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Advanced design and economic considerations for commercial geothermal power plants at Heber and Niland, California. Final report

Description: Two separate studies, involving advanced design and economic considerations for commercial geothermal power plants using liquid-dominated hydrothermal resources, are presented. In the first study, the effects on design, capital cost, and bus bar electric energy production cost caused by an anticipated decline in available geothermal fluid temperature over the lifetime of power plants are described. A two-stage, flashed-steam energy conversion process was used for the conceptual design of the power plants, which operate from the moderate-temperature, low-salinity reservoir at Heber, California. Plants with net capacities of 50, 100, and 200 MWe (net) were investigated. The results show that it is important to include provision for geothermal fluid temperature decline in the design of power plants to prevent loss of electric energy production capability and to reduce bus bar electric energy costs. In the second study, the technical, economic, and environmental effects of adding regeneration to a 50 MWe (net) power plant employing the multistage-flash/binary process are described. Regeneration is potentially attractive because it recovers waste heat from the turbine exhaust and uses it in the power cycle. However, the pressure drop caused by the introduction of the regenerator decreases the turbine expansion and thus decreases system performance. An innovative approach was taken in the design of the regenerator, which minimized the expected performance degradation of the turbine. The result was that the performance, capital cost, and bus bar electric energy production cost are nearly the same for the processes with and without regeneration. On the other hand, the addition of regeneration has the environmental benefits of substantially reducing heat rejection to the atmosphere and cooling tower makeup and blowdown water requirements. It also increases the temperature of the brine returned to the field for reinjection.
Date: October 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Niland Test Facility Startup Evaluation Task Force

Description: The following team reports are included: systems, operation, control, and safety; instrumentation; brine chemistry and materials evaluation; reservoir assessment; environment; and contingency analysis. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive summary of an energy study on the marine transportation industry. Volume 1. Draft final report

Description: The conclusions and recommendations resulting from an examination of energy use in the marine transportation industry are presented. Four tasks covered in the study include an industry summary, regulations and tariffs, efficiency improvements, and the future of the industry. The methodology used in the study is described. Specific recommendations are made concerning research and development actions that appear to offer the greatest conservation potential. Three high risk areas are identified that should be reevaluated in the future. (MCW)
Date: August 17, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1974 geothermal field tests at the Niland Reservoir in the Imperial Valley of California

Description: The phases of the 1974 geothermal field tests at the Niland Reservoir in the Imperial Valley of California are documented. The following tests are included: separator, steam scrubber, steam turbine, heat exchanger, packed heat exchanger, corrosion, chemical cleaning, and control and instrumentation. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1974
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Draft report: application of organic Rankine cycle heat recovery systems to diesel powered marine vessels

Description: The analysis and results of an investigation of the application of organic Rankine cycle heat recovery systems to diesel-powered marine vessels are described. The program under which this study was conducted was sponsored jointly by the US Energy Research and Development Administration, the US Navy, and the US Maritime Administration. The overall objective of this study was to investigate diesel bottoming energy recovery systems, currently under development by three US concerns, to determine the potential for application to marine diesel propulsion and auxiliary systems. The study primarily focused on identifying the most promising vessel applications (considering vessel type, size, population density, operational duty cycle, etc.) so the relative economic and fuel conservation merits of energy recovery systems could be determined and assessed. Vessels in the current fleet and the projected 1985 fleet rated at 1000 BHP class and above were investigated.
Date: July 15, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic assessment of polymer concrete usage in geothermal power plants

Description: Results of a study established to review the Heber and Niland, California 50 MWe conceptual geothermal power plants designs and to identify areas where non-metallic materials, such as polymer concrete, can be technically and economically employed are reported. Emphasis was directed toward determining potential economic advantages and resulting improvements in plant availability. It is estimated that use of polymer concrete in the Heber plant will effect a savings of 6.18 mills per KWH in the cost of power delivered to the network, a savings of 9.7%. A similar savings should be effected in the Niland plant.
Date: November 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy by reverse electrodialysis. Final report

Description: The principles and history of converting the difference between the chemical potentials of concentrated and dilute salt solutions to useful energy by reverse electrodialysis (RED) are discussed. The potential sources of brines discussed include the brines of oil and natural gas fields, the brines from flooding of salt domes, the brines of salt lakes, seawater, and geothermal brines. Equations for predicting the performance of RED units are presented and discussed. A study of the effects of variables on power output from RED cells is given, and estimates of capital and operating costs of RED power units are detailed. (WHK)
Date: July 14, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task II. Efficiency improvements. Draft report

