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Influence of orientation pinning on the Goss-texture in Fe-3%Si electrical steel

Description: Despite a large number of investigations on the formation of the Goss-texture in Fe-3%Si electrical steels, the exact mechanisms leading to the preference of this particular orientation are not completely understood so far. As an alternative to the standard explanation of a favored growth of Goss-oriented grains during secondary recrystallization, recently the concept of orientation pinning has been proposed, which considers that the growth of grains with special orientation relationships corresponding to low-angle and twin grain boundaries is disfavored. The present paper present preliminary EBSD-results on the growth of Goss-grains during secondary recrystallization in high-permeability (HiB) transformer steel sheets. A semi-quantitative model to simulate the effect of orientation pinning on the evolution of the Goss-texture is introduced.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Engler, O. & Friedel, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interaction of cavities with misfit dislocations in SiGe/Si heterostructures

Description: Consequences of the strong, short-range attractive interaction between cavities and misfit dislocations are examined in SiGe/Si heterostructures. When He is implanted at the SiGe/Si interface, either in situ during epitaxial growth or by post-growth treatment, cavities form and locate on the misfit dislocation cores. The misfit dislocations are no longer straight lines extending over several microns, but form a network with jogs and intersections at the cavities. The He-implanted cavity layer enhances thermal relaxation of the strained alloy and may increase the achievable degree of relaxation by lowering dislocation energies.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Follstaedt, D.M.; Myers, S.M.; Floro, J.A. & Lee, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advances in the reduction and compensation of film stress in high-reflectance multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography applications

Description: Due to the stringent surface figure requirements for the multilayer-coated optics in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography system, it is desirable to minimize deformation due to the multilayer film stress. However, the stress must be reduced or compensated without reducing EUV reflectivity, since the reflectivity has a strong impact on the throughput of a EUV lithography tool. In this work we identify and evaluate several leading techniques for stress reduction and compensation as applied to Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films. The measured film stress for Mo/Si films with EUV reflectances near 67.4% at 13.4 nm is approximately - 420 MPa (compressive), while it is approximately +330 MPa (tensile) for Mo/Be films with EUV reflectances near 69.4% at 11.4 nm. Varying the Mo-to-Si ratio can be used to reduce the stress to near zero levels, but at a large loss in EUV reflectance (> 20%). The technique of varying the base pressure (impurity level) yielded a 10% decrease in stress with a 2% decrease in reflectance for our multilayers. Post-deposition annealing was performed and it was observed that while the cost in reflectance is relatively high (3.5%) to bring the stress to near zero levels (i.e., reduce by 1 00%), the stress can be reduced by 75% with only a 1.3% drop in reflectivity at annealing temperatures near 200{degrees}C. A study of annealing during Mo/Si deposition was also performed; however, no practical advantage was observed by heating during deposition. A new non-thermal (athermal) buffer-layer technique was developed to compensate for the effects of stress. Using this technique with amorphous silicon and Mo/Be buffer-layers it was possible to obtain Mo/Be and Mo/Si multilayer films with a near zero net film stress and less than a 1% loss in reflectivity. For example a Mo/Be film with 68.7% reflectivity at 11.4 nm and ...
Date: February 20, 1998
Creator: Mirkarimi, P.B., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of the dip coating of uranium sheet with aluminum-silicon alloy

Description: A report which covers an investigation of techniques for producing hot-dip Al-Si coatings on uranium sheet. Also, the study is concerned with the effects of time and temperature of dipping on the intermetallic zone and its ductility.
Date: 1954
Creator: Cawthorne, E. W.; Craighead, C. M; Berry, Warren E., 1922-; Pray, H. A. & Jaffee, Robert Isaac, 1917-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on silicon-carbon alloys and interfaces. Final subcontract report, 15 February 1991--31 July 1994

