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A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rateswith the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

Description: We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of possible models for the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate as a function of redshift. The data do not distinguish between a flat rate at redshift > 0.5 and a previously proposed model, in which the Type Ia rate peaks at redshift {approx} 1 due to a significant delay from star-formation to the supernova explosion. Except for the highest redshifts, where the signal to noise ratio is generally too low to apply this technique, this approach yields smaller or comparable uncertainties than previous work.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Kuznetsova, N.; Barbary, K.; Connolly, B.; Kim, A.G.; Pain, R.; Roe, N.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response

Description: Various wireless technologies were field-tested in a six-story laboratory building to identify wireless technologies that can scale for future DR applications through very low node density power consumption, and unit cost. Data analysis included analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), packet loss, and link quality at varying power levels and node densities. The narrowband technologies performed well, penetrating the floors of the building with little loss and exhibiting better range than the wideband technology. 900 MHz provided full coverage at 1 watt and substantially complete coverage at 500 mW at the test site. 900 MHz was able to provide full coverage at 100 mW with only one additional relay transmitter, and was the highest-performing technology in the study. 2.4 GHz could not provide full coverage with only a single transmitter at the highest power level tested (63 mW). However, substantially complete coverage was provided at 2.4 GHz at 63 mW with the addition of one repeater node.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Rubinstein, Francis; Ghatikar, Girish; Granderson, Jessica; Haugen, Paul; Romero, Carlos & Watson, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comments on the paper 'A novel 3D wavelet-based filter forvisualizing features in noisy biological data', by Moss et al.

Description: Moss et al.(2005) describe, in a recent paper, a filter thatthey use to detect lines. We noticed that the wavelet on which thisfilter is based is a difference of uniform filters. This filter is anapproximation to the second derivative operator, which is commonlyimplemented as the Laplace of Gaussian (or Marr-Hildreth) operator (Marr&Hildreth, 1980; Jahne, 2002), Figure 1. We have compared Moss'filter with 1) the Laplace of Gaussian operator, 2) an approximation ofthe Laplace of Gaussian using uniform filters, and 3) a few common noisereduction filters. The Laplace-like operators detect lines by suppressingimage features both larger and smaller than the filter size. The noisereduction filters only suppress image features smaller than the filtersize. By estimating the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and mean squaredifference (MSD) of the filtered results, we found that the filterproposed by Moss et al. does not outperform the Laplace of Gaussianoperator. We also found that for images with extreme noise content, linedetection filters perform better than the noise reduction filters whentrying to enhance line structures. In less extreme cases of noise, thestandard noise reduction filters perform significantly better than boththe Laplace of Gaussian and Moss' filter.
Date: February 4, 2006
Creator: Luengo Hendriks, Cris L. & Knowles, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Application of the Coda Methodology for Moment-Rate Spectra Using Broadband Stations in Turkey

Description: A recently developed coda magnitude methodology was applied to selected broadband stations in Turkey for the purpose of testing the coda method in a large, laterally complex region. As found in other, albeit smaller regions, coda envelope amplitude measurements are significantly less variable than distance-corrected direct wave measurements (i.e., L{sub g} and surface waves) by roughly a factor 3-to-4. Despite strong lateral crustal heterogeneity in Turkey, we found that the region could be adequately modeled assuming a simple 1-D, radially symmetric path correction for 10 narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.02 to 2.0 Hz. For higher frequencies however, 2-D path corrections will be necessary and will be the subject of a future study. After calibrating the stations ISP, ISKB, and MALT for local and regional distances, single-station moment-magnitude estimates (M{sub w}) derived from the coda spectra were in excellent agreement with those determined from multi-station waveform modeling inversions of long-period data, exhibiting a data standard deviation of 0.17. Though the calibration was validated using large events, the results of the calibration will extend M{sub w} estimates to significantly smaller events which could not otherwise be waveform modeled due to poor signal-to-noise ratio at long periods and sparse station coverage. The successful application of the method is remarkable considering the significant lateral complexity in Turkey and the simple assumptions used in the coda method.
Date: February 3, 2004
Creator: Eken, T; Mayeda, K; Hofstetter, A; Gok, R; Orgulu, G & Turkelli, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iteratively Weighted Centroiding for Shack-Hartmann Wave-Front Sensors

