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Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water

Description: From introduction: "In the process of being developed under Contract No. 14-01-001-202 fertilizer grade phosphoric acid (or sodium phosphates obtained from reacting phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide or soda ash) is mixed with sea water. The subsequent addition of ammonia causes the precipitation of solids which are then allowed to settle from water. The resulting descaled sea water is now ready for utilization in a water recovering plant."
Date: September 1962
Creator: W.R. Grace & Co.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water

Description: From Recommendations: "Laboratory research on the process for descaling sea water should be continued to improve the process and thereby lower the cost. Research efforts should be concentrated on methods for producing low cost sodium phosphates (needed for the precipitation of the scale-forming elements) from fertilizer grade phosphates and on increasing the crystalline nature of the phosphate precipitates (to reduce dewatering costs). The descaled sea water should be experimentally evaluated first in the laboratory and later under actual operating conditions so that its value to the water recovery program may be established."
Date: February 1962
Creator: W.R. Grace & Co.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills

Description: From Introduction: "This report describes the progress of the study and field evaluation of solar sea-water stills during the first 2 years of a research program being conducted for the Office of Saline Water, United States Department of the Interior, by Battelle Memorial Institute. The period covered by the report extends from January 20, 1958, to January 31, 1960."
Date: September 1961
Creator: Bloemer, J. W.; Collins, R. A. & Eibling, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study and Development of the Hickman Sea-Water Still

Description: From Introduction: "The report is organized into three major sections and three appendixes. In first major section are presented a brief historical account of the work done by other organizations prior to November, 1957, and a detailed description of the experiments conducted by Battelle with the No.4 and No. 5 stills. The second major section summarizes the results of cost studies. The third major section gives data, calculations, and derivations pertaining to the heat-transfer aspects of the Hickman still."
Date: September 1960
Creator: Buckel, W. L.; Beck, W. D.; Irwin, J. R.; Putnam, A. A. & Eibling, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sea Water Corrosion Test Program

Description: From Introduction: "The first demonstration plant sponsored by the Office of Saline Water was located in Freeport, Texas, and came 'on stream" in 1961. The incoming sea water was deaerated since both Speller (6) and Uhlig (7) recognized that dissolved oxygen was usually the controlling factor in the corrosion of iron stream condensate at temperatures even as high 400 degrees F. The water was acidified prior to daeration with H2SO4 to decompose the carbonates which subsequently would cause scale when the water was heated. After the carbonates were removed, the pH was raised to the neutral point, again to provide a less corrosive environment."
Date: March 1969
Creator: Behrens, H. C.; Martin, F. D.; Osborn, O.; Rice, L.; Russell, W. B.; Schreiber, C. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second Two Years' Progress on Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills

Description: From Introduction: "The investigation of solar distillation described in this Summary Report is part of the wide-ranging program of the Office of Saline Water to develop economical processes for the conversion of saline water to fresh water." From Summary: " Since the submission of the Summary Report which covered the first two years' progress, several new stills have been constructed, including four basin-type stills for the evaluation of basin liners and other materials."
Date: July 1965
Creator: Battelle Memorial Institute
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seawater Softening by Ion Exchange as a Saline Water Conversion Pretreatment

Description: From Introduction: "A pilot plant embodying these ideas, in an unusual method of softening, was designed and constructed by the Texas Division of The Dow Chemical Company. Two 4,000 gallon per day vapor compression evaporators were furnished for the testing program bu the Bureau of Yards and Docks of the United States Navy. This report summarizes the results of the testing program."
Date: May 1962
Creator: McIlhenny, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seawater Desalting with Chemical Recovery

Description: From Introduction: "The report describes the studies made on 20mgd desalting plants, a size that was selected based on recovering 3,000 tons per day of salt for feed to a chlorine-caustic plant that would be part of the Energy Center."
Date: January 1971
Creator: Burns and Roe, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seawater Tubular Reverse Osmosis Membranes

Description: From Introduction and Summary: "The objective of this program was to improve the quality, performance, and useful life of seawater tubular reverse osmosis membranes. The secondary objective was the evaluation of defect-free membranes in a small module with both sodium chloride and with actual seawater."
Date: June 1971
Creator: King, W. M. & O'Hair, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conceptual Design of a 250-MGD Desalination Plant