Description: This report describes work performed to develop improved p-type wide-band-gap hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon alloy (a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x:}H) thin films and interfaces for the ``top junction`` in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based p-i-n solar cells. We used direct current reactive magnetron sputtering to deposit undoped a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}H films with a Tauc band gap E{sub g} of 1.90 eV, a sub-band-gap absorption of 0.4 (at 1.2 eV), an Urbach energy of 55 MeV, an ambipolar diffusion length of 100 nm, an air-mass-one photoconductivity of 10{sup {minus}6}/{Omega}-cm, and a dark conductivity of 8{times} 1O{sup {minus}11}/{Omega}-cm. p{sup +}a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H films with a Tauc band gap of 1.85 eV have a dark conductivity of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/{Omega}-cm and thermal activation energy of 0.28 eV. We used in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and post-growth X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the relative roles of H and Si in the chemical reduction of SnO{sub 2} in the early stages of film growth. We used in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that a-Si:H can be transformed into {mu}c-Si:H in a subsurface region under appropriate growth conditions. We also determined substrate cleaning and ion bombardment conditions which improve the adhesion of a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H films.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Abelson, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface stress, morphological development, and dislocation nucleation during strained-layer epitaxy

Description: Utilizing marker layer experiments and Z-contrast imaging, we have observed the formation of surface cusps during Si{sub x}Ge{sub l-x} alloy growth. The formation of cusps can be understood in terms of stress-driven surface diffusion, and we consider the large stress build-up at the cusp tip as a potential source for the nucleation of misfit dislocations.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Jesson, D. E.; Pennycook, S. J.; Baribeau, J. M. & Houghton, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive research on stability and performance of a-Si:H and alloys. Phase I team annual technical report, 31, May 1994--30, May 1995

Description: This report covers the research done during the first phase of the subcontract. During this period, we have concentrated on two areas: improving the voltage and stability of a-Si:H devices made using ECR deposition, and improving the properties of a-(Si,Ge):H films also using ECR deposition.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Dalal, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of pressure on the magnetic phase diagram of the antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave alloy Cr-1.6% Si

Description: A neutron diffraction experiment has been performed to study the effects of high pressure on the magnetic phase diagram of a single crystal specimen of Cr-1.6%Si. At applied pressures up to 0.49 GPa there are two clear transitions. At T{sub NC} there is a transition from a paramagnetic (P) to a commensurate spin density wave (CSDW), while at lower temperatures there is a transition to a mixed state where the CSDW seems to coexist with an incommensurate SDW (ISDW) state. T{sub NC} decreases with the application of pressure while the transition temperature T{sub CI} to the mixed C-I state seems to be insensitive to pressure. At 0.69 GPa the ISDW state disappears while the P-C transition changes drastically.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Fernandez-Baca, J.A.; Fawcett, E.; Alberts, H.L.; Galkin, V.Yu. & Endoh, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of stress evolution during thin film deposition

Description: We have developed a technique for measuring thin film stress during growth by monitoring the wafer curvature. By measuring the deflection of multiple parallel laser beams with a CCD detector, the sensivity to vibration is reduced and a radius of curvature limit of 4 km has been obtained in situ. This technique also enables us to obtain a 2-dimensional profile of the surface curvature from the simultaneous reflection of a rectangular array of beams. Results from the growth of SiG alloy films are presented to demonstrate the unique information that can be obtained during growth.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Chason, E. & Floro, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report

Description: Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Hollar, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The structure-property relationships of powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys

Description: Iron-aluminum alloys have been extensively evaluated as semi-continuous product such as sheet and bar, but have not been evaluated by net shape P/M processing techniques such as metal injection molding. The alloy compositions of iron-aluminum alloys have been optimized for room temperature ductility, but have limited high temperature strength. Hot extruded powder alloys in the Fe-Al-Si system have developed impressive mechanical properties, but the effects of sintering on mechanical properties have not been explored. This investigation evaluated three powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys: Fe-15Al, Fe-15Al-2.8Si, Fe-15Al-5Si (atomic %). The powder alloys were produced with a high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) process to obtain a high fraction of metal injection molding (MIM) quality powder (D{sub 84} < 32 {micro}m). The powders were consolidated either by P/M hot extrusion or by vacuum sintering. The extruded materials were near full density with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 50 {micro}m. The vacuum sintering conditions produced samples with density ranging from 87% to 99% of theoretical density, with an average grain size ranging from 26 {micro}m to 104 {micro}m. Mechanical property testing was conducted on both extruded and sintered material using a small punch test. Tensile tests were conducted on extruded bar for comparison with the punch test data. Punch tests were conducted from 25 to 550 C to determine the yield strength, and fracture energy for each alloy as a function of processing condition. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was observed to increase with an increasing silicon content. The Fe-15Al-2.8Si alloy was selected for more extensive testing due to the combination of high temperature strength and low temperature toughness due to the two phase {alpha} + DO{sub 3} structure. This investigation provided a framework for understanding the effects of silicon in powder processing and mechanical property behavior of Fe-Al-Si alloys.
Date: February 23, 1998
Creator: Prichard, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

