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Microseismic Monitoring of the Mounds Drill Cuttings Injection Tests

Description: This paper describes the microseismic mapping of repeated injections of drill cuttings into two separate formations at a test site near Mounds, OK. Injections were performed in sandstone and shale formations at depths of 830 and 595 m, respectively. Typical injection disposal was simulated using multiple small-volume injections over a three-day period, with long shut-in periods interspersed between the injections. Microseismic monitoring was achieved using a 5-level array of wireline-run, triaxial- accelerometer receivers in a monitor well 76 m from the disposed well. Results of the mapped microseismic locations showed that the disposal domti W= generally aligns with the major horizontal stress with some variations in azimuth and that wide variations in height and length growth occurred with continued injections. These experiments show that the cuttings injection process cm be adequately monitored from a downhole, wireline-run receiver array, thus providing process control and environmental assurance.
Date: January 25, 1999
Creator: Branagan, P.T.; Mahrer, K.D.; Moschovidis, Z.A.; Warpinski, N.R. & Wolhart, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic studies for Fermilab future collider projects

Description: Ground motion can cause significant beam emittance growth and orbit oscillations in large hadron colliders due to a vibration of numerous focusing magnets. Larger accelerator ring circumference leads to smaller revolution frequency and, e.g. for the Fermilab Very Large Hadron Collider(VLHC) 50-150 Hz vibrations are of particular interest as they are resonant with the beam betatron frequency. Seismic measurements at an existing large accelerator under operation can help to estimate the vibrations generated by the technical systems in future machines. Comparison of noisy and quiet microseismic conditions might be useful for proper choice of technical solutions for future colliders. This article presents results of wide-band seismic measurements at the Fermilab site, namely, in the tunnel of the Tevatron and on the surface nearby, and in two deep tunnels in the Illinois dolomite which is though to be a possible geological environment of the future accelerators.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Lauh, J. & Shiltsev, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional characterization of Western China

Description: Geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized into a knowledge base for Western China as part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort. We have begun our analysis using data from the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) we have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Surface wave group velocities will be measured and inverted for regional structure. Preliminary noise spectra for WMQ have been obtained from the IRIS DMC. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and SSB are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. We have identified the locations of nearly 500 mines in China for inclusion in the knowledge base. Future work will involve expanding the data collection and analysis efforts to a larger region using data from additional CDSN, IRIS and portable stations.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Randall, G.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Warren, R.G. & Cogbill, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2009

Description: The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. This includes three recently acquired Transportable Array stations located at Cold Creek, Didier Farms, and Phinney Hill. For the Hanford Seismic Network, ten local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2009. All earthquakes were considered as “minor” with magnitudes (Mc) less than 1.0. Two earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), most likely in the Columbia River basalts; five earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the sub-basalt sediments); and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, four earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events.
Date: March 15, 2009
Creator: Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E. & Devary, Joseph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

Description: The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, seven local earthquakes were recorded during the second quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the second quarter (February 3, 2008 - magnitude 2.3 Mc) was located northeast of Richland in Franklin County at a depth of 22.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, two earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), three earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and two earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, five earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and two earthquakes were classified as random events.
Date: June 26, 2008
Creator: Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E. & Devary, Joseph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global optimization for multisensor fusion in seismic imaging

Description: The accurate imaging of subsurface structures requires the fusion of data collected from large arrays of seismic sensors. The fusion process is formulated as an optimization problem and yields an extremely complex energy surface. Due to the very large number of local minima to be explored and escaped from, the seismic imaging problem has typically been tackled with stochastic optimization methods based on Monte Carlo techniques. Unfortunately, these algorithms are very cumbersome and computationally intensive. Here, the authors present TRUST--a novel deterministic algorithm for global optimization that they apply to seismic imaging. The excellent results demonstrate that TRUST may provide the necessary breakthrough to address major scientific and technological challenges in fields as diverse as seismic modeling, process optimization, and protein engineering.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Barhen, J.; Protopopescu, V. & Reister, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE natural phenomenal hazards design and evaluation criteria

