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Water-Quality and Fluvial-Sediment Characteristics of Selected Streams in Northeast Kansas

Description: From purpose and scope: The purposes of this investigation were to: (1) establish a data base for water-quality and fluvial-sediment characteristics of selected streams that will serve as a basis for documenting current (1982) conditions, (2) develop relationships between streamflow or specific conductance and water-quality characteristics that can be used to describe water-quality characteristics and determine discharges of dissolved solids, and (3) develop relationships between streamflow and suspended sediment that can be used to determine suspended sediment discharges of streams in the study area.
Date: 1982
Creator: Bevans, Hugh E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of Backswamp Sediments: Atchafalaya Test Section 6, Atchafalaya Levee System, Louisiana

Description: This report describes the results of a series of tests on soil borings taken in Atchafalaya Test Section VI, a 2000-ft-long portion of the Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee System in south-central Louisiana. The samples were tested to interpret the depositional layers in the foundations soils and to determine various engineering properties.
Date: May 1970
Creator: Krinitzsky, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restored Drill Cuttings for Wetlands Creation: Year One Results of a Mesocosm Approach to Emulate Field Conditions Under Varying Hydrologic Regimes

Description: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that restored drill cuttings, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, can be safely used in coastal as well as inland wetland restoration projects. Prior to conducting laboratory experiments, composite soil samples of the recycled sediments were analyzed for pH and heavy metal concentrations.
Date: February 21, 2001
Creator: Shaffer, Gary P.; W., Hester Mark; Greene, Michael C. & W., Childers Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemistry of Background Sediment Samples at Technical Area 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: This report presents results of chemical analyses of 24 analytes in 16 background sediment samples collected from Ancho Canyon and Indio Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Preliminary upper tolerance limits (UTLS) for sediments are calculated from this data set but, because of the small sample size, these UTLs exceed the maximum values in the data set by up to 50'ZO and will require revision as more background sediment data are obtained.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: McDonald, Eric V.; Campbell, Katherine; Longmire, Patrick A. & Reneau, Steven L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Final Report

Description: A series of proof-of-principle studies was initiated to evaluate the soil remediation technology, phytoimmobilization, for application at the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD) operable unit. Phytoimmobilization involves two steps. The first step is entitled phytoextraction, and it takes place mostly during the spring and summer. During this step the plants extract contaminants from the sediment into the roots and then translocate the contaminants to the aboveground plant parts. The second step is referred to as sequestration and it takes place largely during the autumn and winter when annual plants senesce or deciduous trees drop their leaves. This step involves the immobilization of the contaminant once it leaches form the fallen leaves into a ''geomat,'' a geotextile embedded with mineral sequestering agents. This final report describes the results to date, including those reported in the status report (Kaplan et al. 2000a), those completed since the report was issued, and the preliminary calculations of the phytoimmobilization effectiveness.
Date: June 4, 2001
Creator: Kaplan, D.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reductive immobilization of U(VI) in Fe(III) oxide-reducing subsurface sediments: Analysis of coupled microbial-geochemical processes in experimental reactive transport systems

Description: Although the fundamental microbiological and geochemical processes underlying the potential use of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) to create subsurface redox barriers for immobilization of uranium and other redox-sensitive metal/radionuclide contaminants are well-understood (Lovley et al., 1991; Gorby and Lovley, 1992; Lovley and Phillips, 1992; Lovley, 1995; Fredrickson et al., 2000; Wielinga et al., 2000; Wielinga et al., 2001), several fundamental scientific questions need to be addressed in order to understand and predict how such treatment procedures would function under in situ conditions in the subsurface. These questions revolve around the dynamic interactions between hydrologic flux and the coupled microbial-geochemical processes which are likely to occur within a redox barrier treatment zone.
Date: December 6, 2002
Creator: Roden, Eric E.; Urrutia, Matilde M.; Barnett, Mark O. & Lange, Clifford r.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Aging Quartz Sand and Hanford Site Sediment with Sodium Hydroxide on Radionuclide Sorption Coefficients and Sediment Physical and Hydrologic Properties: Final Report for Subtask 2a