Description: Several techniques have been used with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to determine the local wave-front gradient across each lenslet. In this article we introduce an iterative weighted technique which is specifically targeted for open-loop applications such as aberrometers and metrology. In this article the iterative centroiding technique is compared to existing techniques such as center-of-mass with thresholding, weighted center-of-gravity, matched filter and cross-correlation. Under conditions of low signal-to-noise ratio, the iterative weighted centroiding algorithm is demonstrated to produce a lower variance in the reconstructed phase than existing techniques. The iteratively weighted algorithm was also compared in closed-loop and demonstrated to have the lowest error variance along with the weighted center-of-gravity, however, the iteratively weighted algorithm removes the bulk of the aberration in roughly half the iterations than the weighted center-of-gravity algorithm. This iterative weighted algorithm is also well suited to applications such as guiding on telescopes.
Date: February 28, 2007
Creator: Baker, K L & Moallem, M M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interference Mitigation in Transmitted-Reference UWB Receivers

Description: The transmitted-reference (TR) ultra-wideband transceivers [4] have recently become increasingly popular for their simplicity, capability to reduce the stringent UWB timing requirements, and robust performance in multipath channels. However, the performance of TR receivers is considerably limited by the severity of noise-on-noise component introduced by various types of channel noise such as additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) or narrowband interference (NBI) on the transmitted signal [6]. It is expected that such receivers will perform poorly at low signal-to-noise ratio links, or in the presence of strong narrowband interferers. In this paper we propose a novel technique that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers. The scheme efficiently processes the incoming signal to suppress different types of interference prior to signal detection. The method described introduces a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. The performance of a conventional TR receiver and a feedback loop TR receiver in the presence of AWGN and strong narrowband interference is investigated by analysis and computer simulations. Our studies show that the reference enhancing feedback loop mechanism greatly improves the robustness of the link performance of TR receivers in the presence of non-UWB interferes with modest increase in complexity.
Date: January 14, 2004
Creator: Spiridon, A; Nekoogar, F & Dowla, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System

Description: The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.
Date: January 31, 2007
Creator: Warpinski, Norm; Wolhart, Steve; Griffin, Larry & Davis, Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization Of Phase-Contrast Enhanced X-Ray Imaging Of D-T Layers

Description: Phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging has been demonstrated for characterization of D-T layers inside of beryllium shells. These first demonstrations used both scintillator and direct-detection imaging. This memo details tradeoffs between the two methods in order to optimize the imaging. The guiding principle for optimization is to minimize the exposure time while maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio at the D-T solid-vapor interface. Direct-detection and scintillator performance are comparable when imaging the full capsule. However, a scintillator allows for higher-resolution images necessary for studying local defects in the D-T layer.
Date: June 17, 2005
Creator: Kozioziemski, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Programmable matched filter and Hadamard transform hyperspectral imagers based on micro-mirror arrays

Description: Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), in which each pixel contains a high-resolution spectrum, is a powerful technique that can remotely detect, identify, and quantify a multitude of materials and chemicals. The advent of addressable micro-mirror arrays (MMAs) makes possible a new class of programmable hyperspectral imagers that can perform key spectral processing functions directly in the optical hardware, thus alleviating some of HSI's high computational overhead, as well as offering improved signal-to-noise in certain important regimes (e.g. when using uncooled infrared detectors). We have built and demonstrated a prototype UV-Visible micro-mirror hyperspectral imager that is capable not only of matched-filter imaging, but also of full hyperspectral imagery via the Hadamard transform technique. With this instrument, one can upload a chemical-specific spectral matched filter directly to the MMA, producing an image showing the location of that chemical without further processing. Target chemicals are changeable nearly instantaneously simply by uploading new matched-filter patterns to the MMA. Alternatively, the MMA can implement Hadamard mask functions, yielding a full-spectrum hyperspectral image upon inverting the transform. In either case, the instrument can produce the 2D spatial image either by an internal scan, using the MMA itself, or with a traditional external push-broom scan. The various modes of operation are selectable simply by varying the software driving the MMA. Here the design and performance of the prototype is discussed, along with experimental results confirming the signal-to-noise improvement produced by the Hadamard technique in the noisy-detector regime.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Love, Steven P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiplexed gas spectroscopy using tunable VCSELs

Description: Detection and identification of gas species using tunable laser diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been performed using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Two detection methods are compared: direct absorbance and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In the first, the output of a DC-based laser is directly monitored to detect for any quench at the targeted specie wavelength. In the latter, the emission wavelength of the laser is modulated by applying a sinusoidal component on the drive current of frequency {omega}, and measuring the harmonics component (2{omega}) of the photo-detected current. This method shows a better sensitivity measured as signal to noise ratio, and is less susceptible to interference effects such as scattering or fouling. Gas detection was initially performed at room temperature and atmospheric conditions using VCSELs of emission wavelength 763 nm for oxygen and 1392 nm for water, scanning over a range of approximately 10 nm, sufficient to cover 5-10 gas specific absorption lines that enable identification and quantization of gas composition. The amplitude and frequency modulation parameters were optimized for each detected gas species, by performing two dimensional sweeps for both tuning current and either amplitude or frequency, respectively. We found that the highest detected signal is observed for a wavelength modulation amplitude equal to the width of the gas absorbance lines, in good agreement with theoretical calculations, and for modulation frequencies below the time response of the lasers (<50KHz). In conclusion, we will discuss limit of detection studies and further implementation and packaging of VCSELs in diode arrays for continuous and simultaneous monitoring of multiple species in gaseous mixtures.
Date: April 10, 2012
Creator: Bond, T; Bond, S; McCarrick, J; Zumstein, J; Chang, A; Moran, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Network Sensitivity Solutions for Regional Moment Tensor Inversions

