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Transplanting trees and shrubs.

Description: Describes the most effective ways of transplanting trees and shrubs from one environment to another, including information regarding: root protection; correct planting methods; suitable soil; and how to properly prepare plants for transplanting.
Date: 1932
Creator: Mulford, Furman Lloyd, b. 1869
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

Description: Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.
Date: February 5, 2010
Creator: Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B & Brown, T A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Runoff and erosion from a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

Description: The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been a widely recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. A more complete understanding will come only through long-term observations of erosion and related factors. To this end, we are conducting a study of a small (1-ha) catchment in a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland. Since July 1993, we have been collecting data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions in the catchment, as well as on the topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results suggest that (1) the catchment is currently in a cycle of accelerated erosion that began concomitant with a shift from ponderosa pine forest to pinyon-juniper woodland that was initiated by a prolonged drought; (2) the intercanopy soils cannot be sustained at the current erosion rates and will be mostly stripped away in about a century; (3) large summer thunderstorms are the most important agents of erosion (4) erosion increases dramatically as the scale increases; (5) runoff makes up <10% of the water budget.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Wilcox, B.P.; Davenport, D. W.; Pitlick, J. & Allen, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landscaping for energy efficiency

Description: This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Genomes of three facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strainsreflect host plant biogeography

Description: Filamentous actinobacteria from the genus Frankia anddiverse woody trees and shrubs together form N2-fixing actinorhizal rootnodule symbioses that are a major source of new soil nitrogen in widelydiverse biomes 1. Three major clades of Frankia sp. strains are defined;each clade is associated with a defined subset of plants from among theeight actinorhizal plant families 2,3. The evolution arytrajectoriesfollowed by the ancestors of both symbionts leading to current patternsof symbiont compatibility are unknown. Here we show that the competingprocesses of genome expansion and contraction have operated in differentgroups of Frankia strains in a manner that can be related to thespeciation of the plant hosts and their geographic distribution. Wesequenced and compared the genomes from three Frankia sp. strains havingdifferent host plant specificities. The sizes of their genomes variedfrom 5.38 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (HFPCcI3) to 7.50Mbp for amedium host range strain (ACN14a) to 9.08 Mbp for a broad host rangestrain (EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported forsuch closely related bacteria. Since the order of divergence of thestrains is known, the extent of gene deletion, duplication andacquisition could be estimated and was found to be inconcert with thebiogeographic history of the symbioses. Host plant isolation favoredgenome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genomeexpansion. The results support the idea that major genome reductions aswell as expansions can occur in facultatively symbiotic soil bacteria asthey respond to new environments in the context of theirsymbioses.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, J.Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

Description: The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L. & Burrows, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of seed origin and irrigation on survival and growth of transplanted shrubs

Description: Revegetation is difficult in the Mojave Desert due to limited, erratic precipitation and extreme temperatures. Establishing plant cover by transplanting native shrubs is known to be a promising technique, but many questions still remain regarding its use on a large operational scale. A study was initiated on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site (NTS) to determine the effects of seed origin and irrigation on survival and growth of transplanted shrubs. Plants of three species (Larrea tridentata, Ambrosia dumosa, and Atriplex canescens) were grown in a greenhouse and hardened outdoors. Plants of all three species were produced from two seed sources: (1) seed collected from the NTS (Mojave Desert), and (2) commercially available seed collected from outside the NTS. One-year-old containerized plants (180 of each species) were transplanted to a site on the NTS and irrigated with two liters of water at one of the following frequencies: (1) at time of planting only, (2) at time of planting and monthly during the first growing season, and (3) at time of planting and twice monthly during the first growing season. After 16 months, survival of all species was generally greater than 80% and was unaffected by irrigation treatments. Survival of fourwing saltbush was significantly greater from local versus non-local seed. Survival of bursage and creosotebush was generally unaffected by seed origin. Shrub volumes regardless of species or seed origin increased during the first growing season, and then decreased during the second growing season. Shrub volumes for fourwing saltbush were significantly greater for shrubs from local versus non-local seed.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Winkel, V.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Graves Property - Yakama Nation.

Description: A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Graves property (140 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also documented the general ecological condition of the property. The Graves property was significantly damaged from past/present livestock grazing practices. Baseline HEP surveys generated 284.28 habitat units (HUs) or 2.03 HUs per acre. Of these, 275.50 HUs were associated with the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type while 8.78 HUs were tied to the riparian shrub cover type.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Ashley, Paul & Muse, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge

Description: The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge. The two map products described in this report are (1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and (2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Tagestad, Jerry D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

Description: One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.
Date: February 10, 2007
Creator: Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y & Solomatkina, T B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beautifying the home grounds.

