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Trends in Iron Casting Compositions as Related to Ferrous Scrap Quality and Other Variables: 1981-86

Description: From Abstract: "This bulletin describes the research and presents analytical results and evaluations over 5-3/4-year period from January 1981 to September 1986. Results show that iron casting compositions are charging with respect to a few tramp elements such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, tin, zinc over the period. The data presented in this bulletin provide a means to ascertain whether the quality ferrous scrap is affecting casting quality."
Date: unknown
Creator: Nafziger, R. H.; Hartman, A. D. & Farrell, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

Description: The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Bauman, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

Description: The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.
Date: December 21, 2007
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank & Becker, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of the Known-M Method for NDA of Plutonium Scrap

Description: 'Plutonium scrap from another Department of Energy site is to be converted at Savannah River Site (SRS) to a form for permanent storage. For accountability and criticality safety, the material must be measured at SRS, and handling restrictions require assay in 9975 shipping drums. A Multiplicity Neutron Counter is available to perform the measurements, but requires about 12 hours per assay, too long to support the measurement schedule. The assay time has been reduced to 2 hours by use of the Known-M method, the first known routine application of Known-M. The approach involves expression of the multiplication in terms of the effective <sup>239</sup>Pu mass and a quadratic polynomial. Because only a few measured values of multiplication were available, values from Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations (using code MCNP) were used. Because the scrap cans have variable fill heights and fill height affects multiplication, an algorithm to correct the effective <sup>239</sup>Pu mass values for that effect was developed. Testing of the Known-M calibration with limited data suggests a 2-sigma uncertainty of about 5 percent. Drums can contain one or two individual scrap cans, and an algorithm for measuring the combined plutonium content in two cans was developed. The Known-M assay calculations will be performed off line using a spreadsheet.'
Date: July 22, 1999
Creator: Thompson, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study ESTCP PROJECT # MM-0838

Description: In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation will require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This characterization study was be the second phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years. The FY06 Defense Appropriation contained funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). ESTCP responded by conducting a UXO Discrimination Study at the former Camp Sibert, AL. The results of this first demonstration were very encouraging. Although conditions were favorable at this site, a single target of interest (4.2-in mortar) and benign topography and geology, all of the classification approaches demonstrated were able to correctly identify a sizable fraction of the anomalies as arising from non-hazardous items that could be safely left in the ground. To build upon the success of the first phase of this study, ESTCP sponsored a ...
Date: February 15, 2010
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

Description: The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Report for Cricket Radiation Detection System Used In EPA Port Installations

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted field radiological measurements at two port locations at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The radiological measurements were performed on five radiation detection systems at the port of Darrow, Louisiana and three systems at the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Darrow was visited on January 20-23, 2004 and Charleston on May 25, 2004. All tested systems are designed to detect radioactive material that might be present in scrap metals as the scrap is being unloaded from ships. All eight systems are commercially known as the Cricket and manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems. Each radiation detection system consists of a detector with two channels and a wireless transmitter, both mounted on the grapple, and a controller located in the crane cab. The cranes at both locations are operated by the Cooper T. Smith Company. The purpose of the radiological measurements was to evaluate the performance of the radiation detection systems in terms of their ability to detect elevated radiation levels, and to develop a routine testing method for all EPA Cricket systems.
Date: August 11, 2004
Creator: Shourbaji, AA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

Description: Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.
Date: July 19, 2012
Creator: Adam C. Powell, IV
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

Description: A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology.
Date: January 29, 1999
Creator: Poole, L. & Recca, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

Description: The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank & Becker, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Potential Hazard in Releasing Scrap Steel Contaminated with Uranium to Commercial Channels

Description: Tests were conducted on a laboratory and semi-plant scale to determine the effect of permitting scrap grossly contaminated with uranium to be used in steel manufacture. It was found the most of the uranium is removed with the slag. Steel made with this scrap would have a uranium constituent so little above that made with uncontaminated scrap as to be hardly significant. The slag itself would not present any hazard in handling or normal use. It is recommended, therefore, that in the future steel with only surface uranium contamination be released through normal scrap channels.
Date: June 15, 1951
Creator: Blatz, Hanson; Harley, John H. & Eisenbud, Merril
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

Description: Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W. & Aitken, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

Description: This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.
Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: FERRELL, P.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UXO detection and identification based on intrinsic target polarizabilities: A case history

