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Geothermal resources, Wilcox Group, Texas Gulf Coast

Description: Results are presented of a regional study to identify areas where the Wilcox Group contains significant thicknesses of sandstone with subsurface temperatures higher than 300/sup 0/F. Eight of these geothermal fairways were identified. Control for this study was based on wells chosen so as to provide stratigraphic dip sections spaced 15 to 20 miles apart along the entire Texas Gulf Coast. Electrical well logs from the eight fairways are shown. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Bebout, D.G.; Gavenda, V.J. & Gregory, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal power plants of the United States: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

Description: The development of geothermal energy as a source of electric power in the United States is reviewed. A thorough description is given of The Geysers geothermal power project in northern California. The recent efforts to exploit the hot-water resources of the Mexicali-Imperial Rift Valley are described. Details are given concerning the geology of the several sites now being used and for those at which power plants will soon be built. Attention is paid to the technical particulars of all existing plants, including wells, gathering systems, energy conversion devices, materials, environmental impacts, economics and operating characteristics. Specifically, plants which either exist or are planned for the following locations are covered: The Geysers, CA; East Mesa, CA; Heber, CA; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; Valles Caldera, NM; Salton Sea, CA; Westmorland, CA; Brawley, CA; Desert Peak, NV; and Raft River, ID. The growth of installed geothermal electric generating capacity is traced from the beginning in 1960 and is projected to 1984.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: DiPippo, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Quarterly report, July-September, 1978 and annual report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

Description: Information obtained on the operation of the plant, components, brine and steam composition, production and injection wells, and the potential of the Niland Reservoir are reviewed. The Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF) was modified from a four stage flash/binary process to a two stage flash process with two parallel flash trains for the extraction of energy from a high temperature, high salinity, liquid-dominated resource. The general operation and accomplishments of the GLEF during the period from October 1977 through September 1978 are summarized and these activities during the period from July 1978 through September 1978 are detailed. The four stage flash/binary process test results were used in a Feasibility and Risk Study which identified the two stage flash cycle as the preferred cycle. The facility was modified to test critical portions of the cycle and testing was initiated.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Bischoff, W.S.; Haas, C.H.; Hoaglin, G.J.; Jacobson, W.O.; Mulliner, D.K.; Newell, D.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detailed test program for the Niland Geothermal Test Facility. Final report

Description: This report presents a test program for the Niland Geothermal Test Facility. It contains a detailed description of 18 tasks. Each of these tasks discusses the objectives, justification and relation to future design, general test procedures, test conditions, required experimental measurements, and methods of calculation and expected results. Implementation of these tasks will provide the basic information necessary for the design, construction, and initial operation of a 50-MWe geothermal demonstration plant.
Date: October 1, 1976
Creator: Awerbuch, L.; Beaulaurier, L.; Doyle, P.T.; Hogue, R.A. & Rogers, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of marine birds on Georges Bank and adjacent waters. Progress report No. 4, October--December 1978

Description: From 27 September to 14 December 1978, MBO observers participated in 8 cruises from the U.S. mid-Atlantic area of the outer continental to western Nova Scotia. The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, Federal Republic of Germany, Peoples Republic of Poland, and U.S. Coast Guard were the agencies that provided at-sea platforms. The greater portion of the survey coverage involved the Southern New England--Georges Bank--Gulf of Maine area, where 779.32 km/sup 2/ were sampled. Bird densities were greatest in the Georges Bank area where averages in excess of 30 birds/km/sup 2/ were recorded during the final quarter of 1978. All data collected during 1978 has been submitted to U.S.F.W.S. Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory in Luurel, MD for punching. Fifteen of 24 MBO cruises conducted in 1978 have been submitted to USFWS--MBHRL for punching and the remaining 9 have been transcribed. Seven of 16 MBO cruises conducted in 1976 have been transcribed.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Powers, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of marine birds on Georges Bank and adjacent waters. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 August 1978

