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Climate Change and Insurance: An Agenda for Action in the United States

Description: This report is the first report of its kind that attempts to overlay a detailed distillation of climate change science with U.S. insurance industry activities around climate change. This report aims to go beyond an investigation of only hurricanes to also address the implications for the U.S. insurance industry of other impacts of climate change including forest fires, floods, and storm surge (although storm surge is not commercially insured, this report describes how government insurance backstops interact intimately with commercial insurance products and with consumer perception of risk). The report finds that U.S. insurers are far ahead of many of their overseas counterparts in assessing current catastrophic (cat) risk through sophisticated cat risk modeling that is based on historical weather events; however, U.S. insurers appear to lag behind their European peers who have begun to conduct studies of climate change and are beginning, though slowly, to incorporate future climate change scenarios into cat risk models, particularly for flooding.
Date: October 2006
Creator: Anderson, Miranda; Dobardzic, Saliha & Gardiner, David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Climate Change Impacts in the United States

Description: A report providing information about how climate change affects the American people. It concentrates on things such as temperature changes, ice melting, sea level, acidification, and water quality.
Date: unknown
Creator: United States. Global Research Program.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative genomic analysis as a tool for biologicaldiscovery

Description: Biology is a discipline rooted in comparisons. Comparative physiology has assembled a detailed catalogue of the biological similarities and differences between species, revealing insights into how life has adapted to fill a wide-range of environmental niches. For example, the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying capacity of vertebrate has evolved to provide strong advantages for species respiring at sea level, at high elevation or within water. Comparative- anatomy, -biochemistry, -pharmacology, -immunology and -cell biology have provided the fundamental paradigms from which each discipline has grown.
Date: March 30, 2003
Creator: Nobrega, Marcelo A. & Pennacchio, Len A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Changes in the moment of inertia of the earth, brought about by the redistribution of ocean water from the tropics to ice at high latitudes, couple energy from the spin of the earth into convection in the liquid core. This mechanism may help provide the driving energy for the earth's dynamo. Sufficiently rapid ocean level changes can disrupt the dynamo, resulting (in half of the cases) in a geomagnetic field reversal. The model can account for the previously mysterious correlation reported between geomagnetic reversals and mass extinctions.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Muller, R.A. & Morris, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo Simulation of Proton-induced Cosimc Ray Cascades in the Atmosphere

Description: We have developed a Monte Carlo model of the Earth's atmosphere and implemented it in three different codes (GEANT4, MCNPX, and FLUKA). Primary protons in the energy range of 1 GeV-100 TeV are injected at the top of the atmosphere. The codes follow the tracks of all relevant secondary particles (neutrons, muons, gammas, electrons, and pions) and tally their fluxes at selectable altitudes. Comparisons with cosmic ray data at sea level show good agreement.
Date: March 14, 2007
Creator: Hagmann, C A; Lange, D J & Wright, D M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation

Description: A leading hypothesis to explain abrupt climate change during the last glacial cycle calls on fluctuations in the margin of the North American Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), which may have routed freshwater between the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and North Atlantic, affecting North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) variability and regional climate. Paired measurements of {delta}O and Mg/Ca of foraminiferal calcite from GOM sediments reveal five episodes of LIS meltwater input from 28-45 thousand years ago (ka) that do not match the millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger (D/O) warmings recorded in Greenland ice. We suggest that summer melting of the LIS may occur during Antarctic warming and likely contributed to sea-level variability during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3).
Date: October 2, 2005
Creator: Hill, H W; Flower, B P; Quinn, T M; Hollander, D J & Guilderson, T P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Krakatau's long goodbye in the Ocean

Description: State-of-the-art climate models suggest that 20th Century ocean warming and sea-level rise were substantially reduced by the 1883 eruption of Krakatau. Volcanically induced cooling of the ocean surface penetrated into deeper layers where it persisted for decades. We find that volcanic eruptions have longer lasting effects than previously suspected, sufficient to offset a large fraction of ocean warming and sea-level rise caused by anthropogenic influences over the 20th Century. We examine the latest suite of coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments that include time-varying external forcings (e.g., changes in greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, sulfate aerosols and volcanic aerosols) for the period 1880-2000 (see Methods). These models have differences in physics, resolution, initial conditions, 'spin-up' and ocean-atmosphere coupling procedures, as well as different combinations of external forcings. Uncertainties in both the applied forcings and in the model responses to them are therefore inherent in our investigation.
Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Gleckler, P; Wigley, T; Santer, B; Gregory, J; AchutaRao, K & Taylor, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: We validated one year of Global Forecast System (GFS) predictions of surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, dewpoint temperature, air pressure) over the entire planet for forecasts extending from zero hours into the future (an analysis) to 36 hours. Approximately 12,000 surface stations world-wide were included in this analysis. Root-Mean-Square- Errors (RMSE) increased as the forecast period increased from zero to 36 hours, but the initial RMSE were almost as large as the 36 hour forecast RMSE for all variables. Typical RMSE were 3 C for air temperature, 2-3mb for sea-level pressure, 3.5 C for dewpoint temperature and 2.5 m/s for wind speed. Approximately 20-40% of the GFS errors can be attributed to a lack of resolution of local features. We attribute the large initial RMSE for the zero hour forecasts to the inability of the GFS to resolve local terrain features that often dominate local weather conditions, e.g., mountain- valley circulations and sea and land breezes. Since the horizontal resolution of the GFS (about 1{sup o} of latitude and longitude) prevents it from simulating these locally-driven circulations, its performance will not improve until model resolution increases by a factor of 10 or more (from about 100 km to less than 10 km). Since this will not happen in the near future, an alternative for the near term to improve surface weather analyses and predictions for specific points in space and time would be implementation of a high-resolution, limited-area mesoscale atmospheric prediction model in regions of interest.
Date: April 15, 2009
Creator: Werth, D. & Garrett, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