Description: From Introduction: "This report and the study which went into it form a part of the activities sponsored by the Office of Saline Water, U.S. Department of the Interior, in their accelerated program to develop large plants for the economical desalting of seawater."
Date: September 1966
Creator: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion of Metals in Sea Water

Description: Report issued by the Office of Saline over the corrosive properties of sea water on metals. As stated in the report, "the following paragraphs outline the major factors which influence corrosion reactions" (p. 2). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: December 1960
Creator: Fink, Frederick W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas

Description: There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Dearien, J.A. & Priebe, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

Description: A literature survey has been conducted to collect information on the International R&D activities in the extraction of uranium from seawater for the period from the 1960s till the year of 2010. The reported activities, on both the laboratory scale bench experiments and the large scale marine experiments, were summarized by country/region in this report. Among all countries where such activities have been reported, Japan has carried out the most advanced large scale marine experiments with the amidoxime-based system, and achieved the collection efficiency (1.5 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 30 days soaking in the ocean) that could justify the development of industrial scale marine systems to produce uranium from seawater at the price competitive with those from conventional uranium resources. R&D opportunities are discussed for improving the system performance (selectivity for uranium, loading capacity, chemical stability and mechanical durability in the sorption-elution cycle, and sorption kinetics) and making the collection of uranium from seawater more economically competitive.
Date: March 15, 2010
Creator: Rao, Linfeng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of High Temperature Aging on the Corrosion Resistance of Iron Based Amorphous Alloys

Description: Iron-based amorphous alloys can be more resistant to corrosion than polycrystalline materials of similar compositions. However, when the amorphous alloys are exposed to high temperatures they may recrystallize (or devitrify) thus losing their resistance to corrosion. Four different types of amorphous alloys melt spun ribbon specimens were exposed to several temperatures for short periods of time. The resulting corrosion resistance was evaluated in seawater at 90 C and compared with the as-prepared ribbons. Results show that the amorphous alloys can be exposed to 600 C for 1-hr. without losing the corrosion resistance; however, when the ribbons were exposed at 800 C for 1-hr. their localized corrosion resistance decreased significantly.
Date: August 10, 2007
Creator: Day, S D; Haslam, J J; Farmer, J C & Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineral By-Products From The Sea

Description: Report providing information on the economical separation of mineral constituents from sea water or other saline waters. Processes involving the removal of potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, and other elements were to be studied.
Date: March 1964
Creator: Salutsky, Murrell L.; Dunseth, Maria G. & Waters, O. B., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).

Description: Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer ...
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM) & Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resolving discrepancies between hydraulic and chemical calibration data for seawater intrusion groundwater flow models by considering climate-driven sea level change.

Description: Groundwater models of seawater intrusion environments can be calibrated using both hydraulic and chemical information. The possible impact of the long-term transient process of sea level change is difficult to identify, but important to accurate simulation of present conditions. The response times of the pressure and chemical fields to major fluctuations in sea level change are investigated
Date: October 18, 2001
Creator: Chapman, J.; Hassan, A. & Pohlmann, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

References to Studies of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in the Pacific Ocean a Bibliography

Description: This report contains a listing of publications known to this author on reported concentrations, reviews and discussions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in seawater, sediment and the biota from parts of the North and South Pacific Ocean. Each reference has been assigned an accession number consisting of the first three letters of the first author's last name followed by the first letter of the first name, the year of the publication and an assigned number. Studies in both the coastal areas and the open ocean are included as well as those providing data within lagoons of coral atolls. Some references to the radionuclides in the Indian Ocean are also provided.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Noshkin, V.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capacitive deionization of seawater

Description: Capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes is an efficient and economical new process for removing salt and impurities from water. Carbon aerogel is a material that enables the successful purification of water because of its high surface area, optimum pore size, and low electrical resistivity. The electrodes are maintained at a potential difference of about one volt; ions are removed from the water by the imposed electrostatic field and retained on the electrode surface until the polarity is reversed. The capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been successfully demonstrated. The overall process offers advantages when compared to conventional water-purification methods, requiring neither pumps, membranes, distillation columns, nor thermal heaters. Consequently, the overall process is both robust and energy efficient. The current state of technology development, commercialization, and potential applications of this process are reviewed.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V. & Mack, G.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department