Description: The work accomplished during the period covered in this technical progress report demonstrates the importance, interest, and necessity of a distribution study of marine birds in the Georges Bank area on a national and international scale. Cooperation was extended by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Coast Guard, and by the Canadian Wildlife Service, Halifax, N.S., AltantNIRO, Kaliningrad, USSR, and Federal Republic of Germany. Two sampling methods, fixed-area and total bird counts, were effectively employed, which allow comparable data bases with marine bird distribution information being collected in the North Pacific, Bering and Chukchi Seas (Outer Continental Shelf Energy Assessment Program), and in the North Atlantic and Canadian Arctic (CWS and The Seabird Group). A marine bird data retrieval bank is being developed for MBO seabird data at the USFWS Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory. A food habits bibliography and prey item/bird species summary table for marine birds in the western North Atlantic has been prepared from existing literature. Unpublished NMFS data on zooplankton/ichthyoplankton, and ground fish is being made available for possible correlations in distribution of selected prey items with bird species.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Powers, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive summary of an energy study of the marine transportation industry. Volume I. Draft final report

Description: The conclusions and recommendations resulting from an examination of energy use in the marine transportation industry are presented. The methodology used is discussed. Specific information is discussed concerning energy consumption and productivity in these sectors: foreign trade; Great Lakes; inland waterways; coastal; offshore; pleasure craft; and fishing and miscellaneous. Based on the energy savings potentials calculated, the programs relating to slow speed diesels, diesel bottoming cycles, and hull maintenance and smoothing are recommended for funding in FY1978. Three high risk program areas that should be evaluated in the future are identified as: adiabatic diesels, Naval Academy heat balance engine, and closed cycle gas turbines. (MCW)
Date: August 17, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Outdoor recreational use of the Salton Sea with reference to potential impacts of geothermal development

Description: The objectives of this study were to describe the types, levels, and locations of outdoor recreation uses in the Salton Sea area, the number and principal activities of visitors, and to estimate the consequences upon outdoor recreation of geothermal development and other activities that might affect the Salton Sea. It is concluded that since the Salton Sea is considered legally to be a sump for agricultural, municipal, and presumably geothermal waste waters, recreational use of the Sea for fishing and boating (from present marinas) will undoubtedly continue to decline, unless there is a major policy change. Use of the shoreline for camping, the surrounding roads and lands for scenic viewing, ORV events, and retirement or recreation communities will not decline, and will probably increase, assuming control of hydrogen sulfide odors. Two ways in which the fishing and present boating facilities could be returned to a wholly usable steady state are discussed. One is by construction of a diked evaporation pond system at the south end of the Sea. This would allow a means of control over both water level and salinity. Another means, less costly but more difficult to effectively control, would be to budget geothermal plant use of, and disposal of wastes in, Salton Sea water. (JGB)
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Twiss, R.; Sidener, J.; Bingham, G. & Burke, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and definition of parameters associated with testing geopressured water. Interim report, Phase I activities, June 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

Description: Analysis of the waters in the geopressured zone in a specific South Louisiana shut in gas well are reported. Dynamic testing of two aquifers trapped by an existing gas well in the Tigre Lagoon field in Vermilion Parish was conducted. Information about the characteristics of the reservoir fluid and the behavior of the reservoir under varying flow conditions was obtained.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Karkalits, O.C.; Hodges, J. & Jones, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioassay Procedure to Evaluate the Acute Toxicity of Salinity and Geothermal Pollutants (Pesticides) to Gambusia Affinis. Final Report

Description: The salinity tolerance of Gambusia affinis was determined in static bioassays. Gambusia easily tolerated salinity of 47.5 percent in 96 hour static bioassays. Survival at this level was 93.3 percent with the lowest survival being 68 percent at 40 percent salinity. The acute toxicities of endrin, DDT, aldrin, and dieldrin to Gambusia were determined by static and intermittent-flow bioassays. Toxicity was measured as the Mediant lethal Concentration (TL/sub 50/) for 96-hr exposures. TL/sub 50/ values were lower in the intermittent-flow bioassays than in static bioassays. Residue concentrations were also compared in surviving and dead fish from the intermittent-flow bioassays. Residue concentrations in fish that died during tests were higher than those of fish that survived. However, the range of concentrations in dead and living fish overlapped.
Date: December 20, 1977
Creator: Mills, W. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continental margin atmospheric climatology and sea level (Historical setting 1974--1975)

