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EXAMINATION OF FIBERBOARD FROM SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-01819

Description: Upon opening package 9975-01819 following approximately 5.5 years storage in KAMS, it was observed that the fiberboard was moldy, and the total height of the fiberboard assemblies was less than normal. Observations and measurements have since been made on three subsequent occasions. The available information indicates that the package contained approximately 2.5 liters of water in excess of what would normally exist within the fiberboard. This excess moisture led to a significant loss of fiberboard strength, the subsequent compression of the bottom layers, and the growth of mold observed on both the upper and lower fiberboard assemblies. In its current state, the fiberboard from this package retains a density (related to the criticality control function) within the range measured in other packages. The amount of excess moisture present is modest throughout most of the fiberboard, and its effect on thermal conductivity should be small. The thermal conductivity should increase significantly only near the bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly where the majority of excess moisture was found. The impact absorption capability is affected, and the ability of the fiberboard to perform this function in the current state must be evaluated. The longer such a condition persists, the greater the impact on fiberboard mechanical properties.
Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Daugherty, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assembly procedure for Shot Loading Platform

Description: This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Shot Loading Platform. The Shot Loading Platform is used by multiple equipment removal projects to load shielding shot in the annular spaces of the equipment storage containers. The platform height is adjustable to accommodate different sizes of storage containers and transport assemblies.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Routh, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of proposed free release criteria for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory lead

Description: The INEL Lead Management Project (LMP) performed an investigation of the origin of lead used as shielding at the INEL and developed radiological profile information that was then used to establish a baseline for the DOE ``no-rad-added`` standard. Primary findings of the investigation include the following: (a) Much of the lead at the INEL was obtained from a DOE lead bank; (b) Lead inventory at the DOE lead bank was derived primarily from recycled sources and was most likely in the form of pure lead; (c) Secondary lead (lead from recycled sources), available in today`s market, is expected to have radiological characteristics similar to those of the DOE lead bank; (d) Highly sensitive radiological testing of 20 samples of lead from secondary sources revealed the lead to be radiologically pristine. Beta-, gamma-, and alpha-emitting radionuclide concentrations were all found to be less than detectable, except for a very small quantity of lead-210 (an alpha emitter), which is a naturally occurring isotope of lead. Based on the pristine nature of lead, a proposed free release criterion for lead was developed based on a statistical null hypothesis approach. The free release criterion compares the natural background count of a clean lead standard with the natural background count of a sample. When the sample background count cannot be distinguished as different from the standard background count at the 95% confidence level, then the sample is considered radiologically clean.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Losinski, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielding materials for high-energy neutrons

Description: The authors used the Monte Carlo transport code Los Alamos High-Energy Transport (LAHET) to study the shielding effectiveness of common shielding materials for high-energy neutrons. The source neutron spectrum was from the interaction of an 800-MeV proton beam and iron target. In a normal incident, the neutrons collided with walls made of six common shielding materials: water, concrete, iron, lead, polyethylene, and soil. The walls were of four different thicknesses: 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm. They then tallied the neutron spectra on the other side of the shielding wall and calculated the neutron doses. For the high-Z materials--iron and lead--they find that many neutrons with energies between 1--10 MeV are created when high-energy neutrons interact with shielding materials. For materials containing low-Z elements--water, soil, concrete, and polyethylene--the spectra show higher energy peaks at about 100 MeV. The studies show that for a given wall thickness, concrete is more effective than the other materials. They also studied the effectiveness of combinations of materials, such as concrete and water, concrete and soil, iron and polyethylene, or iron polyethylene and concrete.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Hsu, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiologically contaminated lead shot reuse at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

Description: This project involved the utilization of radioactively contaminated lead shot located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for radiation shielding on a radioactive liquid process tank located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). The use of previously contaminated shot precludes the radioactive contamination of clean shot. With limited treatment and disposal options for contaminated lead shot, the reuse of lead for shielding is significant due to the inherent characteristic of becoming a mixed waste when radiologically contaminated. The INEL conducted a lead cleanup campaign in 1990. This was designed to ensure control of potential Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated waste. Contaminated lead from throughout the INEL, was containerized per the lead Waste Acceptance Criteria at the generator sites. Limited areas at the INEL are designated for mixed waste storage. As a result, some of the lead was stored at the RWMC in the air support weather shield (ASWS). This lead was contaminated with small amounts of fission product contamination. The lead was in the form of shot, brick, sheet, casks, and other various sized pieces. In 1993, ANL-W identified a need for lead shot to be used as shielding in a radioactive liquid waste storage and processing tank at the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The contaminated lead used on this project had been in storage as mixed waste at the RWMC. This paper will focus on the processes and problems encountered to utilize the contaminated lead shot.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Heileson, W.M. & Grant, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The influence of phase changes on debris-cloud interactions with protected structures