Description: Electromagnetic induction data parameterized in time dependent object intrinsic polarizabilities allow discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO) from false targets (scrap metal). Data from a cart-mounted system designed for discrimination of UXO with 20 mm to 155 mm diameters are used. Discrimination of UXO from irregular scrap metal is based on the principal dipole polarizabilities of a target. A near-intact UXO displays a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal smaller transverse polarizabilities, whereas metal scraps have distinct polarizability signatures that rarely mimic those of elongated symmetric bodies. Based on a training data set of known targets, object identification was made by estimating the probability that an object is a single UXO. Our test survey took place on a military base where both 4.2-inch mortar shells and scrap metal were present. The results show that we detected and discriminated correctly all 4.2-inch mortars, and in that process we added 7%, and 17%, respectively, of dry holes (digging scrap) to the total number of excavations in two different survey modes. We also demonstrated a mode of operation that might be more cost effective than the current practice.
Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A. & Kappler, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration Report: Handheld UXO Discriminator, SERDP No. MR-1667

Description: In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' In keeping with these remarks and with prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), the LBNL group has successfully designed and built the cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (cf. Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2008, and 2009). Because hand-held systems have the advantage of being lightweight, compact, portable, and deployable under most site conditions, they are particularly useful in areas of dense vegetation or challenging terrain. In heavily wooded areas or areas with steep or uneven terrain, hand-held sensors may be the only suitable device for UXO detection and discrimination because it can be carried through spaces that the operator could walk through or at least approach. Furthermore, it is desirable to find and characterize a metallic object without the need to accurately locate the sensors at multiple positions around the target. The ideal system would thus locate and characterize the target from a single position of the sensor and indicate to the operator where to flag the target for subsequent study. Based on these considerations, we designed and built a sensor package in a shape of a 14-in (0.35 m) cube. This hand-held prototype incorporates the key features of the cart-mounted system - (a) three orthogonal transmitters and ten pairs of receivers, and ...
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Gasperikova, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency

Description: The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.
Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: Geertruyden, William Van
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aluminum: Recycling of Aluminum Dross/Saltcake

Description: As this NICE3 publication details, the objective of this project is to commercialize the process technology to eliminate all landfill waste associated with black dross and saltcake generated from aluminum recycling in the United States.
Date: January 29, 1999
Creator: Blazek, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nylon Dissolution in Nitric Acid Solutions

Description: H Area Operations is planning to process Pu-contaminated uranium scrap in support of de-inventory efforts. Nylon bags will be used to hold materials to be dissolved in H-Canyon. Based on this set of twelve nylon dissolutions, it is concluded that (when other variables are held constant): increased acid concentration results in increased dissolution rates; increased acid concentration results in a lower dissolution onset temperature; little, if any, H plus is consumed during the depolymerization process; and 2.0-3.0 M HNO3, with 0.025 M KF and 2 g/L B, is satisfactory for the dissolution of nylon bag materials to be used during H-Canyon processing.
Date: June 16, 2004
Creator: KESSINGER, GLENF.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Hill, R. L.; Aaberg, R. L.; Baker, D.A. & Kennedy, W. E., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION OF FIRE HAZARDS WHILE REPACKAGING PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SCRAP IN HB-LINE

Description: The potential for a fire while repackaging plutonium-contaminated scrap was evaluated. The surface-to-mass ratio indicates the metal alone will not spontaneously ignite. Uranium hydride can form when uranium metal is exposed to water vapor or hydrogen; uranium hydride reacts rapidly and energetically with atmospheric oxygen. The plutonium-contaminated scrap has been inside containers qualified for shipping, and these containers are leak-tight. The rate of diffusion of water vapor through the seals is small, and the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate is low. Radiography of samples of the storage containers indicates no loose oxide/hydride powder has collected in the storage container to date. The frequently of a fire while repackaging the plutonium-contaminated scrap is extremely unlikely.
Date: December 18, 2003
Creator: Hallman, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Casting Uranium Bars as a Substitute for the Extrusion Process

