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Terminology for Stratification and Cross-Stratification in Sedimentary Rock

Description: From abstract: "A terminology is suggested for stratified and cross-stratified rock units that will aid the field geologist in describing these structures... A classification of cross-stratification based primarily on the character of the lower bounding surface of a set of cross-strata is suggested."
Date: September 1952
Creator: Mckee, Edwin D. & Weir, Gordon W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conditions of the Formation of Fluorite in Sedimentary Rocks (The Fluorite System)

Description: From translator's abstract: "The formation of fluorite in sedimentary rocks has been investigated by studies of fluorite equilibria in different solutions. Determinations at different temperatures were made on the solubility of crystalline CaF2 in chemically pure water, in aqueous solutions of components of seat water...at different concentrations, and in the sea water itself at degrees of salinity varying from normal to a 15-fold concentration."
Date: April 1951
Creator: Kazakov, A. V. & Sokolova, E. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fluorapatite System of Equilibria in the Conditions of Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Description: From translator's abstract: "As part of unified research on the behavior of the fluoride ion in sedimentary rocks, the present study deals with the system CaO-P2O5-HF-H20 at 25 degrees C. under conditions of sea sedimentation. The precipitated phases, their fields of crystallization and stability, the fluorine-phosphorus coefficient, and the isomorphism of fluorhydroxl ions in the apatite lattice are considered and illustrated by orthogonal projections."
Date: April 1951
Creator: Kazakov, A. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress Report on Geologic Studies in the Capitol Reef Area, Wayne County, Utah

Description: From abstract: During 1951 about 60 square miles of the Capitol Reef area, Wayne County, Utah, the northern end of the Waterpocket Fold, was mapped by plane-table methods on a scale of 1:62, 500. Formations, with an approximate aggregate thickness of 3, 200 feet, range from the Coconino sandstone of Permian age to the Navajo sandstone of Jurassic (?) age. About 35 linear miles of Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age was examined in detail. Cliffs 900 to 1, 000 feet high form the west face of Capitol Reef, which is on the east and northeast flanks of a structural and topographic dome, The uranium deposits are in the basal part of the Shinarump conglomerate. Zippeite and metatorbernite are the uranium minerals found, and are associated with copper minerals, carbonaceous matter, clay beds, a thick bleached zone at the top of the Moenkopi formation, and channels or scours in the top of the Moenkopi. The highest radioactivity is in a clay bed at the base of the Shinarump conglomerate, and was detected at 7 localities between Grand Wash and Capitol Gorge, at the Birch Spring prospect in Moonie Draw, and at the Oyler mine in Grand Wash.
Date: August 1952
Creator: Smith, J. Fred, Jr.; Hinrichs, E. Neal & Luedke, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coastal Sedimentation Along a Segment of the Interior Seaway of North America, Upper Cretaceous Baxter Shale, and Blair and Rock Springs Formations, Rock Springs Uplift, Southwest Wyoming

Description: A report which examines the sedimentary rocks deposited along a segment of the west coast of the interior seaway of North America in southwest Wyoming during the late Santonian and early Campanian subages of the Late Cretaceous Epoch.
Date: 1993
Creator: Roehler, Henry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium Favorability of Tertiary Sedimentary Rocks of the Western Okanogan Highlands and of the Upper Columbia River Valley, Washington

Description: From introduction: This report, one of a series of three reports (Marjaniemi and Robins, 1975a and 1975b) on a study of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in northeastern Washington, presents the results of an investigation of Tertiary sediments of the western Okanogan highlands and upper Columbia River valley. The project was conducted on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), formerly the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Date: February 1976
Creator: Marjaniemi, Darwin Keith & Robins, Jerold W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Uinta Arch Project -- Investigations of Uranium Potential in Precambrian X and Older Metasedimentary Rocks in the Uinta and Wasatch Ranges, Utah and Colorado: Final Report