Description: Research and development areas that hold promise for maritime energy conservation are identified and evaluated. The methodology used in the evaluation of potential research areas and results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Fifteen programs are identified in four generic technologies and these are discussed in detail in appendices A-D. The areas are: main propulsion plants, propulsors, hydrodynamics, and vessel operations. Fuels are discussed briefly in appendix E. Additional information is presented on the generic US flag baseline operational and cost parameters; a sample output model is presented. (MCW)
Date: June 2, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task IV. Industry future. Draft report

Description: Future industry scenarios for energy consumption in the marine transport industry are projected and the energy savings potential of the research and development program identified in Task III (Efficiency Improvements) against these scenarios is evaluated. The introduction is contained in Chapter I. In Chapter II, the operational, regulatory, and vessel size scenarios for the year 2000 are developed. In Chapter III, future cargo flows and expected levels of energy use for the baseline 2000 projection are determined. In Chapter IV, the research and development programs are introduced into the future US flag fleet and the energy savings potential associated with each is determined. (MCW)
Date: August 18, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy study of ship-transportation systems: a progress briefing by Booz, Allen Transportation Consulting Division

Description: The study objectives are presented. Summary information on energy consumed and required in the marine transportation sector are included. Model outputs, a logic flowchart, information on a cost analysis approach, and fuel consumption and life-cycle cost methodologies are presented. Information is given on Task II (Potential Case Studies) and on Task III (Conservation Research and Development). Additional information on bottom-cycle applications and fuel consumption of diesel engines is given. (MCW)
Date: February 2, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the injectability of conditioned brine produced by a reaction clarification: gravity filtration system in operation at the Salton Sea geothermal field, Southern California

Description: A Demonstration Reaction Clarifier - Gravity Filtration System with a 1600 GPM throughput capability was in operation at the joint DOE-SDG and E-MAGMA test facility located in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, southern California, during the summer of 1979. The system, which was designed to condition spent effluent from a 10 MWe-size geothermal power plant, removes supersaturated dissolved species and residual suspended solids from brine prior to subsurface brine disposal via injection wells. The post-processing chemical stability of conditioned effluents was established by means of anaerobic incubation tests at 90/sup 0/C. The effect of residual dissolved polymer, that might be used for the purpose of scale control in upstream power plant components on the efficiency of reaction clarification, was also evaluated. Membrane filtration and core tests were used to assess the injectability of processed brine. It was found that the clarifier-filter operational procedures and system design permitted oxygenation of the brine by air intrusion. This resulted in partial stabilization of dissolved silica and precipitation of oxides of iron. As a consequence, conditioned brine injectability was poor. However, elimination of the air intrusion problem would result in a substantial improvement in brine quality. Residual amounts of dissolved polyaminoethylene (20 ppm, by weight), a powerful antisilica precipitant, in brine was shown by means of bench-scale tests carried out at approx. 90/sup 0/C to improve the efficiency of the clarification process where the additive appears to function as a flocculant.
Date: November 28, 1979
Creator: Owen, L.B.; Raber, E.; Otto, C.; Netherton, R.; Neurath, R. & Allen, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OTEC thermal resource report for Caribbean Sea Plant Ship 13--15/sup 0/N 75--80/sup 0/N

Description: A large and consistent thermal resource exists in the area between 13--15/sup 0/ North latitude and 75--80/sup 0/ West longitude, which was studied for possible use by a plant ship. The area studied is primarily in the Colombian Basin of the Caribbean Sea. The average annual ..delta..T (surface temperature minus temperature at depth) for the area at 1000 meters is 22.4/sup 0/C. At 650 meters, an adequate ..delta..T exists, with no month of the year having a mean ..delta..T less than 19/sup 0/C. The total variability of temperature at all depths in this Caribbean area is small. Below 1000 meters, the total variation is extremely small. The area has a good mixed layer at all times of the year. It is occasionally exposed to strong winds from hurricanes. Currents generally show the same general pattern throughout the year with a predominant flow toward the west or northwest at average speeds of 40--50 cm/sec.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Wolff, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic refraction investigation of the Salton Sea geothermal area, Imperial Valley, California

Description: Seven seismic refraction profiles and four long-distance refraction shots have been used to investigate the Salton Sea geothermal area. From these data, two models of the geothermal and adjacent area are proposed. Model 1 proposes a basement high within the geothermal area trending parallel to the axis of the Imperial Valley. Model 2 assumes a horizontal basement in the E-W direction, and proposes a seismic velocity gradient that increases the apparent basement velocity from east to west approximately 15% within the geothermal area. Both models propose basement dip of 3 degrees to the south, yielding a thickness of sediments of 6.6 km near Brawley, California, in the center of the Imperial Valley. Based on offsets inferred in the sedimentary seismic layers of the geothermal area, two NW-SE trending fault zones are proposed.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Frith, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1978 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment Part 2. Ecological Sciences.