Description: Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Buchheit, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructural development of rapid solidification in Al-Si powder

Description: The microstructure and the gradient of microstructure that forms in rapidly solidificated powder were investigated for different sized particles. High pressure gas atomization solidification process has been used to produce a series of Al-Si alloys powders between 0.2 {mu}m to 150 {mu}m diameter at the eutectic composition (12.6 wt pct Si). This processing technique provides powders of different sizes which solidify under different conditions (i.e. interface velocity and interface undercooling), and thus give different microstructures inside the powders. The large size powder shows dendritic and eutectic microstructures. As the powder size becomes smaller, the predominant morphology changes from eutectic to dendritic to cellular. Microstructures were quantitatively characterized by using optical microscope and SEM techniques. The variation in eutectic spacing within the powders were measured and compared with the theoretical model to obtain interface undercooling, and growth rate during the solidification of a given droplet. Also, nucleation temperature, which controls microstructures in rapidly solidified fine powders, was estimated. A microstructural map which correlates the microstructure with particle size and processing parameters is developed.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Jin, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic Field Induced Phase Transitions in Gd5(Si1.95Ge2.05)Single Crystal and the Anisotropic Magnetocaloric Effect

Description: The magnetization measurements using a Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}) single crystal with the magnetic field applied along three crystallographic directions, [001], [010] and [100], were carried out as function of applied field (0-56 kOe) at various temperatures ({approx}5-320 K). The magnetic-field induced phase transformations at temperature above the zero-field critical temperature, i.e. the paramagnetic (PM) {leftrightarrow} ferromagnetic (FM) transitions with application or removal of magnetic field, are found to be temperature dependent and hysteretic. The corresponding critical fields increase with increasing temperature. The magnetic field (H)-temperature (T) phase diagrams have been constructed for the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}) single crystal with field along the three directions. A small anisotropy has been observed. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been calculated from the isothermal magnetization data, and the observed anisotropy correlates with H-T phase diagrams. The results are discussed in connection with the magnetic-field induced martensitic-like structural transition observed in the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2})-type compounds.
Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: Tang, H.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Pecharsky, A.O.; Schlagel, D.L.; Lograsso, T.A. & K.A. Gschneidner,jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. First interim technical report, Phase C for the period 1980 January 1-1980 March 31

Description: Pilot reactor VSR-3 was operated with 75 to 120 SCFH O/sub 2/ to supply part of the process heat requirements by combustion of coke. No alloy was made and burden bridging persistently stopped operations. Burning larger coke particles, -3/8 in. +6 mesh, with O/sub 2/ injected through a larger diameter tuyere orifice resulted in oxygen attack on the reactor graphite liner. Updated thermochemical data for Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ significantly changed the calculated reflux loading for a one-atm blast furnace, predicting almost total reflux and no alloy recovery. Based on these calculations and the experimental problems with combustion heated operation, VSR-3 was modified to study an alternate reduction concept - the blast-arc - which utilizes combustion heat to reduce SiO/sub 2/ to SiC at 1600/sup 0/C, and electrical heat to complete the reduction of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the production of alloy. Design, fabrication, and installation of most of the pilot crystallizer sytem was completed.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Bruno, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Special technical report: technical feasibility of combustion heated process for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