Description: Describes practical and aesthetic uses for trees, shrubs, and vines in home landscapes. Discusses the benefits of home landscape planning.
Date: 1909
Creator: United States. Dept. of Agriculture.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (&lt; 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: APPLE, M. E.; THEE, C. I.; SMITH-LONGOZO, V. L.; COGAR, C. R.; WELLS, C. E. & NOWAK, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Weathering characteristics of minesoils and rooting patterns of key shrub and grass species were evaluated at sites reclaimed for 6 to 14 years from three surface coal mine operations in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona. Non-weathered minesoils were grouped into 11 classifications based on electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Comparisons of saturated paste extracts, from non-weathered and weathered minesoils show significant (p &lt; 0.05) reductions in SAR levels and increased EC. Weathering increased the apparent stability of saline and sodic minesoils thereby reducing concerns of aggregate slaking and clay particle dispersion. Root density of four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canascens), alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), and Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys junceus) were nominally affected by increasing EC and SAR levels in minesoil. Results suggest that saline and sodic minesoils can be successfully reclaimed when covered with topsoil and seeded with salt tolerant plant species.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Musslewhite, Brent & Jin, Song
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of interrelated biotic and abiotic processes during the past 125,000 years of landscape evolution in the Northern Mojave Desert, Nevada, USA

Description: Interrelated, biotic (flora and fauna) and abiotic (pedogenesis and hydrology) processes were examined at four sites (30, and approximately 1000-3000, 7000-12,000, and 125,000 years before present) in the northern Mojave Desert. Data collected at each included floral and faunal surveys; soil texture, structure, and morphology; and soil hydraulic properties. Separate measurements were made in shrub undercanopy and intercanopy microsites. At all sites, shrubs made up greater than 86 percent of total perennial cover, being least on the youngest site (4 percent) and most on the 7000-12,000-year-old site (31 percent). In the intercanopy, winter annual density was highest on the 1000- to 3000-year-old site (249 plants/m{sup 2}) and lowest on the oldest site (4 plants/m{sup 2}). Faunal activity, measured by burrow density, was highest on the 1000-3000- and 7000-12,000-year-old sites (0.21 burrows/m{sup 2}) and density was twice as high in the undercanopy versus the intercanopy. Burrow density was lower at the two oldest sites, although density was not statistically greater in the undercanopy than intercanopy. At the older sites, the soil water balance was increasingly controlled by Av horizons in intercanopy soils in which saturated hydraulic conductivity (K{sub sat}) decreased 95 percent from the youngest to the oldest site. No significant reduction in K{sub sat} in undercanopy soils was observed. Decreases in the intercanopy sites correlated with decreases in annual plant density and bioturbation, suggesting these processes are interrelated with surface age.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Shafer, D.S.; Young, M.H.; Zitzer, S.F.; Caldwell, T.G. & McDonald, E.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report Wanaket Wildlife Area, Techical Report 2005-2006.

Description: The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Wildlife Program staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Wanaket Wildlife Management Area in June 2005. The 2005 HEP investigation generated 3,084.48 habitat units (HUs) for a net increase of 752.18 HUs above 1990/1995 baseline survey results. The HU to acre ratio also increased from 0.84:1.0 to 1.16:1.0. The largest increase in habitat units occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type (California quail and western meadowlark models), which increased from 1,544 HUs to 2,777 HUs (+43%), while agriculture cover type HUs were eliminated because agricultural lands (managed pasture) were converted to shrubsteppe/grassland. In addition to the agriculture cover type, major changes in habitat structure occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type due to the 2001 wildfire which removed the shrub component from well over 95% of its former range. The number of acres of all other cover types remained relatively stable; however, habitat quality improved in the riparian herb and riparian shrub cover types. The number and type of HEP species models used during the 2005 HEP analysis were identical to those used in the 1990/1995 baseline HEP surveys. The number of species models employed to evaluate the shrubsteppe/grassland, sand/gravel/mud/cobble, and riparian herb cover types, however, were fewer than reported in the McNary Dam Loss Assessment (Rassmussen and Wright 1989) for the same cover types.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Ashley, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of new high resolution image collection and processing techniques for estimating shrub cover and detecting landscape changes associated with military training in arid lands

Description: Research funded by the US Department of Defense, US Department of Energy, and the US Environmental Protection Agency as part of Project CS-1131 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program evaluated novel techniques for collecting high-resolution images in the Mojave Desert using helicopters, helium-filled blimps, kites, and hand-held telescoping poles at heights from 1 to 150 meters. Several camera types, lens, films, and digital techniques were evaluated on the basis of their ability to correctly estimate canopy cover of shrubs. A high degree of accuracy was obtained with photo scales of 1:4,000 or larger and flatbed scanning rates from films or prints of 300 lines per inch or larger. Smaller scale images were of value in detecting retrospective changes in cover of large shrubs, but failed to detect smaller shrubs. Excellent results were obtained using inexpensive 35-millimeter cameras and new super-fine grain film such as Kodak's Royal Gold{trademark} (ASA 100) film or megapixel digital cameras. New image-processing software, such as SigmaScan Pro{trademark}, makes it possible to accurately measure areas up to 1 hectare in size for total cover and density in 10 minutes compared to several hours or days of field work. In photographs with scales of 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, it was possible to detect cover and density of up to four dominant shrub species. Canopy cover and other parameters such as width, length, feet diameter, and shape factors can be nearly instantaneously measured for each individual shrub yielding size distribution histograms and other statistical data on plant community structure. Use of the technique is being evaluated in a four-year study of military training impacts at Fort Irwin, California, and results compared with image processing using conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery, including the new 1-meter pixel IKONOS images. The technique is a valuable new emerging tool to accurately ...
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Hansen, D.J. & Ostler, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research to develop improved production methods for woody and herbaceous biomass crops

