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Bioassay Procedure to Evaluate the Acute Toxicity of Salinity and Geothermal Pollutants (Pesticides) to Gambusia Affinis. Final Report

Description: The salinity tolerance of Gambusia affinis was determined in static bioassays. Gambusia easily tolerated salinity of 47.5 percent in 96 hour static bioassays. Survival at this level was 93.3 percent with the lowest survival being 68 percent at 40 percent salinity. The acute toxicities of endrin, DDT, aldrin, and dieldrin to Gambusia were determined by static and intermittent-flow bioassays. Toxicity was measured as the Mediant lethal Concentration (TL/sub 50/) for 96-hr exposures. TL/sub 50/ values were lower in the intermittent-flow bioassays than in static bioassays. Residue concentrations were also compared in surviving and dead fish from the intermittent-flow bioassays. Residue concentrations in fish that died during tests were higher than those of fish that survived. However, the range of concentrations in dead and living fish overlapped.
Date: December 20, 1977
Creator: Mills, W. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III

Description: The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task III. Efficiency improvements; Task IV. Industry future. Final report, Volume IV. [Projections for year 2000]

Description: Tasks III and IV measure the characteristics of potential research and development programs that could be applied to the maritime industry. It was necessary to identify potential operating scenarios for the maritime industry in the year 2000 and determine the energy consumption that would result given those scenarios. After the introductory chapter the operational, regulatory, and vessel-size scenarios for the year 2000 are developed in Chapter II. In Chapter III, future cargo flows and expected levels of energy use for the baseline 2000 projection are determined. In Chapter IV, the research and development programs are introduced into the future US flag fleet and the energy-savings potential associated with each is determined. The first four appendices (A through D) describe each of the generic technologies. The fifth appendix (E) contains the baseline operating and cost parameters against which 15 program areas were evaluated. (MCW)
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Competitive economics of United States and foreign refining

Description: The existing Caribbean export refineries are at a competitive advantage relative to all US Gulf Coast refineries except the very large, high conversion facilities. The advantage ranges from a minimum of $0.45 per barrel to a maximum of $2.14 per barrel (1978 US dollars) in 1980 with US crude oil prices at world levels. The existing European export refineries are also at a competitive advantage relative to the hydroskimming and low conversion US Gulf Coast refineries. Higher crude oil and product transportation costs reduce the European export refinery's competitive advantage compared to its Caribbean counterpart. The Caribbean and Roggerdam refiner's competitive position would be significantly enhanced with the addition of conversion facilities to increase gasoline and distillate yields. The advantage in 1985 would increase to a maximum of $2.54 per barrel (1978 dollars). Higher crude oil and product transportation costs due to natural port limitations and the Jones Act are key factors determining the US Gulf Coast refiner's competitive position. These locational disadvantages in addition to US emission standards account for $1.42 and $0.94 barrel of the competitive advantage of the Caribbean and European export refineries, respectively. New US refineries are at an even greater disadvantage relative to foreign competition. Caribbean and Mexican locations are the most attractive for a new refinery. Mexico also has potentially cheap natural gas for refinery fuel. These factors give a new Mexican or Caribbean refinery about a $2.00 to $3.00 per barrel advantage relative to a US East or Gulf Coast location.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of the permeability of Kayenta and St. Peter sandstones to hypersaline brine in the temperature interval 70 to 90/sup 0/C at 10. 3-MPa confining pressure

Description: Permeabilities of 10.2 cm in length, 2.5 cm in diameter Kayenta (porosity, 20.7, +- 1.66%) and St. Peter (porosity, 13.6, +- 0.13%) sandstones to Magmamax No. 1 brine containing suspended solids were determined from 70 to 90/sup 0/C at 10.3-MPa confining pressure. Measurements were performed without filters, with one 10-..mu..m filter, and with two 10-..mu..m filters inserted upstream of the core sample. In all cases, there was a dramatic decrease in permeability within the first hour of flow or few hundred pore volumes of flow through the core. Experiments conducted without filters or with one filter yield permeabilities that represent both the rock and the 2- to 3-mm amorphous silica-iron layer on the top face of the core. The experimental results show that if the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) were composed of porous, sedimentary formations similar to Kayenta sandstone, long-term injection of unmodified Magmamax brine would not be feasible. In the case of acidified brine, most of the permeability decline may result from the mobilization of calcite.
Date: December 22, 1977
Creator: Piwinskii, A.J. & Netherton, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field electrochemical measurements of corrosion characteristics of materials in hypersaline geothermal brine