Description: The objective of this research is to provide an integrated program of investigation for the definition of the ecological consequences of resource developments in northern Alaska. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained that describe environmental costs incurred by petroleum resource extraction and transportation, including interaction of industrial activities with arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), small mammals, and tundra-nesting birds in the Prudhoe Bay field and along the Trans-Alaska pipeline and haul road; similar information from the Colville River delta for comparative purposes; baseline information on moose (Alces alces) populations, caribou (Rangifer tarandus) range quality and use, and lichen communities that are or will be impacted by resource developments; field experiments to determine lichen sensitivities to sulfur oxide concentrations likely to be encountered near pipeline pumping stations; food chain transfers of stable and radioactive elements that utilize a data base of some 19 years for comparative purposes; and evaluation of oil field development activities on rabies and other physiological phenomena in foxes. A significant fraction of the research is coordinated through university contracts that utilize academic researchers in specific areas of expertise. During 1978 research continued to emphasize investigations on the ecological consequences of petroleum resource development in northern Alaska. Studies were conducted this year on arctic foxes, tundra-nesting birds, small mammals, caribou, lichens, and fallout radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food web.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Hanson, W.C. & Eberhardt, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemistry of water and sediment from the benthic boundary layer at a site in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

Description: A primary objective of this study was to characterize the corrosive potential of the benthic boundary layer at a site where selected metal alloys were being exposed. Those properties of sea water and sediment likely to affect the corrosion of alloys that were measured in this study include salinity, pH, scale-forming cations, redox potential, dissolved gases, heavy metal ions, abrasive particulates, and microorganisms. The chemical properties of water from the benthic boundary layer do not appear to differ substantially from those of surface sea water. Salinity, pH and major ion content of this water appear to be representative of well-oxygenated, unpolluted oceanic water. On the basis of the properties examined, it is expected that corrosion of metals exposed in the deep sea would not differ greatly from that in surface waters having similar properties. However, the effect of pressure on corrosion rates and chemical forms of corrosion products may be an unknown factor of major importance. Increased calcite solubility at depth has been well-documented and the resulting inhibited formation of protective scale may be indicative of the effects of pressure on corrosion. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bottom sediments at this site indicates that, if diffusion of O/sub 2/ into the sediment was inhibited, stainless steels buried in the mud would lose passivity and corrosion rates would increase. The eventual fate of corrosion products is dependent on their properties and the properties of their environment. In benthic boundary layer sea water it might be expected that corrosion products would be released as metal oxides. (JGB)
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Schmidt, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop on Potentially Disruptive Phenomena for Nuclear Waste Repositories, July 27-28, 1977

Description: The workshop on Potentially Disruptive Phenomena for Nuclear Waste Repositories brought together experts in the geosciences to identify and evaluate potentially disruptive events and processes and to contribute ideas on how to extrapolate data from the past into the next one million years. The analysis is to be used to model a repository in geologic media for long-term safety assessments of nuclear waste storage. The workshop included invited presentations on the following items: an overview of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP), simulation techniques, subjective probabilities and methodology of obtaining data, similar modeling efforts at Lawrence Livermore and Sandia Laboratories, and geologic processes or events.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Jacobson, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nutritional significance of Copper--Bering Intertidal System to spring-migrating shorebirds breeding in western Alaska. Annual report, April 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