Description: From introduction: This study is part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to understand the geologic setting, amount, and availability of uranium resources within the boundaries of the United States.
Date: June 1980
Creator: Graff, P. J.; Sears, J. W. & Holden, G. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Primary Sedimentary Trend Indicators as Applied to Ore Finding in the Carrizo Mountains, Arizona and New Mexico

Description: Abstract: Field and laboratory study of primary sedimentary features of the Salt Wash sandstone was undertaken to learn if these structures can be of use in finding hidden deposits of ore and also if they have influenced the localization of either individual ore deposits or larger mineralized districts.
Date: August 1953
Creator: Stokes, William Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic modeling of natural zeolite stability

Description: Zeolites occur in a variety of geologic environments and are used in numerous agricultural, commercial, and environmental applications. It is desirable to understand their stability both to predict future stability and to evaluate the geochemical conditions resulting in their formation. The use of estimated thermodynamic data for measured zeolite compositions allows thermodynamic modeling of stability relationships among zeolites in different geologic environments (diagenetic, saline and alkaline lakes, acid rock hydrothermal, basic rock, deep sea sediments). This modeling shows that the relative cation abundances in both the aqueous and solid phases, the aqueous silica activity, and temperature are important factors in determining the stable zeolite species. Siliceous zeolites (e.g., clinoptilolite, mordenite, erionite) present in saline and alkaline lakes or diagenetic deposits formed at elevated silica activities. Aluminous zeolites (e.g., natrolite, mesolite/scolecite, thomsonite) formed in basic rocks in association with reduced silica activities. Likewise, phillipsite formation is favored by reduced aqueous silica activities. The presence of erionite, chabazite, and phillipsite are indicative of environments with elevated potassium concentrations. Elevated temperature, calcic water conditions, and reduced silica activity help to enhance the laumontite and wairakite stability fields. Analcime stability increases with increased temperature and aqueous Na concentration, and/or with decreased silica activity.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Chipera, S. J. & Bish, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactive Multiphase Behavior of Co{sub 2} in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: Field and laboratory investigations of naturally occurring CO{sub 2}-reservoirs are being conducted to determine the characteristics of potential seal and reservoir units and the extent of the interactions that occur between the host rocks and the CO{sub 2} charged fluids. Efforts have focused on the Farnham Dome, located in central Utah, and the Springer-St. Johns field in Arizona and New Mexico. The Springer-St. Johns field is particularly significant because of the presence of extensive travertine deposits that document release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. CO{sub 2} accumulations at both fields occur in sedimentary rocks typical of CO{sub 2} reservoirs occurring on the Colorado Plateau. The main achievements were: (1) to assess the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage from the Farnham Dome of central Utah; and (2) prepare a paper for presentation at the 3rd Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration.
Date: October 21, 2003
Creator: Allis, R.G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of Sedimentary Basins--San Juan Basin: Chapters B-D

Description: From abstract: This report describes the depositional environments of the Chinle Formation that was deposited in a complex fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine system in the area of the present-day eastern San Juan basin and Chama basin. Lithofacies include conglomerate and planar- and trough-crossbedded sandstone; bentonitic mudstone and sandstone; black, organic carbon-rich mudstone; large-scale, trough crossstratified siltstone, sandstone, and mudstone; and thickbedded, bioturbated, fine-grained sandstone and siltstone.
Date: 1989
Creator: Dubiel, Russell F.; Ridgley, Jennie L.; Armstrong, Augustus K. & Holcomb, Lee D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Evolution of Sedimentary Basins--Uinta and Piceance Basins: Chapters J and K]

Description: From abstract: This is a report on reconnaissance geologic mapping and isotopic dating of tuff beds in the Uinta Basin of Utah that show that Lake Uinta probably persisted into late Eocene time in the area east of Duchesne and Strawberry Reservoir.
Date: 1989
Creator: Bryant, Bruce; Naeser, Charles W.; Marvin, Richard F. & Mehnert, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Cross-Hole Seismic Tomography for Imaging Low Resistance Intervals and Associated Carbonate Sediments in Coastal Plain Sequences on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