Description: A flow cell (with appropriate accessories) was developed for use in short-term testing of the corrosion behavior of materials in approximately 100{sup 0}C, hypersaline geothermal brine. The apparatus was designed to accommodate commercial (Petrolite) corrosion measurement equipment and conducted experiments on-line at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Test Station in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. The apparatus also permitted direct readings of corrosion potentials, solution redox potential (E{sub h}), brine flow rate, pH, and temperature. Estimates of general corrosion rates were obtained by the linear polarization resistance technique and from measurements of complete potentiodynamic polarization curves. The latter also afforded predictions of pitting susceptibilities of active-passive type materials. Twenty-two alloys (with various heat treatments) were tested and readily grouped according to general corrosion resistances in acidified hypersaline (approximately 4 M chloride) brine. Especially promising in regard to corrosion resistance-vs-cost is the series of low Cr--Mo steels. Prescaling of materials in unacidified (pH approximately 5.7) brine prior to exposure to acidified (pH 2 to 4.5) brine was found to be beneficial in reducing corrosion rates at 100{sup 0}C.
Date: December 13, 1977
Creator: Harrar, J.E.; McCright, R.D. & Goldberg, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic refraction investigation of the Salton Sea geothermal area, Imperial Valley, California

Description: Seven seismic refraction profiles and four long-distance refraction shots have been used to investigate the Salton Sea geothermal area. From these data, two models of the geothermal and adjacent area are proposed. Model 1 proposes a basement high within the geothermal area trending parallel to the axis of the Imperial Valley. Model 2 assumes a horizontal basement in the E-W direction, and proposes a seismic velocity gradient that increases the apparent basement velocity from east to west approximately 15% within the geothermal area. Both models propose basement dip of 3 degrees to the south, yielding a thickness of sediments of 6.6 km near Brawley, California, in the center of the Imperial Valley. Based on offsets inferred in the sedimentary seismic layers of the geothermal area, two NW-SE trending fault zones are proposed.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Frith, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of silica from spent geothermal brine

Description: Preliminary survey experiments conducted at the LLL Salton Sea Geothermal Test Site in April and May, 1977 are reported. The addition of caustic to raise the brine pH to approximately 6 precipitated silica and other materials. The addition of flocculating agents, such as ferric hydroxide, aids settling and filtration. Small-scale pilot plant studies are recommended.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Ryon, R.W. & Hill, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GTF test program

Description: The goal of the GTF (Geothermal Test Facility) Test Program is to evaluate the geothermal resources in the Niland area and determine if they can be effectively converted into electric power. This program will examine the four critical areas of geothermal power development: (I) reservoir analysis, (II) energy extraction and conversion, (III) environmental effects, and (IV) operation and maintenance. These areas are discussed and a detailed test program is presented.
Date: December 31, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

Description: The Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, located in the East Franklin area of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is the first successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Well-of-Opportunity program. The section tested was the MA-6 sand of lower Miocene age which has produced large quantities of gas from the adjacent but structurally separated Garden City field. In the subject well the observed temperature was 270{sup 0}F (132{sup 0}C) and the measured gradient was 0.77 psi/ft. The gross sand thickness was 270 feet, the net sand thickness 190 feet, and the tested interval 58 net feet. The temperatures and pressures encountered approached the limits of the surface-recording bottomhole pressure gauge and particularly the single-conductor cables on which the gauges were run. The objectives of the tests were all accomplished, and data were obtained which will contribute to the overall assessment of the geopressured-geothermal resource of the Upper Gulf of Mexico basin. In general, the gas solubility (22.8 scf/bbl) was as expected for the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the brine. The produced water was more saline than expected (160,000 mg/l). The high concentrations of dissolved solids, coupled with the evolution of CO{sub 2} from these waters during production, created a scaling problem in the tubular goods and surface equipment that will have to be addressed in future tests.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Willits, M.H.; McCoy, R.L.; Dobson, R.J. & Hartsock, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of geothermal wells located in the Salton Sea geothermal field, Imperial County, California