Description: From the many continental shelf dynamics studies which have been made in the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that a detailed analysis of continental margin waters can only be accomplished with an appreciation of the coastal meteorology. Fortunately, coastal meteorological and, in addition, coastal sea level data have been archived and thus provide coastal oceanographers with inexpensive, priceless and complimentary data sets. Past coastal sea level studies have demonstrated that these data contain not only tidal data but also sub-inertial frequency information which measurably details shelf reesponse to atmospheric forcing. Additionally, a particular region, such as the South Atlantic Bight, can be characterized by the statistics of the temporal spectra of both data sets as well by the alonshore coherences which may exist between stations. In this study, atmospheric wind and pressure have been examined and correlated with coastal sea level changes at various coastal stations along the South Atlantic Bight.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Pietrafesa, L.J.; D'Amato, R.; Gabriel, C. & Sawyer, R.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Salton Sea sampling program: baseline and toxicity studies

Description: Baseline data on several of the Salton Sea fishes are reported. Morphometric (dimensions) and meristic (counting elements) data are presented as a baseline to evaluate any accumulation and physiological stresses that the fishes may experience as a result of geothermal development. Trace elements were analyzed in selected tissues or whole fish. The trace elements evaluated were K, Cu, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. The major fishes studied were corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf coaker (Bairdiella icistius, and molly (Poecilia latapinna). Other fishes occasionally tested were Tilapia sp. and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii).
Date: September 30, 1977
Creator: Tullis, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biofouling and corrosion studies. Final report, Part II, January 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

Description: Data were analyzed from two experiments off Keahole Point in Hawaii, one on a tugboat moored in the Gulf of Mexico, and two on buoys in the Gulf of Mexico. These data gave heat transfer behavior of different heat exchanger materials in order to determine the degree of biofouling. A computer program used to analyze the data from the Keahole Point experiments was modified to facilitate the rejection of bad data and analysis of good data with much less manual editing. A program was written for a programmable calculator to allow quick calculation of heat transfer coefficients from raw data. Interpretation of biofouling data is discussed, and a physical model is developed which, it is shown, represents the data. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Fetkovich, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Final report

Description: Studies leading to the development of conceptual designs for two 400 MW Offshore Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Commercial Plants are summarized. A detailed overview of the study Final Report which was completed in Jun 1978 is presented. The successful deployment of a Commercial OTEC Plant in the near term is dependent upon the optimization of the platform configuration and power plant output level. The optimization procedure is based on both technical and economic factors and is used to evaluate a relatively large number of alternatives; i.e., six hullforms, five plant outputs ranging from 50 to 500 megawatts (MW), and three deployment sites. The hullforms under consideration include the ship (barge), cylinder (disc), spar, submersible, semi-submersible, and sphere; while the deployment sites are Hawaii, New Orleans, and Key West. The second part of the Summary describes the development of the two platforms selected by DOE to be carried through the Conceptual Design level: a 400 MW ship and semi-submersible. These studies include platform and cold water pipe (CWP) optimization trade-offs, arrangements, structure, position control, seawater systems, and auxiliary systems. Deployment concepts are also discussed, followed by definition of costs and schedules for both alternatives. A development plan to bring both Commercial Plant alternatives to fruition via an intermediate 100 MW Demonstration Plant which will reduce technical risks to an acceptable level is presented.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Scott, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task I, Industry Summary. Final report