Description: In the year ending 1 April 1978, significant new dimensions were added to an appraisal of the Copper River Delta system as critical habitat for Dunlins and Western Sandpipers in spring migration. Selective field work was conducted at other sites in Alaska along the migratory-to-breeding continuum of localities between the Copper Delta and northwestern Alaska. Predictions made last year about the differing physiological/behavioral/migration dynamics of the two species have been borne out by the documentation of predicted major stopovers by westerns in Kachemak Bay, Lower Cook Inlet, and the virtual absence of Dunlins from that region, as predicted. Close cooperation with Arneson (RU 3) and Gill (RU 341, Nelson Lagoon) has proven to be mutually advantageous in both putting the Copper Delta into context, and verifying that postulated different migration strategies characterize the two species in fall as well as in spring movements. Both species appear to be highly susceptible to any intertidal habitat degradation in the C-BRD system, although of the two, the Dunlin shows a higher degree of obligate habitat dependency on the C-BRD system itself. By contrast, current understanding leads us to regard habitat degradation in Lower Cook Inlet as at least as serious a threat to westerns as similar events in the Copper--Bering system. A final report of this phase of work is expected to be ready on 1 October 1978. Perturbation experiments (small plot oiling, exclosure pens) are under consideration for possible renewal proposals in 1979.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Senner, S.E. & West, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean thermal energy conversion ecological data report from OSS Researcher in Gulf of Mexico, (GOTEC-01), July 12-23, 1977

Description: Ecological measurements important for environmental assessment of the effect of an operating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant were initiated in July 1977 at the proposed Gulf of Mexico site off the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. The initial cruise of the OSS Researcher, in a joint effort with the Atlantic Oceanic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) took place from 12 to 23 July 1977. The measurements were taken at 15 oceanographic stations to a maximum depth of 1000 m. Water was analyzed for trace metals, nutrients and chlorophyll a and ATP. Physical data, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements were supplied by NOAA-AOML. Two bioassays were carried out using indigenous phytoplankton to estimate the effect of deep water on the rates of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake of photic zone algae. The Deep Scattering Layer (DSL) was monitored at the site by a continuously recording 12 kHz depth sounder at the Mobile site. This report presents data collected during the cruise.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Quinby-Hunt, M.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource and reservoir investigations of U. S. Bureau of Reclamation leaseholds at East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California

Description: The study included five parts: geology, seismicity, well testing, reservoir simulation, and geochemistry. Included in appendices are: production test data and discussion, interference tests, production tests in the northern portion of the East Mesa KGRA, conversion tables, chemical analysis of fluids from East Mesa wells, and results of laboratory studies of scale samples taken from the vertical tube evaporator. (MHR)
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Howard, J.; Apps, J.A. & Benson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific region (California and Hawaii). Task I: implementation plan development, topical report

Description: Eleven implementation plans were prepared. They represent some 21 reservoir-site developments and 48 geothermal power plant developments. The plans consist of three integrated elements: (1) a bar-chart schedule that depicts interdependencies among activities and shows significant milestones on the path from initial exploration to power on-line, (2) task descriptions, and (3) the responsible performers. During the preparation of the implementation plans, the tasks required for resource development at each KGRA were defined on a generalized work breakdown structure (WBS) diagram. A generalized WBS dictionary (task descriptions) was also compiled. In addition, a specific WBS for each KGRA was prepared in a tabular and indented format. The tasks formed the basis for the schedular activities. Institutional responsibilities, based upon the WBS, were identified and are also shown on the tabular WBS. In this manner, implementation plans evolved whose schedular, task, and responsibility elements were integrated with one another. In order to provide logically consistent time estimates, and a reasonable basis for comparison, schedule modules were developed for some recurring activities which are essentially common to all KGRAs. In the preparation of multiple plant schedules for a given KGRA, the interactive effects of power development on the ancillary resources of the area were considered so that interfaces and constraining situations would be identified. Within Imperial County, this process was taken one step further to include the influence that development at the several close-lying KGRAs would have upon one another. A set of recommendations for the accelerated development of geothermal energy resources was prepared and the potential implementors were suggested.
Date: March 26, 1979
Creator: Michler, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report

Description: The fundamental objective of the water resources analysis was to assess the availability of surface and ground water for potential use as power plant make-up water in the major geothermal areas of California. The analysis was concentrated on identifying the major sources of surface and ground water, potential limitations on the usage of this water, and the resulting constraints on potentially developable electrical power in each geothermal resource area. Analyses were completed for 11 major geothermal areas in California: four in the Imperial Valley, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers-Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Glass Mountain, Wendel Amedee, and Lassen. One area in Hawaii, the Puna district, was also included in the analysis. The water requirements for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process were estimated based upon a specific existing or proposed type of geothermal power plant. The make-up water requirements for each type of conversion process at each resource location were then estimated as a basis for analyzing any constraints on the megawatts which potentially could be developed.
Date: March 19, 1979
Creator: Sakaguchi, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department