Description: A summary is given of the geophysical, geochemical, and geothermal characteristics of wells located in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Based on the geothermal characteristics of the wells, a subsurface heat profile was developed for the entire geothermal field. Maps of temperature contours for specified depths throughout the field were also drawn.
Date: December 15, 1975
Creator: Palmer, T. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

Description: This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Robertson, Roy C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering aspects of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley

Description: In order to provide background for introduction of a Geothermal Element into the General Plan of the County of Imperial, California, studies were conducted on resource evaluation, engineering development, environmental impact, economics, regulation, and so forth. This document is a collection of reviews of engineering matters pertinent to the County's plan. Briefly, the contents include discussions of drilling practice, costs, and land requirements. Brief notes on reinjection and on fluid transmission follow. The section on power plants attempts to give scaling relationships for land area, costs, and performance, according to size and reservoir temperature. The problem of cooling power plants is important, particularly in an arid agricultural area. Cooling requirements, water availability, and water suitability are discussed in turn. The question of the interactions of the hydrologic cycle, withdrawals for cooling, and the Salton Sea is covered in a separate EQL document. Finally, there are sections devoted to nonelectrical uses for the geothermal resources, including production of fresh water and chemicals. The direct uses for geothermal heat are not included.
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Goldsmith, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petrology and stable isotope geochemistry of three wells in the Buttes area of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial Valley, California, USA

Description: A detailed investigation is reported of cuttings recovered from three wells in the Salton Sea geothermal field located at the southeast end of the Salton Sea, California. The wells, Magmamax No. 2, Magmamax No. 3, and Woolsey No. 1 penetrate 1340 m, 1200 m, and 730 m, respectively, of altered sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Colorado River delta. The wells are located at the crest of a thermal anomaly, reach a maximum of 320/sup 0/C at 1070 m, and produce a brine containing approximately 250,000 mg/1 of dissolved solids.
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Kendall, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical nature of cold fronts within the Gulf of Mexico and their potential influence on OTEC operations

Description: This study was undertaken to quantify selected aspects of cold fronts as they penetrate southward into the Gulf of Mexico region. A need arises to statistically define the nature of these cold fronts since the Department of Energy's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program is geared for determining the feasibility of utilizing the temperature difference between the tropical ocean surface and depths of approximately 1500 m for the production of power. However, severe winters are known to significantly decrease the normal sea surface temperature by approximately 7.2/sup 0/F as well as cause deepening of the mixed layer (Leetmaa, 1977). With an OTEC plant operating at efficiencies of only 2 to 3 percent, the plant could become marginally operational during the winter months. Upon the passage of a cold front, the sea surface will exchange heat to the atmosphere through the fluxes of latent and sensible heat. Garstang (1969) has shown that these fluxes can increase more than an order of magnitude upon the passage of a moderate cold front. Long term, greater than 25 years, meteorological data from the National Climatic Center was used as the basis for determining the impact of cold fronts in the gulf of Mexico region. In particular, surface air temperature and wind direction were analyzed daily during the months of December, January, and February. The drop in temperature as well as the directional wind shift were the criteria for the frontal passage. Surface observation data from Tampa and Key West, Florida were used.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Ulanski, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-level waste canister corrosion studies pertinent to geologic isolation

Description: The compatibility of candidate high-level waste (HLW) canister materials with deep geologic isolation environments is addressed. Results are presented which are applicable to the following repositories or test facilities: bedded and domed salt, sub-seabed sediment, and various types of hardrock. Such studies are an essential portion of the technological basis for terminal waste management. These studies will identify HLW canister or overpack materials satisfying appropriate requirements for barrier lifetime. Mechanical properties, as well as constraints on cost and consumption of critically limited materials, are also selection criteria. Lifetime objectives range from a minimum of several years for retrievability constraints up to several hundred years for retardation of near-field interactions (e.g., waste form leaching with potential radionuclide release to the geosphere) during the period of greatest HLW thermal output. A review of present and prior applicable corrosion results is presented. However, emphasis is on the results obtained from current laboratory and in situ HLW canister/corrosion programs at Sandia Laboratories. The effects of multiple variables on corrosion susceptibility and rates are briefly discussed and some applicable data given. It is possible to provide a canister/overpack barrier which can survive geologic isolation environments for periods of several hundred years.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Braithwaite, J.W. & Molecke, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department