Description: The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS sites, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP sites together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation coastal-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' sites combined with large decreases at 'coastal' sites. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal California were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at coastal SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at coastal areas. Significant societal impacts may ...
Date: May 15, 2009
Creator: Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

Description: Characterization of cycle and facies architecture on lower Clear Fork and lowermost upper Clear Fork equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon of Sierra Diablo was complete. The focus of detailed study in Apache Canyon has been the upper Clear Fork section because this interval contains the productive interval in South Wasson field, the preliminary subsurface study area. Parts of three high-frequency sequences (HFS), each 60 to 100 ft thick, are present on the south wall of Apache Canyon. HFS's display an upper-deepening or backstepping pattern associated with longer-term sea level rise. Each HFS is composed of upward-shallowing cycles whose thickness, facies composition, and continuity vary within and between HFS's.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Lucia, F.J. & Ruppel, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

Description: Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are ...
Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: Guilderson, T. P. & Pak, D. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

Description: The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.
Date: November 28, 2006
Creator: Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M & Farber, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENSO Simulation in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Models: Are the Current Models Better?

Description: Maintaining a multi-model database over a generation or more of model development provides an important framework for assessing model improvement. Using control integrations, we compare the simulation of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and its extratropical impact, in models developed for the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report with models developed in the late 1990's (the so-called Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-2 [CMIP2] models). The IPCC models tend to be more realistic in representing the frequency with which ENSO occurs, and they are better at locating enhanced temperature variability over the eastern Pacific Ocean. When compared with reanalyses, the IPCC models have larger pattern correlations of tropical surface air temperature than do the CMIP2 models during the boreal winter peak phase of El Nino. However, for sea-level pressure and precipitation rate anomalies, a clear separation in performance between the two vintages of models is not as apparent. The strongest improvement occurs for the modeling groups whose CMIP2 model tended to have the lowest pattern correlations with observations. This has been checked by subsampling the multi-century IPCC simulations in a manner to be consistent with the single 80-year time segment available from CMIP2. Our results suggest that multi-century integrations may be required to statistically assess model improvement of ENSO. The quality of the El Nino precipitation composite is directly related to the fidelity of the boreal winter precipitation climatology, highlighting the importance of reducing systematic model error. Over North America distinct improvement of El Nino forced boreal winter surface air temperature, sea-level pressure, and precipitation rate anomalies in the IPCC models occurs. This improvement, is directly proportional to the skill of the tropical El Nino forced precipitation anomalies.
Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: AchutaRao, K & Sperber, K R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little ...
Date: July 20, 2009
Creator: Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S & Brown, T A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century

Description: Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.
Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor & Schmidt, Gavin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

Description: The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.
Date: July 17, 2003
Creator: Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H. & Pitcher, Hugh M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Downhole measurements and fluid chemistry of a Castle Rock steam well, The Geysers, Lake County, California

Description: Certain wells within The Geysers steam field have standing water columns either when first drilled or when produced at low flow rates. These water columns have been attributed by Lipman et al. (1978) to accumulation of water condensing in the well bore. Alternative explanations are that perched water bodies exist within the reservoir or that a deep water body underlying the steam reservoir has been tapped. A well in the Castle Rock field of The Geysers drilled by Signal Oil and Gas Company (now Aminoil, U.S.A.) with such a water column was sampled in 1976 for water, gas, and isotope chemistry in hopes of distinguishing between these possible origins; the results along with the well history and downhole pressure and temperature measurements are reported here. The well is located in Lake County, California, in the central part of the Castle Rock field, 4.8 km west-northwest of the town of Anderson Springs. Drilling was started in mid 1970 on a ridge at an elevation of 700 m above sea level. Steam entries were encountered at depths (below land surface) of 1,899, 1,902, 2,176, 2,248 2,288, and 2,295 m; the total depth drilled was 2,498 m. Large volume water entries above 685 m were cased off to 762 m.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Truesdell, Alfred H.; Frye, George A. & Nathenson, Manuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrological consequences of global warming

Description: The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Miller, Norman L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Downscaled climate change impacts on agricultural water resources in Puerto Rico

