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Thermodynamics for separation-process technology

Description: When contemplating or designing a separation process, every chemical engineer at once recognizes the thermodynamic boundary conditions that must be satisfied: when a mixture is continuously processed to yield at least partially purified products, energy and mass must be conserved and work must be done. In his daily tasks, a chemical engineer uses thermodynamic concepts as tacit, almost subconscious, knowledge. Thus, qualitative thermodynamics significantly informs process conception at its most fundamental level. However, quantitative design requires detailed knowledge of thermodynamic relations and physical chemistry. Most process engineers, concerned with flow sheets and economics, cannot easily command that detailed knowledge and therefore it is advantageous for them to maintain close contact with those specialists who do. Quantitative chemical thermodynamics provides an opportunity to evaluate possible separation processes not only because it may give support to the process engineer`s bold imagination but also because, when coupled with molecular models, it can significantly reduce the experimental effort required to determine an optimum choice of process alternatives. Six examples are presented to indicate the application of thermodynamics for conventional and possible future separation processes.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Prausnitz, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPURITIES IN RECLAIMED LEAD CASTINGS

Description: The nature of impurities found in reclaimed Pb and the effects of their inclusion in castings were investigated. It was concluded that impurities are difficult to remove and may result in unwanted casting characteristics. Recommendations for Pb reclamation are listed. (J.R.D.)
Date: August 1, 1958
Creator: Shepherd, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department