Description: The physical state of the debris cloud generated by the interaction of a projectile with a thin target depends on the energy balance associated with above the sound speeds of the impact event. At impact velocities well materials involved, the cloud is expected to be primarily molten, but with some vapor present. A series of numerical calculations using the multi-dimensional finite-difference hydrocode CTH has been used to evaluate the effect of phase changes (i.e., different vapor fractions) on these clouds, and their subsequent interaction with backwall structures. In the calculations, higher concentrations of vapor are achieved by increasing the initial temperature of both the projectile and the thin shield while keeping the impact velocity constant, and by actually increasing the impact velocity. The nature of the debris cloud and its subsequent loading on the protected structure depend on both its thermal and physical state. This interaction can cause rupture, spallation or simply bulging of the backwall. These computational results are discussed and compared with new experimental observations obtained at an impact velocity of {approximately}10 km/s. In the experiment, the debris cloud was generated by the impact of a plate-shaped titanium projectile with a thin titanium shield.
Date: May 16, 1994
Creator: Lawrence, R. J.; Kmetyk, L. N. & Chhabildas, L. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPACE VEHICLE SHIELDING STUDIES. PART II. THE ATTENUATION OF SOLAR FLARES BY ALUMINUM SHIELDS

Description: Using the straight-ahead approximation, nucleon-meson cascade calculations were carried out for several solarflare proton spectra incident on a shield. The shield material has approximately the properties of aluminum. Both spherical-shell and slab geometries are considered. (auth)
Date: January 24, 1964
Creator: Alsmiller, R.G. Jr. & Murphy, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH DENSITY SLAG CONCRETE

Description: Test results are presented that show that a strong concrete weighing approximately 185 lb/ft/sup 3/ can be made using water, waste lead slag, and Ciment Fondu. Feasibility, materials, mortar tests, concrete tests, and Ciment Fondu concretes are discussed. A 24-in.-thick concrete shield wall would have to be increased in thickness by 5 in. if slag concrete is used in place of barytes or magnetite concrete. On a pound-for-pound basis, the waste lead slag concrete materials were 30% cheaper than barytes and magnetite concrete materials. (M.C.G.)
Date: August 1, 1963
Creator: Northup, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Waste Disposal System Periodic Radiation Monitoring Survey. Core I, Seed 1. Test Results T-612075. Section 2

Description: The radiation level of all permanently installed mom-tored points in the Hadioactive Waste Disposal Plant was determined periodically, and the effectiveness of shielding facilities in working areas at times during which the radiation level was above limits set up by Health Physics was checked. The radiation level in all areas surveyed was less than 5 mr/hr, which is the Health Physics' limitation for the Radioactive Waste Disposal Area. Any area with a level abeve 5 mr/hr is a controlled access area posted with warning signs. (auth)
Date: October 10, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shield Weights

Description: Shield weights were calculated for a number of fast reactors having desirable engineering characteristics using the Shield Optimization code. On the basis of these calculations, a Design Fast Reactor was chosen. This reactor, henceforth known as the PWAR-9, has a 12.75 inch core O.R. with a 2 inch Ni reflector. The reactor-shield weight and weight components for a supersonic mission, 2 man crew compartment, are given in table 1. The rpesent shield design uses U and LiR as shielding materials on the reactor and U and plastic on the crew compartment. No intermediate heat exchanger is used since hot Na is pumped directly to the engines. The dose from the activated Na is taken into account by putting more shielding on the crew compartment. No patch weights on the reactor have been added since it is estimated that little will be needed.
Date: July 31, 1957
Creator: Woodsum, H.C. & Rost, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100 Areas technical activities report - physics, July 1951

Description: This is the monthly 100 areas technical activities report for the physics group for the month of July 1951. This group was concerned with pile related studies. Work discussed includes neutron attenuation measurements in pile shielding test facilities, studies of physical properties of shielding materials (concrete), work on a xenon generator and separation facility, further development and shielding work for a neutron spectrometer, continued work on a magnetic spectrometer, and counting equipment. Studies of neutron fluxes from exponential piles, and criticality studies are also discussed.
Date: August 3, 1951
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielding requirements for K Basin waste transfer line

Description: K-East Basin sludge, mixed with water, is to be transported to the tank farms using a high integrity container mounted on a trailer. Load considerations preclude driving the truck directly to the tank opening. Thus, it is envisioned that a transfer line will run from a tanker unloading point to a point where the waste can be injected into a waste tank. It is presently envisioned that the waste will be pumped from the truck to the tank in a three inch pipe which is encased inside a six inch pipe. The transfer line will be shielded by either berming earth with a density of approximately 2.00 g/cm{sup 3} (125 lb/ft{sup 3}) around the line, or constructing a concrete raceway.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Goldberg, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department