Description: Well-resolved moment tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. Here we introduce a new way of assessing confidence in the regional full moment tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type region for a given set of stations, and with it one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source-types with the best-fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit where the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion since the data contains some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviatoric source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. The earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (M{sub W}4.1) is dominantly explosion.
Date: June 5, 2009
Creator: Ford, S R; Dreger, D S & Walter, W R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new-generation EM system for the detection and classification of buried metallic objects

Description: A prime requirement in discrimination between UXO and non-UXO metallic fragments (clutter) is to determine accurately the response parameters that characterize a metallic object in the ground. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been involved in assessing and comparing existing systems, and designing an optimum system for UXO detection. A prototype of a new electromagnetic system will be built based on the results of this study. The detection and characterization of metallic objects can be considered a two-step process: location and identification. A multi-component transmitter-receiver system is essential for the identifying of the principal dipole moments of a target. The ground response imposes an early time limit on the time window available for target discrimination. Once the target response falls below the ground response, it will be poorly resolved, especially since the ground response itself will be variable due to the inhomogeneous nature of the near surface. For a given range of targets and given ambient noise characteristics, one can optimize system bandwidth so as to maximize the observable signal-to-noise ratio. A sensor with four or more decades of flat frequency response is needed to record the secondary magnetic fields associated with the target.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The question of whether and to what extent information on the pressures driving duct leaks can be extracted from the data taken during the Delta Q test for duct leakage is investigated. Curves of Delta Q vs. house pressure are generated for sets of cases where the supply and return leakage rates to/from outside are held constant while the leakage pressures are varied. It is found that the Delta Q curve takes on two qualitatively different shapes, one for leakage pressures within the range of house pressures used in the Delta Q test (i.e., -25 Pa to +25 Pa) and the other for leakage pressures well outside this range. These effects are seen in experimental data taken with leakage at known pressures. However, extracting the signal of the leakage pressure from the surrounding noise caused by random measurement variation is likely to be a difficult problem in many cases.
Date: February 1, 2002
Creator: ANDREWS,J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimized filtering of regional and teleseismic seismograms: results of maximizing SNR measurements from the wavelet transform and filter banks

Description: Development of a worldwide network to monitor seismic activity requires deployment of seismic sensors in areas which have not been well studied or may have from available recordings. Development and testing of detection and discrimination algorithms requires a robust representative set of calibrated seismic events for a given region. Utilizing events with poor signal-to-noise (SNR) can add significant numbers to usable data sets, but these events must first be adequately filtered. Source and path effects can make this a difficult task as filtering demands are highly varied as a function of distance, event magnitude, bearing, depth etc. For a given region, conventional methods of filter selection can be quite subjective and may require intensive analysis of many events. In addition, filter parameters are often overly generalized or contain complicated switching. We have developed a method to provide an optimized filter for any regional or teleseismically recorded event. Recorded seismic signals contain arrival energy which is localized in frequency and time. Localized temporal signals whose frequency content is different from the frequency content of the pre-arrival record are identified using rms power measurements. The method is based on the decomposition of a time series into a set of time series signals or scales. Each scale represents a time-frequency band with a constant Q. SNR is calculated for a pre-event noise window and for a window estimated to contain the arrival. Scales with high SNR are used to indicate the band pass limits for the optimized filter.The results offer a significant improvement in SNR particularly for low SNR events. Our method provides a straightforward, optimized filter which can be immediately applied to unknown regions as knowledge of the geophysical characteristics is not required. The filtered signals can be used to map the seismic frequency response of a region and may provide improvements ...
Date: July 15, 1997
Creator: Leach, R.R.; Schultz, C. & Dowla, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optics measurement resolution and BPM errors