Description: The usual method of producing uranium slugs for the reaction pile is to cast the metal into billets which are extruded into rod about 1.45 inches in diameter. Slugs are then machined from this to the final size of 1.359 inches in diameter by 8 inches long. Extrusion is done in the gamma range at a temperature of about 1000 C, where the metal is soft enough to be extruded at relatively low pressures. This operation is difficult and expensive and the product is not entirely satisfactory. The billets must be protected from oxidation during heating and extruding and the extruded rod must likewise be protected during cooling. Loss of metal due to oxidation is appreciable and a relatively large amount of scrap is produced. The production of dies suitable for use at the high temperatures involved is troublesome. The extruded rod must be straightened before machining and frequently contains stringers of oxide and voids or other internal defects.
Date: January 1, 1945
Creator: Lindlief, W. Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approximating conductive ellipsoid inductive responses using static quadrupole moments

Description: Smith and Morrison (2006) developed an approximation for the inductive response of conducting magnetic (permeable) spheroids (e.g., steel spheroids) based on the inductive response of conducting magnetic spheres of related dimensions. Spheroids are axially symmetric objects with elliptical cross-sections along the axis of symmetry and circular cross sections perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. Spheroids are useful as an approximation to the shapes of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for approximating their responses. Ellipsoids are more general objects with three orthogonal principal axes, with elliptical cross sections along planes normal to the axes. Ellipsoids reduce to spheroids in the limiting case of ellipsoids with cross-sections that are in fact circles along planes normal to one axis. Parametrizing the inductive response of unknown objects in terms of the response of an ellipsoid is useful as it allows fitting responses of objects with no axis of symmetry, in addition to fitting the responses of axially symmetric objects. It is thus more appropriate for fitting the responses of metal scrap to be distinguished electromagnetically from unexploded ordnance. Here the method of Smith and Morrison (2006) is generalized to the case of conductive magnetic ellipsoids, and a simplified form used to parametrize the inductive response of isolated objects. The simplified form is developed for the case of non-uniform source fields, for the first eight terms in an ellipsoidal harmonic decomposition of the source fields, allowing limited corrections for source field geometry beyond the common assumption of uniform source fields.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Smith, J. Torquil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile for the K-770 Scrap Yard Soils and Miscellaneous Debris, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - EMWMF Waste Lot 4.12

Description: Waste Lot 4.12 consists of approximately 17,500 yd{sup 3} of low-level, radioactively contaminated soil, concrete, and incidental metal and debris generated from remedial actions at the K-770 Scrap Metal Yard and Contaminated Debris Site (the K-770 Scrap Yard) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The excavated soil will be transported by dump truck to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). This profile provides project-specific information to demonstrate compliance with Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2001). The K-770 Scrap Yard is an approximately 36-acre storage area located southwest of the main portion of ETTP, outside the security perimeter fence in the Powerhouse Area adjacent to the Clinch River. The K-770 area was used to store radioactively contaminated or suspected contaminated materials during and previous to the K-25 Site cascade upgrading program. The waste storage facility began operation in the 1960s and is estimated to at one time contain in excess of 40,000 tons of low-level, radioactively contaminated scrap metal. Scrap metal was taken to the site when it was found to contain alpha or beta/gamma activity on the surface or if the scrap metal originated from a process building. The segregated metal debris was removed from the site as part of the K-770 Scrap Removal Action (RA) Project that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2007 by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). An area of approximately 10 acres is located in EUs 29 and 31 where the scrap was originally located in the 100-year floodplain. In the process of moving the materials around and establishing segregated waste piles above the 100-year floodplain, the footprint of the site was expanded by 10-15 acres in EUs 30 and 32. The area in EUs 29 and 31 that was cleared of ...
Date: April 15, 2009
Creator: M., Davenport
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Transportation Emissions for Ferrous Scrap Exports from the United States: Activity-Based Maritime Emissions Model and Theoretical Inland Transportation Model.

Description: Industrial ecology is a field of study that encourages the use of closed-loop material cycles to achieve sustainability. Loop closing requires the movement of materials over space, and has long been practiced in the iron and steel industry. Iron and steel (ferrous) scrap generated in the U.S. is increasingly exported to countries in Asia, lengthening the transportation distance associated with closing the loop on the iron and steel life cycle. In order to understand the environmental cost of transporting this commodity, an activity-based maritime transportation model and a theoretical in-land transportation model are used to estimate emissions generated. Results indicate that 10.4 mmt of total emissions were generated, and emissions increased by 136 percent from 2004 to 2009. Increases in the amount of emissions generated are due to increases in the amount of scrap exported and distance it is transported.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Caldwell, Amanda
Partner: UNT Libraries