Description: DOE`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) has led the nation in developing short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and herbaceous energy crops (HEC) as feedstocks for renewable energy. Over the past 15 years, the BFDP has examined the performance of 154 woody species and 35 herbaceous species in field trials across the US. One result of this effort to date has been the prescription of silvicultural systems for hybrid poplars and hybrid willows and agricultural systems for switchgrass. Selected clones of woody species are producing dry weight yields in research plots on agricultural land that are 3 to 7 times greater than those obtained from mixed species stands on forest land, and at least 2 times the yields of southern plantation pines. Selected switchgrass varieties are producing dry weight yields 2 to 7 times greater than average forage grass yields on similar sites. Crop development research is continuing efforts to translate this potential, in a sustainable manner, to larger, more geographically diverse acreage. Research on environmental aspects of biomass crop production are aimed at developing sustainable systems that will contribute to the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. Systems integration aims to understand all factors affecting bringing the crop to market. Factors affecting price and potential supplies of biomass crops are being evaluated at regional and national scales. Scale-up studies, feasibility analysis and demonstrations are establishing actual costs and facilitating the commercialization of integrated biomass systems. Information management and dissemination activities are facilitating the communication of results among a community of researchers, policymakers, and potential users and producers of energy crops.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Ferrell, J.E.; Wright, L.L. & Tuskan, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

Description: This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.
Date: April 16, 2002
Creator: Brown, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How to Get the Biggest Bang for Your Buck: Wildlife Monitoring on Shrublands of the Nevada Test Site

Description: The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers 1,375 square miles and extends over portions of both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The resulting diverse and complex flora and fauna exhibit elements of both deserts. There are 20 vegetation associations, composed primarily of shrubs, nested within 10 vegetation alliances. Of the more than 1,200 invertebrates and 339 vertebrates found in these shrubland habitats, 267 are considered sensitive or protected/regulated by federal or state laws. Wildlife and wildlife habitat monitoring ensures NTS activities comply with all federal and state laws enacted for the protection of these valuable biological resources. This paper describes the monitoring approach used at this large site. Monitoring techniques include conducting preactivity surveys, repeated sampling of permanent plots, proactively monitoring sensitive species, and collaborating with other agencies and biologists. Ways to make monitoring more efficient and examples of successful monitoring and collaborations are discussed.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Derek Hall, Paul D. Greger
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence and Implications of Frequent Fires in Ancient Shrub Tundra

Description: Understanding feedbacks between terrestrial and atmospheric systems is vital for predicting the consequences of global change, particularly in the rapidly changing Arctic. Fire is a key process in this context, but the consequences of altered fire regimes in tundra ecosystems are rarely considered, largely because tundra fires occur infrequently on the modern landscape. We present paleoecological data that indicate frequent tundra fires in northcentral Alaska between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago. Charcoal and pollen from lake sediments reveal that ancient birchdominated shrub tundra burned as often as modern boreal forests in the region, every 144 years on average (+/- 90 s.d.; n = 44). Although paleoclimate interpretations and data from modern tundra fires suggest that increased burning was aided by low effective moisture, vegetation cover clearly played a critical role in facilitating the paleo-fires by creating an abundance of fine fuels. These records suggest that greater fire activity will likely accompany temperature-related increases in shrub-dominated tundra predicted for the 21st century and beyond. Increased tundra burning will have broad impacts on physical and biological systems as well as land-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, including the potential to release stored organic carbon to the atmosphere.
Date: March 6, 2008
Creator: Higuera, P E; Brubaker, L B; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Kennedy, A T & Hu, F S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

West Foster Creek 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report.

Description: A follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the West Foster Creek (Smith acquisition) wildlife mitigation site in May 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance and maintain the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The West Foster Creek 2007 follow-up HEP survey generated 2,981.96 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for a 34% increase (+751.34 HUs) above baseline HU credit (the 1999 baseline HEP survey generated 2,230.62 habitat units or 1.13 HUs per acre). The 2007 follow-up HEP analysis yielded 1,380.26 sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) habitat units, 879.40 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) HUs, and 722.29 western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) habitat units. Mule deer and sharp-tailed grouse habitat units increased by 346.42 HUs and 470.62 HUs respectively over baseline (1999) survey results due largely to cessation of livestock grazing and subsequent passive restoration. In contrast, the western meadowlark generated slightly fewer habitat units in 2007 (-67.31) than in 1999, because of increased shrub cover, which lowers habitat suitability for that species.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Ashley, Paul R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department