactic acid in concentrations as high 14 g/L in the processing water. The concentrations are lower than those occurring in conventional fermentation production of lactic acids, but since a considerable amount of water is involved in the processing of sugar beets in the Red River Valley (1 million gallons/day), a substantial amount of lactic acid or calcium lactate could be recovered as a by- product for use in FGD and other applications.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Olson, Edwin S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Tension Estimates for Droplet Formation in Slurries with Low Concentrations of Hydrophobic Particles, Polymer Flocculants or Surface-Active Contaminants

Description: In support of the K-Basin project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was requested to evaluate the appropriate surface tension value to use in models predicting the formation of droplets from spray leaks of K-Basin slurries. The specific issue was whether it was more appropriate to use the surface tension of pure water in model predictions for all plausible spray leaks or to use a lower value. The surface tension of K-Basin slurries is potentially affected not only by particles but by low concentrations of nonionic polyacrylamide flocculant and perhaps by contaminants with surfactant properties, which could decrease the surface tension below that of water. A lower surface tension value typically results in smaller droplets being formed with a larger fraction of droplets in the respirable size range, so using the higher surface tension value of pure water is not conservative and thus needs a strong technical basis.
Date: June 10, 2011
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Blanchard, Jeremy & Bamberger, Judith A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

Description: The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra- lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.
Date: October 31, 2003
Creator: Sabins, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RAPID TRANSIT--A REACTIVITY SURVEY PROGRAM FOR THE IBM-704

Description: >The program described computes the reactivity changes associated with slurry settling in a one-region cylindrical slurry reactor. Nuclear-data computation has been included in the program in order to avoid tedious hand calculations and to reduce the amount of input data required. About 3000 cases may be processed pcr hour of machine time. Certain modifications to the conventional two-group method and techniques employed in improving the rate of convergence of certain iterative procedures are discussed in detail. Sample input sheets, output sheets and instructions for input data preparation are included. (auth)
Date: April 14, 1959
Creator: Nestor, C.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VELOCITY STUDY OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IMPELLERS

Description: A study was made to determine the magnitude of the velocities existing in the various slurry pumps currently in use and to determine possible methods of reducing the velocities in order to obtain longer life. The maximum velocities of the lOOA, 200A, and 300A pumps are between 39 and 53.6 fps with the exception of the lOOA absolute discharge velocity which is 80.6 fps. For large slurry pumps, it is recommended that lower speeds be used in order to reduce the impeller relative velocities. (auth)
Date: August 22, 1958
Creator: Gabbard, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department