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Energy study of the marine transportation industry. Volume I. Executive summary

Description: This report covers the conclusions and recommendations resulting from an examination of energy use in the marine transportation industry. It will assist DOE in formulating research and development programs that will promote energy conservation. The results of the analysis determined that the maritime transportation industry consumed approximately 2.9 quads in 1974. This consumption is expected to rise to 6.7 quads by the year 2000. In response to the need to reduce energy consumption below the projected level for the year 2000, conservation-oriented R and D programs were investigated. Two program areas recommended for funding by DOE are diesel bottoming cycles and adiabatic diesels. The methodology used is discussed in the Executive Summary. Volumes II and III cover Tasks I and II, Industry Summary and Regulations and Tariffs, respectively. Volume IV combines Tasks III and IV, Efficiency Improvements and Industry Future. A fifth volume, which is available from DOE, contains documentation of the Marine Transportation Energy Model (MTEM).
Date: June 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task II. Efficiency improvements. Draft report

Description: Research and development areas that hold promise for maritime energy conservation are identified and evaluated. The methodology used in the evaluation of potential research areas and results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Fifteen programs are identified in four generic technologies and these are discussed in detail in appendices A-D. The areas are: main propulsion plants, propulsors, hydrodynamics, and vessel operations. Fuels are discussed briefly in appendix E. Additional information is presented on the generic US flag baseline operational and cost parameters; a sample output model is presented. (MCW)
Date: June 2, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemistry of water and sediment from the benthic boundary layer at a site in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

Description: A primary objective of this study was to characterize the corrosive potential of the benthic boundary layer at a site where selected metal alloys were being exposed. Those properties of sea water and sediment likely to affect the corrosion of alloys that were measured in this study include salinity, pH, scale-forming cations, redox potential, dissolved gases, heavy metal ions, abrasive particulates, and microorganisms. The chemical properties of water from the benthic boundary layer do not appear to differ substantially from those of surface sea water. Salinity, pH and major ion content of this water appear to be representative of well-oxygenated, unpolluted oceanic water. On the basis of the properties examined, it is expected that corrosion of metals exposed in the deep sea would not differ greatly from that in surface waters having similar properties. However, the effect of pressure on corrosion rates and chemical forms of corrosion products may be an unknown factor of major importance. Increased calcite solubility at depth has been well-documented and the resulting inhibited formation of protective scale may be indicative of the effects of pressure on corrosion. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bottom sediments at this site indicates that, if diffusion of O/sub 2/ into the sediment was inhibited, stainless steels buried in the mud would lose passivity and corrosion rates would increase. The eventual fate of corrosion products is dependent on their properties and the properties of their environment. In benthic boundary layer sea water it might be expected that corrosion products would be released as metal oxides. (JGB)
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Schmidt, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean thermal energy conversion ecological data report from OSS Researcher in Gulf of Mexico, (GOTEC-01), July 12-23, 1977

Description: Ecological measurements important for environmental assessment of the effect of an operating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant were initiated in July 1977 at the proposed Gulf of Mexico site off the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. The initial cruise of the OSS Researcher, in a joint effort with the Atlantic Oceanic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) took place from 12 to 23 July 1977. The measurements were taken at 15 oceanographic stations to a maximum depth of 1000 m. Water was analyzed for trace metals, nutrients and chlorophyll a and ATP. Physical data, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements were supplied by NOAA-AOML. Two bioassays were carried out using indigenous phytoplankton to estimate the effect of deep water on the rates of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake of photic zone algae. The Deep Scattering Layer (DSL) was monitored at the site by a continuously recording 12 kHz depth sounder at the Mobile site. This report presents data collected during the cruise.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Quinby-Hunt, M.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report: Qattara Project material properties

Description: Measurements of strength under triaxial loading and compressibility under hydrostatic loading for four representative materials along a proposed route of a canal from the Mediterranean Sea to the Qattara Depression are reported. The results of these measurements are used in computer calculations for cratering profiles using nuclear explosives. Considerations of the lithology along the route have led to a characterization of earth material type using four descriptors: (1) limestone; (2) sandstone; (3) high sand; and (4) clay/silt. The memo is a preliminary report of the work and data reduction. A more complete account will be published at a later date.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Costantino, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs

Description: The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)
Date: June 30, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task III. Efficiency improvements. Draft report

Description: Research and development areas that hold promise for maritime energy conservation are identified and evaluated. The methodology used is discussed in Chapter II. The technology base of the commercial marine transportation industry relating to energy usage is made up of: main propulsion plants, propulsors, hydrodynamics, vessel operations, and fuels. Fifteen specific program areas in the first four generic technologies are identified and are evaluated. An economic and energy impact analysis and technological risk assessment was performed on the specific program areas and the results are summarized in Chapter III. The first five appendices address the generic technologies. The sixth appendix contains the baseline operating and cost parameters against which the 15 program areas were evaluated, and the last appendix contains sample printouts of the MTEM model used to evaluate the energy consumption and economic impacts associated with the candidate technology areas. (MCW)
Date: June 2, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and potential uses of the geopressure resources of the Gulf Coast. [6,000 MW-centuries of recoverable electric energy, 200 Tcf of methane]

Description: The US ERDA has supported efforts to evaluate the potential contribution to the national energy supply of geopressured geothermal resources in the Gulf Coast. Efforts include a program of resource assessment and programs to examine utilization of the resource for the production of electricity and as a source of industrial-process heat. Work on resource assessment has suggested the presence of perhaps as much as 6,000 MW-centuries of recoverable electric energy and of 200 Tcf of methane. This program has emphasized finding significantly large sand bodies within the geopressured stratigraphic section in addition to defining the distribution of abnormal fluid pressures and formation temperatures. Regional sand facies analyses conducted thus far indicate five locations in the Frio formation of Central and South Texas where adequately large geopressured geothermal resources may be present. Engineering studies of energy-conversion systems based on total-flow, flashed-steam, and binary-cycle concepts show that development of electric power from the Gulf Coast geopressure resource is technically feasible. Study of use of the resource as process heat in pulp and paper mills and new sugar refineries has shown that these uses also are technically sound. The thermal content of a barrel of geothermal brine can cost as little as 9 mills when credited for recoverable hydraulic energy and methane. The value of heat approaches 50 mills per bbl for certain applications. All programs have pointed out clearly the need for better specific understanding of the resource, especially its dissolved methane content and its ability to produce for tens of years.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Howard, J. H.; House, P. A.; Johnson, P. M.; Towse, D. F.; Bebout, D. G.; Dorfman, M. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department