Description: It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct, and operate DOE facilities so that workers, the general public, and the environment are protected from the impacts of natural phenomena hazards (NPH). Furthermore, DOE has established explicit goals of acceptable risk for NPH performance. As a result, natural phenomena hazard (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation NPH input from probabilistic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. For earthquake considerations, conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of target quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but have a rigorous basis. This paper addresses DOE seismic design and evaluation criteria.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Chander, H.; Hill, J.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED APPROACH FOR NEXT GENERATION, HIGH RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

Description: Work during this reporting period focused primarily on data processing in support of creation of the broadband transform function. Project participants processed seismic data and calculated attributes on that data, performed log clustering, produced a rock physics model, and completed the creation of the engineering model relating well logs and core data. These elements are essential input for the creation of the broadband transform function.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Reeves, Scott R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single well seismic imaging of a gas-filled hydrofracture

Description: A single well seismic survey was conducted at the Lost Hills, Ca oil field in a monitoring well as part of a CO2 injection test. The source was a piezoelectric seismic source and the sensors were a string of hydrophones hanging below the source. The survey was processed using standard CMP reflection seismology techniques. A potential reflection event was observed and interpreted as being caused by a near vertical hydrofracture. The radial distance between the survey well and the hydrofracture is estimated from Kirchoff migration using a velocity model derived from cross well seismic tomography. The hydrofracture location imaged after migration agrees with the location of an existing hydrofracture.
Date: August 19, 2003
Creator: Daley, Thomas M.; Gritto, Roland & Majer, Ernest L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

Description: A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general--and the Riverton Dome area specially--is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi{sup 2} and 30 mi {sup 2}) and a variety of other necessary geological and geophysical information.
Date: August 1, 1999
Creator: Surdam, Dr. Ronald C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: The overall purpose of the proposed project is to improve secondary recovery performance of a marginal oil field through the use of an appropriate reservoir management plan. The selection of plan will be based on the detailed reservoir description using integrated approach. We expect that 2 to 5 % of original oil in place will be recovered using this method. This should extend the life of the reservoir by at least 10 years. The project is divided into two stages. In Stage I of the project, we selected part of the Glenn Pool field - Self Unit. We conducted cross bore hole tomography surveys and formation micro scanner logs through newly drilled well. By combining the state of the art data with conventional core and log data, we developed a detailed reservoir description based on integrated approach. After conducting extensive reservoir simulation studies, we evaluated alternate reservoir management strategies to improve the reservoir performance including drilling of a horizontal injection well. We observed that selective completion of many wells followed by an increase in the injection rate was the most feasible option to improve the performance of the Unit. This management plan is currently being implemented and the performance is being monitored. Stage 11 of the project will involve selection of part of the same reservoir (Berryhill Unit - Tract 7), development of reservoir description using only conventional data, simulation of flow performance using developed reservoir description, selection of an appropriate reservoir management plan, and implementation of the plan followed by monitoring of reservoir performance. By comparing the results of two budget periods, we will be able to evaluate the utility of collecting additional data using state-of-the-art technology. In addition, we will also be able to evaluate the application of optimum reservoir management plan in improving secondary recovery performance of ...
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Kelkar, B.G.; Liner, C. & Kerr, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Annual report, August 1994--July 1995

Description: This report details the field work undertaken Blackhawk Geosciences and Lynn, Inc. during August 1994 to July 1995 at a gas field in the Wind River Basin in central Wyoming. The work described herein consisted of four parts: 9C VSP in a well at the site; additional processing of the previously recorded 3D P-wave survey on the site and Minivibrator testing; and planning and acquisition of a 3-D, 3-C seismic survey. The objectives of all four parts were to characterize the nature of anisotropy in the reservoir. With the 9C VSP, established practices were used to achieve this objective in the immediate vicinity of the well. The additional processing of the 3-D uses developmental techniques to determine areas of fractures in 3-D surveys. With the multicomponent studies, tests were conducted to establish the feasibility of surface recording of the anisotropic reservoir rocks. The 3-D, 3-C survey will provide both compressional and shear wave data sets over areas of known fracturing to verify the research.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution

Description: To characterize the Buena Vista Hills field, the authors have implemented methods of modeling, processing and interpretation. The modeling methods are based on deterministic and stochastic solutions. Deterministic solutions were developed in Phase 1 and applied in Phase 2 to simulate acoustic responses of laminated reservoirs. Specifically, the simulations were aimed at implementing processing techniques to correct P-wave and S-wave velocity logs for scattering effects caused by thin layering. The authors are also including a summary of the theory and the processing steps of this new method for predicting intrinsic dispersion and attenuation in Section 2. Since the objective for correcting velocity scattering effects is to predict intrinsic dispersion from velocity data, they are presenting an application to illustrate how to relate permeability anisotropy with intrinsic dispersion. Also, the theoretical solution for calculating full waveform dipole sonic that was developed in Phase 1 was applied to simulate dipole responses at different azimuthal source orientations. The results will be used to interpret the effects of anisotropy associated with the presence of vertical fractures at Buena Vista Hills. The results of the integration of core, well logs, and geology of Buena Vista Hills is also given in Section 2. The results of this integration will be considered as the input model for the inversion technique for processing production data. Section 3 summarizes accomplishments. In Section 4 the authors present a summary of the technology transfer and promotion efforts associated with this project. In the last section, they address the work to be done in the next six months and future work by applying the processing, modeling and inversion techniques developed in Phases 1 and 2 of this project.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Parra, J.O.; Hackett, C.L.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A. & Datta-Gupta, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of in-structure design spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site

Description: In-structure response spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site are developed on the basis of recent soil-structure-interaction analyses. Recommended design spectra are provided for various locations on the tank dome.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Julyk, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

Description: This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC`s seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility`s structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a {open_quotes}reality basis{close_quotes} for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Huggins, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing the Weeks Island Salt Dome drilling of and seismic measurements from boreholes

Description: A sinkhole 36 ft across, 30 ft deep was first observed in the alluvium over the Weeks Island Salt Dome (salt mine converted for oil storage by US Strategic Petroleum Reserve) May 1992. Four vertical, two slanted boreholes were drilled for diagnostics. Crosswell seismic data were generated; the velocity images suggest that the sinkhole collapse is complicated, not a simple vertical structure. The coring operation was moderately difficult; limited core was obtained through the alluvium, and the quality of the salt core from the first two vertical wells was poor. Core quality improved with better bit selection, mud, and drilling method. The drilling fluid program provided fairly stable holes allowing open hole logs to be run. All holes were cemented successfully (although it took 3 attempts in one case).
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Sattler, A.R.; Harding, R.S.; Jacobson, R.D.; Finger, J.T.; Keefe, R. & Neal, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gypsy field project in reservoir characterization. Quarterly report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

Description: The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: O`Meara, D.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strong ground motion synthesis along the Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone using empirical Green`s functions

Description: We synthesize strong ground motion from a M=7.25 earthquake along the NW-trending Sanyi-Tungshih-Puli seismic zone. This trend extends from Houlong to Taichung and forms a nearly continuous 78 km long seismic zone identified by the occurrence of M<5 events. It extends from a shallow depth all the way down to about 40 km. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital CWBSN data now provided routinely by CWBSN, it becomes possible to use these data as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. the synthesized ground motions obtained for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute acceleration response values.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.; Kasameyer, P.; Wu, F.T.; Rau, R.-J. & Jarpe, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using seismology for regional confidence building

Description: Confidence building between regional parties can be facilitated through cooperative seismological research activities. Shared data, facilities, technology, and research results can (1) assure participants that nuclear testing is not taking place, (2) provide information that can be used to characterize the geophysical parameters of a region for earthquake hazard mitigation, and (3) support basic seismic research.
Date: March 1997
Creator: Nakanishi, K. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department