Description: Column and batch experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of NaOH on the sorptive, physical, and hydraulic properties of two media, a quartz sand and a composite subsurface sediment from the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. The NaOH solutions were used as a simplified effluent from a low-activity glass waste form. These experiments were conducted over a limited (O-to 10-month) contact time, with respect to the 10,000-to 100,000-year scenarios described in the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste- Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA). Wheq these two solids were put in contact with the NaOH solutions, dissolution was evident by a substantial increase in dissolved Si concentrations in the leachates. Incremental increases in NaOH con- centrations, resulted in corresponding increases in Si concentrations. A number of physical and hydraulic properties also changed as the NaOH concentrations were changed. It was observed that quartz sand was less reactive than the composite sediment. Further, moisture- retention measurements were made on the quartz sand and composite sedimen$ which showed that the NaOH-treated solids retained more water than the non-NaOH-treated solids. Because the other chemical, physical, and hydraulic measurements did not change dramatically after the high-NaOH treatments, the greater moisture retention of the high-NaOH treatments was attributed to a "salt effect" and not to the formation of small particles during the dissolution (weathering). The distribution coefficients (IQ) for Cs and Sr were measured on the NaOH-treated sediments, with decreases from -3,000 to 1,000 and 1,300 to 300 mL/g noted, respectively, at the 0.01-to 1.O-M NaOH levels. There was no apparent trend for the Sr & values with contact time. The lack of such a trend sug- gests that dissolution of sediment particles is not controlling the drop in IQ rather, it is the competition of the ...
Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Kaplan, DI; Ritter, JC & Parker, KE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution and Movement of Zinc and Other Heavy Metals in South San Francisco Bay, California

Description: From introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the net transport of zinc into the study area from urbanized perimeter, out of the study area across the northern boundary of the study area, and across the sediment-water interface within the study area, all within a limited time period. A secondary objective was to assemble as much data on other trace metals--their concentrations and chemical states in water, suspended solids, sediments and interstitial fluids--as possible within the time and funding constraints of the study in order to describe the existing trace metal conditions in the south bay. Thus the bulk of effort was directed toward evaluating the distribution and movements of zinc, but the data collected on the distribution and movements of zinc, but the data collected on the distribution of other metals is important and is reported here.
Date: February 1976
Creator: Bradford, Wesley L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical, Hydrological, and Biological Characteristics of the Loxahatchee River Estuary, Florida

Description: From purpose and scope: One of the objectives of the ongoing U.S. Geological Survey investigation of the Loxahatchee River estuary is to provide baseline information on the estuary. This map report was prepared to fulfill part of this objective. It provides information on bathymetry, hydrology, and benthic sediment and biota.
Date: 1982
Creator: McPherson, Benjamin F.; Sabanskas, Maryann & Long, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of Suspended Sediment in the San Juan River Near Bluff, Utah

Description: From purpose and scope: In 1980, collection of suspended-sediment records was terminated at station 09379500. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the records that were collected and to describe suspended-sediment characteristics in the San Juan River near Bluff based on those records.
Date: 1982
Creator: Thompson, Kendall R. & Mundorff, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic Considerations Associated with Dredging Spring Ponds in Wisconsin

Description: From purpose and scope: This report describes the hydrology of selected spring ponds and the effect that dredging has had on the ponds and their surrounding areas. The report emphasizes the water budgets for the ponds, discusses the hydrologic system which contains the ponds, and briefly describes water quality in the study area.
Date: June 1977
Creator: Rose, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Highway Construction on Sediment Discharge into Blockhouse Creek and Steam Valley Run, Pennsylvania

Description: From abstract: This report presents data collected between October 1972 and September 1977 to find "the effects of highway construction in the thirty-eight square mile Blockhouse Creek basin" in Pennsylvania. It contains sketches, graphs, photographs, and tables.
Date: November 1980
Creator: Hainly, Robert A,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RETENTION AND CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF URANIUM IN A WETLAND ON THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

Description: Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.
Date: June 17, 2013
Creator: Li, D.; CHANG, H.: SEAMAN, J.; Jaffe, P.; Groos, P.; Jiang, D.; Chen, N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sediment Characteristics and Bioavailability of Sorbed Neutral Organic Compounds

Description: Several sediment characteristics were analyzed to determine their suitability for use as potential normalization factors for the bioavailability of neutral organic compounds sorbed to sediments. Percent organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and particle surface area were measured sediment characteristics that varied sufficiently to encompass the range in observed sediment toxicity. Laboratory sediment toxicity test data using fluoranthene suggest that there is no biologically significant correlation between sediment toxicity and sediment characteristics (organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, particle size distribution, particle surface area). Fluoranthene amended sediments with similar organic carbon contents do not yield similar toxicities due to sorbed fluoranthene and thus do not support the organic carbon normalization approach for evaluating sediment quality or for sediment criteria development.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Suedel, Burton C. (Burton Craig)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sediment studies of the biological factors controlling the reduction of U(VI).

