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DICOM Image Scrubbing Software Library/Utility

Description: This software is aimed at providing user-friendly, easy-to-use environment for the user to scrub (de-identify/modify) the DICOM header information. Some tools either anonymize or default the values without the user interaction. The user doesn't have the flexibility to edit the header information. One cannot scrub set of images simultaneously (batch scrubbing). This motivated to develop a tool/utility that can scrub a set of images in a single step more efficiently. This document also addresses security issues of the patient confidentiality to achieve protection of patient identifying information and some technical requirements
Date: May 2003
Creator: Ponnam, Bhavani Srikanth
Partner: UNT Libraries


Description: Since 2001 RHIC has experienced electron cloud effects, which have limited the beam intensity. These include dynamic pressure rises - including pressure instabilities, tune shifts, a reduction of the stability threshold for bunches crossing the transition energy, and possibly incoherent emittance growth. We summarize the main observations in operation and dedicated experiments, as well as countermeasures including baking, NEG coated warm beam pipes, solenoids, bunch patterns, anti-grazing rings, pre-pumped cold beam pipes, scrubbing, and operation with long bunches.
Date: June 25, 2007
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: One of the intensity limiting factor of RHIC polarized proton beam is the electron cloud induced pressure rise. A beam scrubbing study shows that with a reasonable period of time of running high intensity 112-bunch proton beam, the pressure rise can be reduced, allowing higher beam intensity.
Date: July 5, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

Description: A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Haefner, Daryl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

Description: Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the DOE/PRDA Phase I investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production. The DOE/PRDA Phase I testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CH) was completed this month. This one-year tube wear analysis investigation was completed on 3/10/97, and a final inspection of the unit was made on 3/21/97. The CH unit and its related equipment are currently being removed from the ECTC test configuration, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analyses. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly.
Date: March 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This project is funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) under a cost-sharing PRDA with Radian International. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding and technical oversight. The project is part of FETC's Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. This project was submitted in response to Area 4 of DOE's Mega-PRDA: Advanced High-Performance SO{sub 2} Control Concepts. The goals of this research area are to develop advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes that achieve greater than 99% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, are 25% cheaper than commercial FGD systems, and provide a valuable byproduct that will be recycled rather than disposed. Area 4 also included the development of a byproduct process that could be added to FGD systems to produce high value byproducts for reuse rather than disposal.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: SKARUPA, R.C. & CAREY, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

Description: Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the Phase I DOE/PRDA investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production and Chloride Control. The Phase I DOE/PRDA testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHE) also continued this month as the inlet particulate control system (installed September 1996) is maintaining the inlet particulate mass loading to the unit at an average value of 0.2 lb./MMBTU. The one-year tube wear analysis project conducted across this unit will be completed in the early part of March. At the completion of testing, a final inspection will be conducted before the unit is cleaned, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analysis. Once the unit is removed from the ECTC, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber unit will be assembled and configured back into the flue gas path for future testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter configuration) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. In February 1997, the Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production test block continued. This PRDA project is being jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Department of Energy and is part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The pilot portion of the CLS/Anhydrite project is being conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process incorporating chloride control, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate) production. While the three areas of the integrated process can ...
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

Description: This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 09/30/2004. The primary effort of this quarter was focused on mass transfer of carbon dioxide into the water film to study the potential effects on the photosynthetic organisms that depend on the carbon. Testing of the carbon dioxide scrubbing capability (mass transfer capability) of flowing water film appears to be relatively high and largely unaffected by transport of the gas through the bioreactor. The implications are that the transfer of carbon dioxide into the film is nearly at maximum and that it is sufficient to sustain photosynthesis at whatever rate the organisms can sustain. This finding is key to assuming that the process is an energy (photon) limited reaction and not a nutrient limited reaction.
Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Kremer, Gregory; Bayless, David J.; Vis, Morgan; Prudich, Michael; Cooksey, Keith & Muhs, Jeff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RHIC progress and future

Description: The talk reviews RHIC performance, including unprecedented manipulations of polarized beams and recent low energy operations. Achievements and limiting factors of RHIC operation are discussed, such as intrabeam scattering, electron cloud, beam-beam effects, magnet vibrations, and the efficiency of novel countermeasures such as bunched beam stochastic cooling, beam scrubbing and chamber coatings. Future upgrade plans and the pertinent R&D program will also be presented.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Montag,C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 5, [April--June 1993]

Description: The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the SO{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media described in the open literature. Our past work with the phthalocyanine compounds, used as sensors for NO and NO{sub 2} in flue gases, shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no ...
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Bhown, A. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced membrane devices. Interim report for October 1996--September 1997

