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Assessment of the injectability of conditioned brine produced by a reaction clarification: gravity filtration system in operation at the Salton Sea geothermal field, Southern California

Description: A Demonstration Reaction Clarifier - Gravity Filtration System with a 1600 GPM throughput capability was in operation at the joint DOE-SDG and E-MAGMA test facility located in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, southern California, during the summer of 1979. The system, which was designed to condition spent effluent from a 10 MWe-size geothermal power plant, removes supersaturated dissolved species and residual suspended solids from brine prior to subsurface brine disposal via injection wells. The post-processing chemical stability of conditioned effluents was established by means of anaerobic incubation tests at 90/sup 0/C. The effect of residual dissolved polymer, that might be used for the purpose of scale control in upstream power plant components on the efficiency of reaction clarification, was also evaluated. Membrane filtration and core tests were used to assess the injectability of processed brine. It was found that the clarifier-filter operational procedures and system design permitted oxygenation of the brine by air intrusion. This resulted in partial stabilization of dissolved silica and precipitation of oxides of iron. As a consequence, conditioned brine injectability was poor. However, elimination of the air intrusion problem would result in a substantial improvement in brine quality. Residual amounts of dissolved polyaminoethylene (20 ppm, by weight), a powerful antisilica precipitant, in brine was shown by means of bench-scale tests carried out at approx. 90/sup 0/C to improve the efficiency of the clarification process where the additive appears to function as a flocculant.
Date: November 28, 1979
Creator: Owen, L.B.; Raber, E.; Otto, C.; Netherton, R.; Neurath, R. & Allen, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Final report

Description: TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the US by 1990 are presented. It is a continuation of a 1978 study (EAPA 5:3946) to perform a similar analysis on 1979 scenarios. Scenarios B, C, and D from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting Systems, as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for Scenarios B, C, and D. Total investment requirements for the three models (pipelines, railroads, waterways) and the three energy commodities (coal, petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas) are estimated to range between $35.3 and $42.7 billion by 1990 depending on the scenario.
Date: September 28, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of geochemical-equilibrium computer calculations to estimate precipitation from geothermal brines

Description: The Helgeson-Herrick geochemical code was used to calculate the solubility of NaCl, KCl, and KCl-NaCl in water and to predict which minerals will precipitate from Salton Sea Geothermal Field brines. The code's predictions of sulfide-silicate precipitation from the Magmamax No. 1 brine are in good agreement with field tests of scaling, although the observed sulfide-silicate scale matrix is in amorphous form, rather than the crystalline form predicted by the code. The code's predictions of scale precipitation from wells with different brine compositions are also in good agreement with field tests. The code appears to be a useful screening tool, despite reservations about the use of purely thermodynamic predictions in systems with important kinetic constraints. Several ways to improve and apply the code in the future are suggested.
Date: January 28, 1977
Creator: Miller, D. G.; Piwinskii, A. J. & Yamauchi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Proposal Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program

Description: The proposed Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program comprises two phases. The objective of Phase 1 is to develop the technology for power generation from high-temperature, high-salinity geothermal brines existing in the Salton Sea known geothermal resources area. Phase 1 work will result in the following: (a) Completion of a preliminary design and cost estimate for a pilot geothermal brine utilization facility. (b) Design and construction of an Area Resource Test Facility (ARTF) in which developmental geothermal utilization concepts can be tested and evaluated. Program efforts will be divided into four sub-programs; Power Generation, Mineral Extraction, Reservoir Production, and the Area Resources Test Facility. The Power Generation Subprogram will include testing of scale and corrosion control methods, and critical power cycle components; power cycle selection based on an optimization of technical, environmental and economic analyses of candidate cycles; preliminary design of a pilot geothermal-electric generating station to be constructed in Phase 2 of this program. The Mineral Extraction Subprogram will involve the following: selection of an optimum mineral recovery process; recommendation of a brine clean-up process for well injection enhancement; engineering, construction and operation of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities; analysis of facility operating results from environmental, economical and technical point-of-view; preliminary design of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities of sufficient size to match the planned pilot power plant. The Reservoir Production Subprogram will include monitoring the operation and maintenance of brine production, handling and injection systems which were built with private funding in phase 0, and monitoring of the brine characteristics and potential subsidence effects during well production and injection. Based on the above, recommendations and specifications will be prepared for production and injection systems necessary to serve the pilot power and mineral recovery plants planned for Phase 3. The scope of the Area Resource Test ...
Date: March 28, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department