Description: Studies were conducted primarily with sediments, both in laboratory incubations and in a field experiment, with supporting studies with pure cultures. To our knowledge the sediment studies were the first on microbial U(VI) reduction in actual uranium-contaminated subsurface sediments, under conditions that mimic those found in situ. Important findings included: (1) U(VI) reduction is a biotic process in subsurface sediments. (2) U(VI) reduction can be stimulated most effectively with the addition of acetate. Although it had been speculated that microbial U(VI) reduction might be capable of this type of environmental remediation ever since the discovery of microbial U(VI) reduction, this had not been previously demonstrated under environmentally relevant conditions. (3) U(VI) is reduced concurrently with Fe(III) and prior to sulfate reduction. U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction proceeded concurrently, accompanied by a dramatic enrichment in organisms in the Geobacteraceae. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms do not appear to be important components of the microbial community reducing U(VI) in these subsurface sediments. (4) Nitrate has important influences on U(VI) reduction. Nitrate inhibits the reduction of metals until nitrate is depleted. Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms such as Geobacter metallireducens and Desulfitobacterium species can oxidize Fe(II) with the reduction of nitrate which is an important consideration because our previous studies have demonstrated that freshly precipitated Fe(III) oxides can reoxidize U(IV) to U(VI). The discovery that G. metallireducens can ''run backwards'' and oxidize U(IV) when nitrate is present reveals another mechanism preventing precipitation of U(IV) in the presence of nitrate as well as potential novel strategy for removing uranium from the subsurface after a site has been remediated. (5) Importance of understanding Fe(III) forms available for microbial reduction. Fe(III) is orders of magnitude more abundant than U(VI) as an electron acceptor to support microbial growth. It was demonstrated that poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides and structural Fe(III) in clays are the predominant ...
Date: August 4, 2004
Creator: Lovley, derek, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suspended sediment transport in the benthic nepheloid layer in southeastern Lake Michigan

Description: Time series observations of water temperature, water transparency, and current velocity were made at four stations located on the lake slope of southeastern Lake Michigan. The observations show that during stratified conditions the benthic nepheloid layer is probably not maintained by the local resuspension of bottom sediment. A more likely source is sediment resuspended further inshore and then transported across the shelf and slope during downwelling events. Internal wave action may be an important source of energy for this transport. Although sediment trap studies suggest that resuspension does occur, it is more likely that increased fluxes observed near the bottom are due to the vertical redistribution of material already in suspension. A benthic nepheloid layer also exists at times during the unstratified period, when occassionally enough energy reaches the bottom to directly resuspend bottom material at the sites.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Hawley, N. & Lesht, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

Description: In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J. & Robison, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide Distribution Coefficients for Sediments Collected from Borehole 299-E17-21: Final Report for Subtask 1a

Description: Over 360 distribution coefficients (KJ for cesium, iodine, selenium, Strontium, technetium, and uranium were measured in fiscal year 1998 using 20 sediments collected fkom borehole 299-El 7-21 on the Hanford Site as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA). Additionally, the pH and cation-exchange capacity (a measure of the total quantity of cations that a sediment can adsorb) of these sediment samples were measured. The sediment samples originated from the Hanford formation (informal name). Statistical analyses, using Student's t-test and correlation were conducted with the measured values. There were no significant differences between layers 1 and 2 for the selenium, strontium, technetium, and uranium & values (statistics could not be applied to evaluate layer 3 &values). Significant differences between the cesium and iodine&values for layem 1 and 2 were observed. However, these differences were modest and would likely not warrant the added complexity of using three distinct &regions to represent the Hanford formation in the ILAW-PA model. Generally, the &values of layer 3 were more similar to those of layer 2 than those of layer 1. Conservative and best estimates of radionuclide & values were calculated based on the results from these measurements. The best estimate was chosen to be the calculated median value; whereas the con- servative estimate was the miniium value, except for the conservative uranium&estimate that was based on the second-to-lowest value because of the presence of an unusually low value that was not consistent with other values from this borehole or previous reported values. Overall, the estimates are consistent with values used for the ILAW-PA, with some notable excep- tions. The conservative & estimates for technetium and uranium are approximately the same as those used for the ILAW-PA. The conservative ~alues for cesium, selenium, and strontium were appreciably more conservative than necessary. The conservative iodine ...
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Kaplan, D. I.; Kutynakov, I. V. & Parker, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department