Description: We study the impact of BPM resolution on optics measurements at various levels of complexity: (1) Formula linking a given distribution of BPM resolutions to the degree of precision to which any beam trajectory can be determined based on these BPM`s. (2) Formula for the precision achievable in a generalized experimental scheme measuring transfer matrices in the presence of (potentially coupled) orbit errors. (3) Formula constructed from results of (1) and (2) to relate the precision of the transfer matrix measurement to the signal-to-noise ratio of the BPM system. (4) Criterion defined to summarize how well the overall optical behavior of a large modular beam transport system can be quantified. The results from (1), (2) and (3) are used to arrive at the final analytical expression providing a generic criterion on BPM resolution for such systems. Realistic examples are discussed.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Chao, Yu-Chiu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Threshold detection in generalized non-additive signals and noise

Description: The classical theory of optimum (binary-on-off) threshold detection for additive signals and generalized (i.e. nongaussian) noise is extended to the canonical nonadditive threshold situation. In the important (and usual) applications where the noise is sampled independently, a canonical threshold optimum theory is outlined here, which is found formally to parallel the earlier additive theory, including the critical properties of locally optimum Bayes detection algorithms, which are asymptotically normal and optimum as well. The important Class A clutter model provides an explicit example of optimal threshold envelope detection, for the non-additive cases of signal and noise. Various extensions are noted in the concluding section, as are selected references.
Date: December 22, 1997
Creator: Middleton, D., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Feasibility of Monitoring Continuous Wave Sources with Seismic Arrays

Description: This paper identifies and explores the technical requirements and issues associated with remotely monitoring continuous wave (CW) sources with seismic arrays. Potential approaches to this monitoring problem will be suggested and partially evaluated to expose the monitoring challenges which arise when realistic local geologies and cultural noise sources are considered. The selective directionality and the adaptive noise cancellation properties of arrays are required to observe weak signals while suppressing a colored background punctuated with an unknown distribution of point and sometimes distributive sources. The array is also required to characterize the emitters and propagation environment so as to properly focus on the CW sources of interest while suppressing the remaining emitters. The proper application of arrays requires an appreciation of the complexity of propagation in a non-homogeneous earth. The heterogeneity often limits the available spatial coherence and therefore the size of the army. This adversely impacts the array gain and the array's ability to carefully resolve various emitters. Arrays must also contend with multipath induced by the source and the heterogeneous earth. If the array is to focus on an emitter and realize an enhancement in the signal to noise ratio, methods must be sought to coherently add the desired signal components while suppressing interference which may be correlated with the desired signal. The impact of these and other issues on army design and processing are described and discussed.
Date: March 15, 1999
Creator: Claassen, J.P.; Elbring, G. & Ladd, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter

Description: The authors present two figures of merit based on singular value decomposition which can be used to assess the noise immunity of a complete Stokes polarimeter. These are used to optimize a polarimeter consisting of a rotatable retarder and fixed polarizer. A retardance of 132{degree} (approximately three eights wave) and retarder orientation angles of {+-}51.7{degree} and {+-}15.1{degree} are found to be optimal when four measurements are used. Use of this retardance affords a factor of 1.5 improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over systems employing a quarter wave plate. A geometric means of visualizing the optimization process is discussed, and the advantages of the use of additional measurements are investigated. No advantage of using retarder orientation angles spaced uniformly through 360{degree} is found over repeated measurements made at the four angles given previously.
Date: January 13, 2000
Creator: Sabatke, D.S.; Descour, M.R.; Dereniak, E.L.; Sweatt, W.C.; Kemme, S.A. & Phipps, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

Description: Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T. & Macintosh, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase Encoding of Shots in Pre-Stack Seismic Migration

Description: Frequency-domain shot-record migration can produce higher quality images than Kirchhoff migration but typically at a greater cost. The computational cost of shot-record migration is the product of the number of shots in the survey and the expense of each individual migration. Many attempts to reduce this cost have focused on the speed of the individual migrations, trying to achieve a better trade-off between accuracy and speed. Another approach is to reduce the number of migrations. We investigate the simultaneous migration of shot records using frequency-domain shot-record migration algorithms. The difficulty with this approach is the production of so-called cross terms between unrelated shot and receiver wavefields, which generate unwanted artifacts or noise in the final image. To reduce these artifacts and obtain an image comparable in quality to the single-shot-per-migration result, we have introduced a process called phase encoding which shifts or disperses these cross terms. The process of phase encoding thus allows one to trade signal-to-noise ratio for the speed of migrating the entire survey. Several encoding functions and two application strategies have been tested. The first strategy, combining multiple shots per migration and using each shot only once, provides a reduction in computation directly related to the number of shots combined. The second strategy, performing multiple migrations of all the shots in the survey, provides a means to reduce the cross-term noise through stacking the resulting images. The additional noise in both strategies may be tolerated if it is no stronger than the inherent seismic noise in the migrated image, and if the final image is achieved with less cost.
Date: September 2, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department