Description: The objectives of the pilot study were to investigate the limitations of the technique for imaging the presence, extent, and boundaries of the low-resistance intervals and associated carbonate sediments.
Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Cumbest, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicting the permeability of sedimentary rocks from microstructure

Description: Permeability is linked to other properties of porous media such as capillary pressure and relative permeability. In order to understand the relationships, one has to understand how all those properties are conditioned by the connectivity and geometrical properties of the pore space. In this study, we look at a natural porous material which is defined as a two-phase material in which the interconnected pore space constitutes one phase and the solid matrix the other. Laboratory samples are tested using fluid flow experiments to determine the relationship of macroscopic properties such as permeability to rock microstructure. Kozeny-Carman and other equations are developed to further quantify these relationships.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Schlueter, E. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactive Multiphase Behavior of CO2 in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: The six coal fired power plants located in the Colorado Plateau and southern Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. produce 100 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year. Thick sequences of colocated sedimentary rocks represent potential sites for sequestration of the CO{sub 2}. Field and laboratory investigations of naturally occurring CO{sub 2}-reservoirs are being conducted to determine the characteristics of potential seal and reservoir units and the extent of the interactions that occur between the host rocks and the CO{sub 2} charged fluids. The results are being incorporated into a series of two-dimensional numerical models that represent the major chemical and physical processes induced by injection. During reporting period covered here (July 1 to September 30, 2003), the main achievements were: Preparation for Project Review visit in Salt Lake City by new Project Manager; Submittal of two scientific papers to a special issue of ''Chemical Geology'' on CO{sub 2} sequestration; Set-up of website reporting results of this project; and Publication of summary article in Utah Geological Survey ''Survey Notes'' (circulation of 3000).
Date: October 21, 2003
Creator: Allis, R. G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactive Multiphase Behavior of C)2 in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: The six coal-fired power plants located in the Colorado Plateau and southern Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. produce 100 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year. Thick sequences of collocated sedimentary rocks represent potential sites for sequestration of the CO{sub 2}. Field and laboratory investigations of naturally occurring CO{sub 2}-reservoirs are being conducted to determine the characteristics of potential seal and reservoir units and the extent of the interactions that occur between the host rocks and the CO{sub 2} charged fluids. The results are being incorporated into a series of two-dimensional numerical models that represent the major chemical and physical processes induced by injection. During reporting period covered here (March 30 to June 30, 2003), the main achievements were: Presentation of three papers at the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration (May 5-8, Alexandria, Virginia); Presentation of a poster at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists meeting; Co-PI organized and chaired a special session on Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists annual convention in Salt Lake City (May 12-15).
Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Allis, R. G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diffusive separation of noble gases and noble gas abundance patterns in sedimentary rocks

Description: The mechanisms responsible for noble gas concentrations, abundance patterns, and strong retentivity in sedimentary lithologies remain poorly explained. Diffusion-controlled fractionation of noble gases is modeled and examined as an explanation for the absolute and relative abundances of noble gases observed in sediments. Since the physical properties of the noble gases are strong functions of atomic mass, the individual diffusion coefficients, adsorption coefficients and atomic radii combine to impede heavy noble gas (Xe) diffusion relative to light noble gas (Ne) diffusion. Filling of lithic grains/half-spaces by diffusive processes thus produces Ne enrichments in the early and middle stages of the filling process with F(Ne) values similar to that observed in volcanic glasses. Emptying lithic grains/half-spaces produces a Xe-enriched residual in the late (but not final) stages of the process producing F(Xe) values similar to that observed in shales. 'Exotic but unexceptional' shales that exhibit both F(Ne) and F(Xe) enrichments can be produced by incomplete emptying followed by incomplete filling. This mechanism is consistent with literature reported noble gas abundance patterns but may still require a separate mechanism for strong retention. A system of labyrinths-with-constrictions and/or C-, Si-nanotubes when combined with simple adsorption can result in stronger diffusive separation and non-steady-state enrichments that persist for longer times. Enhanced adsorption to multiple C atoms inside C-nanotubes as well as dangling functional groups closing the ends of nanotubes can provide potential mechanisms for 'strong retention'. We need new methods of examining noble gases in rocks to determine the role and function of angstrom-scale structures in both the diffusive enrichment process and the 'strong retention' process for noble gas abundances in terrestrial rocks.
Date: June 14, 2004
Creator: Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B.M. & van Soest, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactive Multiphase Behavior of CO2 in Saline Aquifers Beneath the Colorado Plateau