Description: Under this Cooperative Agreement, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has continued to investigate and develop improved membrane technology for removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. The task schedule for this reporting period included a detailed assessment of the market opportunity (Chapter 2), continued development and evaluation of membranes and membrane polymers (Chapter 3) and a detailed economic analysis comparing the potential of Air Products membranes to that of established acid gas removal processes (Chapter 4).
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Laciak, D.V.; Langsam, M.; Lewnard, J.J. & Reichart, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Pile Reactivity Loss Due to Trichloroethylene

Description: The presence of trichloroethylene in the test pile caused a continual decrease in pile reactivity. A system which removed, purified, and returned 12,000 cfh helium to the pile has held contamination to a negligible level and has permitted normal pile operation.
Date: March 9, 2001
Creator: Plumlee, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

Description: EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D. & Broderick, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultralow Concentration Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

Description: Field, laboratory and engineering data confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping as an ultralow concentration mercury treatment concept for water containing Hg(II). The simple process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride (Sn(II)) to cover the mercury to Hg degrees. This mercury species can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging.
Date: May 21, 2001
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

Description: A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.
Date: January 1998
Creator: Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A. & Pennline, Henry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical letter report: Submerged bed scrubber sediment resuspension testing for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

Description: During-vitrification operations in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), some feed components will be vented from the melter to the melter offgas cleaning equipment. The current HWVP reference process for melter off.-gas treatment includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS) to provide the first stage of off-gas scrubbing and quenching. During most melter/off-gas test runs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with the Pilot Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), no significant quantities of sedimentation were accumulated in the SBS scrub tank. However, during test run SF-12, conducted at West Valley, approximately 6 in. of sedimentation accumulated in the scrub tank. This raised concerns that a similar accumulation could occur with the HWVP SBS, If such an accumulation rate occurred during a sustained melter run, the SBS would soon cease to function. To alleviate the potential for sedimentation buildup, the HWVP SBS design includes a sparge ring at the bottom of the scrub tank. The sparge ring will be operated intermittently to prevent buildup of solids which could interfere with circulation with the SBS Scrub tank. This report presents the results of testing conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the HWVP sparge ring design. Section 2 contains-the conclusions and recommendations; Section 3 summarizes the objectives; Section 4 describes the equipment and materials used; Section 5 gives the experimental approach; and Section 6 discusses the results. The appendices contain procedures for sediment resuspension testing and particle size distribution data for silica and sediment.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Schmidt, A.J. & Herrington, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL) was contracted by the National Energy Technology Center to evaluate technologies that might be used to reduce the volume of plutonium-contaminated soil at the Nevada Test Site. The project has been systematically approached. A thorough review and summary was completed for: (1) The NTS soil geological, geochemical and physical characteristics; (2) The characteristics and chemical form of the plutonium that is in these soils; (3) Previous volume reduction technologies that have been attempted on the NTS soils; (4) Vendors with technology that may be applicable; and (5) Related needs at other DOE sites. Soils from the Nevada Test Site were collected and delivered to the CETL. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu-239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. Using the information obtained from these reviews, three vendors were selected to demonstration their volume reduction technologies at the CETL. Two of the three technologies, bioremediation and soil washing, met the performance criteria. Both were able to significantly reduce the concentration plutonium in the soil from around 1100 pCi/g to 200 pCi/g or less with a volume reduction of around 95%, well over the target 70%. These results are especially encouraging because they indicate significant improvement over that obtained in these earlier pilot and field studies. Additional studies are recommended.
Date: December 31, 2003
Creator: Hoeffner, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

Description: The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Jones, Michael L.; Pavlish, Brandon M. & Jensen, Melanie D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of wet and dry scrubbing systems for control of metals and dioxin/furan emissions from incinerators

Description: In Europe and the United States, both wet and dry (including semidry) scrubbing systems are being used for control of emissions from all types of waste incinerators. In terms of the effectiveness of controlling particulates and acid gases, both types of scrubbing systems are capable of meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and European Community limits. Two of the more difficult emissions requirements for an incinerator air-pollution-control system to meet are the metals and the dioxin/furan limits. The dioxin/furan emissions requirement is especially stringent, calling for levels below 1 ng (10{sup {minus}9}) per cubic meter toxic equivalency. The differences between wet and dry scrubbing systems are discussed in this paper, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each in its application to the control of emissions from incinerators. Particular attention will be paid to control of metals and dioxin/furan emissions and to the sampling and analysis techniques used to measure these emissions. Toxic equivalency factors will be explained, and in particular, the international toxic equivalency factor proposed as the US and European standard will be discussed. This paper will also address some of the techniques being employed to minimize the emissions of toxic compounds and discuss the use of combined wet and dry scrubbing systems for increased assurance of compliance.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Farber, P. S. & Huang, H. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

Description: A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Mendelsohn, Marshall H. & Huang, Hann-Sheng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

Description: This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.
Date: June 28, 2007
Creator: Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh & Schubert, Craig
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

Description: This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.
Date: October 8, 2002
Creator: Delmau, L.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department