Description: Task I, Industry Summary, defines the current marine transportation industry in terms of population, activities, and energy use. It identifies the various operating or service sectors of the marine transportation industry and determines the numbers and types of vessels, their operating characteristics, and energy consumption. The analysis includes all powered water-borne craft, with the exception of those owned or operated by a government organization and fixed offshore production platforms. The energy consumption analysis of the marine transportation industry concludes with 4 major findings: the marine transportation industry consumes 2.934 quads annually; energy consumption in the marine transportation sector represents 15% of the energy consumed for transportation services; the foreign trade sector consumes 80% of the estimated marine transportation energy requirements; and a minimum of 28% of the energy required by the marine transportation industry is purchased in the US. In each additional chapter (foreign trade, Great Lakes, coastal shipping, offshore, inland waterways, fishing sectors, and recreational boats) the subjects are described in terms of population, operating profiles, energy consumption, typical or generic vessels, costs, and cargo movements.
Date: September 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy study of the marine transportation industry. Volume I. Executive summary

Description: This report covers the conclusions and recommendations resulting from an examination of energy use in the marine transportation industry. It will assist DOE in formulating research and development programs that will promote energy conservation. The results of the analysis determined that the maritime transportation industry consumed approximately 2.9 quads in 1974. This consumption is expected to rise to 6.7 quads by the year 2000. In response to the need to reduce energy consumption below the projected level for the year 2000, conservation-oriented R and D programs were investigated. Two program areas recommended for funding by DOE are diesel bottoming cycles and adiabatic diesels. The methodology used is discussed in the Executive Summary. Volumes II and III cover Tasks I and II, Industry Summary and Regulations and Tariffs, respectively. Volume IV combines Tasks III and IV, Efficiency Improvements and Industry Future. A fifth volume, which is available from DOE, contains documentation of the Marine Transportation Energy Model (MTEM).
Date: June 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III

Description: The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials selection guidelines for geothermal power systems. First edition

Description: Nine potential power cycles are defined and diagrammed for the generation of electricity from geothermal fluids. General fluid properties that influence the applicability of power cycles to a particular geothermal resource are discussed. The corrosivity of individual process streams in power cycles is described based on variations in chemical composition and temperature. Results of materials performance tests are analyzed based on the chemical composition of the corrosive medium and physical factors such as temperature, duration of exposure, and fluid velocity. The key chemical components in geothermal fluids that are significant in determining corrosivity are identified. Both summarized and detailed results of materials performance tests in U.S. liquid-dominated resources are given. Seven U.S. liquid-dominated KGRA's are classified according to relative corrosiveness and their key chemical components are defined. The various forms and mechanisms of corrosive attack that can occur in geothermal process streams are described. The application of nonmetallic materials in geothermal environments is discussed. The appendices contain information on (1) operating experience at geothermal power plants, (2) corrosion in desalination facilities, (3) reliability of geothermal plants, (4) elastomeric materials, (5) comparative alloy costs, and (6) geothermal equipment manufacturers. (MHR)
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: DeBerry, D.W.; Ellis, P.F. & Thomas, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OTEC platform configuration and integration study. Final report

Description: Conceptual designs of ship-type and spar-type platforms for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) commercial plants are presented. Comparative evaluation of six candidate platform types is made. Design guidelines for sea water, cold water pipe and position control systems are developed. Costs are presented for plants with outputs of 400 MWe (Net) for operational sites of New Orleans, Hawaii, and Brazil.
Date: April 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OTEC platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Technical concept. Final report

Description: The configuration, integration, and evaluation studies performed in the first phase of this contract resulted in a ranking of the most feasible platform candidates for commercial OTEC applications. On the basis of the results obtained from three individual contractors performing the same study, the Department of Energy made selections of two platform hulls for each contractor for conceptual designs. For Phase-II studies, M. Rosenblatt and Son, Inc. (MR and S) project team was given the SPAR and SPHERE platforms to perform not only conceptual designs for, but also cost and time schedules and sensitivity analyses. This is the second volume of a three-volume MR and S report, and it presents the results of conceptual designs for the two platforms, the facilities and equipment required for construction, deployment, and operation of these platforms, and cost estimates and time schedules. All conceptual design work is performed for the baseline site on West Coast of Florida. The cost differentials and other considerations involved with deploying the platforms in the New Orleans and Puerto Rico sites are also presented. As an end product of the complete study, the costs for the SPAR and the SPHERE platforms are reported both in terms of acquisition costs in 1978 dollars and life cycle costs in dollars per kilowatt.
Date: July 7, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department