Description: Field and laboratory investigations of naturally occurring CO{sub 2}-reservoirs are being conducted to determine the characteristics of potential seal and reservoir units and the extent of the interactions that occur between the host rocks and the CO{sub 2} charged fluids. Efforts have focused on the Farnham Dome field, located in central Utah, and the Springerville-St. Johns field in Arizona and New Mexico. The Springerville-St. Johns field is particularly significant because of the presence of extensive travertine deposits that document release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. CO{sub 2} accumulations at both fields occur in sedimentary rocks typical of CO{sub 2} reservoirs occurring on the Colorado Plateau. The main achievements during this quarter were: (1) a soil gas flux survey at the Springerville-St Johns field, (2) collection of some soil gas for chemical and isotopic analysis from this field, and (3) collection of travertine samples from an elevation range of over 1000 feet (330 m) for dating the time span of carbonate-saturated spring outflow at this field. Analytical results and interpretations are still in progress. When available they will allow contrast with soil gas measurements from Farnham Dome natural CO{sub 2} field in central Utah, which were reported in the previous quarterly report.
Date: October 21, 2003
Creator: Allis, R. G.; Moore, J. & White, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

Description: Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.
Date: October 9, 2003
Creator: Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G. & Harris, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground Research Laboratories for Crystalline Rock and Sedimentary Rock in Japan

Description: The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started two off-site (generic) underground research laboratory (URL) projects, one for crystalline rock as a fractured media and the other for sedimentary rock as a porous media. This paper introduces an overview and current status of these projects.
Date: February 27, 2003
Creator: Shigeta, N.; Takeda, S.; Matsui, H. & Yamasaki, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging Reservoir Quality: Seismic Signatures of Geologic Processes

Description: Lithofacies successions from diverse depositional environments show distinctive patterns in various rock-physics planes (velocity-porosity, velocity-density and porosity-clay). Four clear examples of decameter-scale lithofacies sequences are documented in this study: (1) Micocene fluvial deposits show an inverted-V pattern indicative of dispersed fabric, (2) a fining-upward sequence of mud-rich deep deposits shows a linear trend associated with laminated sand-clay mixtures, (3) sand-rich deposits show a pattern resulting from the scarcity of mixed lithofacies, and (4) a coarsening-upward sequence shows evidence of both dispersed and horizontally laminated mixed lithofacies, with predominating dispersed mixtures generated by bioturbation. It was observed that carbonate-cemented sandstones are extremely heterogeneous in the project deep-water study area. Those from the base of incisions are usually associated with lower shaliness, lower porosity and higher P-impedance, while from the top of flooding surfaces exhibit higher shaliness, higher porosity and lower P-impedance. One rock physics model that captures the observed impedance-porosity trend is the 'stiff-sand model'. For this model, the high-porosity end-member is unconsolidated sand whose initial porosity is a function of sorting and shaliness, while the low-porosity end-member is solid mineral. These two end points are joined with a Hashin-Shtrikman equation. A systematic variation of quartz:clay ratio from proximal to distal locations was observed in the study area even within a single facies. The quartz:clay ratio changes from [0.5:0.5] to [1:0] along the direction of flow, based on the trends of P-impedance vs. porosity as predicted by the rock model for uncemented sands. The results are in agreement with spill-and-fill sequence stratigraphic model in mini-basin setting. In addition, porosity at the distal location ({approx}25 % to 35%) is higher than the porosity at the proximal location ({approx}20 % to 23%). This trend is explained by a sequence stratigraphic model which predicts progressive increase in sorting by turbidity current along the flow, ...
Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Stanford University. Department of Geophysics.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department