Description: The purpose of this study is to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET{sub o}), rainfall deficit (rainfall - ET{sub o}) and relative crop yield reduction for a generic crop under climate change conditions for three locations in Puerto Rico: Adjuntas, Mayaguez, and Lajas. Reference evapotranspiration is estimated by the Penman-Monteith method. Rainfall and temperature data were statistically downscaled and evaluated using the DOE/NCAR PCM global circulation model projections for the B1 (low), A2 (mid-high) and A1fi (high) emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Relative crop yield reductions were estimated from a function dependent water stress factor, which is a function of soil moisture content. Average soil moisture content for the three locations was determined by means of a simple water balance approach. Results from the analysis indicate that the rainy season will become wetter and the dry season will become drier. The 20-year mean 1990-2010 September rainfall excess (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} > 0) increased for all scenarios and locations from 149.8 to 356.4 mm for 2080-2100. Similarly, the 20-year average February rainfall deficit (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} < 0) decreased from a -26.1 mm for 1990-2010 to -72.1 mm for the year 2080-2100. The results suggest that additional water could be saved during the wet months to offset increased irrigation requirements during the dry months. Relative crop yield reduction did not change significantly under the B1 projected emissions scenario, but increased by approximately 20% during the summer months under the A1fi emissions scenario. Components of the annual water balance for the three climate change scenarios are rainfall, evapotranspiration (adjusted for soil moisture), surface runoff, aquifer recharge and change in soil moisture storage. Under the A1fi scenario, for all locations, annual evapotranspiration decreased owing to lower soil moisture, surface runoff decreased, and ...
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Harmsen, E. W.; Miller, N. L.; Schlegel, N. J. & Gonzalez, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast Study, Phase I

Description: This document, part of the Synthesis and Assessment Products described in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Strategic Plan. Climate affects the design, construction, safety, operations, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and systems. The prospect of a changing climate raises critical questions regarding how alterations in temperature, precipitation, storm events, and other aspects of the climate could affect the nation's roads, airports, rail, transit systems, pipelines, ports, and waterways. Phase I of this regional assessment of climate change and its potential impacts on transportation systems addresses these questions for the region of the U.S. central Gulf Coast between Galveston, Texas and Mobile, Alabama. This region contains multimodal transportation infrastructure that is critical to regional and national transportation services. The significance of various climate factors for transportation systems was assessed.
Date: March 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of stratal architecture and diagenesis on reservoir development in the Grayburg formation: SSouth Cowden field, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, 1 October 1994--30 September 1995

Description: This report presents the results of geological characterization studies in a typical Grayburg reservior in the Permian Basin. The work applies geological models developed in outcrop studies to better constrain the geological reservoir framework and heterogeneity in a typical Grayburg reservoir, The South Cowden Grayburg reservoir. This framework provides a strong basis for defining petrophysical and flow unit properties in the reservior and serves as a prototype model for other Grayburg reservoir characterization studies. The Grayburg Formation in the South Cowden field of eastern Ector County displays an internal stratal architecture that typifies Grayburg shallow-water platform successions throughout the Permian Basin. Study of core and wireline logs in South Cowden field documents three orders of cyclicity in the Grayburg. The entire Grayburg constitutes a single long-duration accommodation cycle that commenced with a major sea-level rise. Two major diagenetic events strongly affect reservoir character in some parts of the field. Recrystallized dolomite is developed along vertical burrows in highly cyclic mud-dominated packstones and wackestones of the HFS 4 Grayburg highstand succussion. Later alteration and removal of anhydrite are focused in structurally low sections along the eastern and southern margins of the field.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Ruppel, S. & Bebout, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

Description: There is strong evidence that the lower atmosphere has been warming at an unprecedented rate during the last 50 years, and it is expected to further increase at least for the next 100 years. Warmer air mass implies a higher capacity to hold water vapor and an increased likelihood of an acceleration of the global water cycle. This acceleration is not validated and considerable new research has gone into understanding aspects of the water cycle (e.g. Miller et al. 2003). Several significant findings on the hydrologic response to climate change can be reported. It is well understood that the observed and expected warming is related to sea level rise. In a recent seminar at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, James Hansen (Director of the Institute for Space Studies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration) stressed that a 1.25 Wm{sup -2} increase in radiative forcing will lead to an increase in the near surface air temperature by 1 C. This small increase in temperature from 2000 levels is enough to cause very significant impacts to coasts. Maury Roos (Chief Hydrologist, California Department of Water Resources) has shown that a 0.3 m rise in sea level shifts the San Francisco Bay 100-year storm surge flood event to a 10-year event. Related coastal protection costs for California based on sea level rise are shown. In addition to rising sea level, snowmelt-related streamflow represents a particular problem in California. Model studies have indicated that there will be approximately a 50% decrease in snow pack by 2100. This potential deficit must be fully recognized and plans need to be put in place well in advance. In addition, the warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor and result in more intense warm winter-time precipitation events that result in flooding. During anticipated high flow, reservoirs need to release water ...
Date: November 11, 2003
Creator: Miller, Norman L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department