Description: As part of a contract to develop a process for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum-silicon alloys, the technical feasibility of an atmospheric combustion-heated reactor was investigated. Potentially, such a reactor could have lower energy and capital requirements than current processes for producing aluminum and silicon. Reduction reactions were modelled using two chemical equilibrium computer programs which predicted the aluminum recovery in the reduction zone and the carbon rate needed to meet the energy requirements of the process.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Troup, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Third interim technical report, Phase C for the period 1980 July 1-1980 September 30

Description: Pilot reactor VSR-3 operation in the third quarter was directed to tapping molten alloy product. Modifications to the hearth region included a tapping furnace to maintain taphole temperature, a graphite ring filter to separate carbides from matal and an alumina liner to eliminate carbiding from reaction of alloy with the graphite hearth walls. Tapping was not successful, however, due to high alloy viscosity from a large concentration of carbides. Three runs were made on the pilot crystallizer to determine the effects of alloy composition, cooling rate, tamping rate, remelt temperature and rate on eutectic Al-Si yield.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Bruno, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels.

Description: We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining.
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Willit, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of rapid recrystallization and ion implanted carbon on the solid phase epitaxial regrowth of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloy layers on silicon

Description: Transmission electron microscopy has been combined with time-resolved reflectivity and ion channeling to study the effects of regrowth temperature and carbon introduction by ion implantation on the solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of strained 2000{Angstrom}, Si{sub 0.88}Ge{sub 0.12}/Si alloy films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Relative to the undoped layers, carbon incorporation in the MBE grown SiGe layers prior to regrowth at moderate temperatures (500--700C) has three main effects on SPER: these include a reduction in SPER rate, a delay in the onset of strain-relieving defect formation, and a sharpening of the amorphouse-crystalline (a/c) interface, i.e., promotion of a two-dimensional (planar) growth front. Recrystallization of amorphized SiGe layers at higher temperatures (1100C) substantially modifies the defect structure in samples both with and without carbon. At these elevated temperatures treading dislocations extend completely to the Si/SiGe interface. Stacking faults are eliminated in the high temperature regrowth, and the treading dislocation density is slightly higher with carbon implantation.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Antonell, M.J.; Jones, K.S. & Haynes, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Second annual technical report for the period 1978 September 1-1979 December 31

Description: A new computer program was developed for simultaneously solving heat and mass balance at steady state for a flowing one-dimensional chemical reactor. Bench scale reactor results confirmed that minimum final stage reaction temperature is 1950 to 2000/sup 0/C, depending on the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ concentration in the burden. Additions of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to the charge produced significant increase in metallic yield. A new bench reactor was designed, built, and operated to facilitate semi-continuous operation, using O/sub 2/ injection to burn coke supporting the burden, resulting in burden movement. Validity of the equipment and test procedures was demonstrated by successfully operating the reactor as an iron blast furnace at 1500/sup 0/C. Bench scale fractional crystallizer runs were continued to determine the impurity effects of Fe up to 6.9% and Ti up to 1.25% on alloy product purity and yield. High initial impurity concentrations resulted in less pure Al-Si product and product yield below 50% due to Al and Si losses as Fe-Si-Al and Ti-Si-Al intermetallics. Long term testing was continued in the large bench scale membrane cell to evaluate woven cloth membrane and other construction materials, operating procedures, and effects of operating parameters on cell performance. Included in the latter were starting alloy composition, current density, anode-cathode spacing, and electrolyte composition.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Bruno, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Second interim technical report, Phase C for the period 1980 April 1-1980 June 30

Description: Beneficiation of bauxite by high intensity wet magnetic separation to remove Fe and Ti was not successful. Pilot reactor VSR-3 was modified and operated to evaluate the blast-arc reduction process concept. Modifications included a tapered upper shaft section, vertical stroke ram, and CO preheater system. The taper/ram revisions were successful in maintaining bed movement, resulting in several continuous runs in which large quantities of burden were fed and metal product was recovered. Pilot VSR samples were also analyzed. The major phases contained Si and FeSi/sub 2/Al/sub 4/ intermetallics in a matrix of eutectic Al-Si.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Bruno, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department