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Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

Description: The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank & Becker, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

Description: Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W. & Aitken, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

Description: The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.
Date: December 21, 2007
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank & Becker, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot study dismantlement of 20 lead-lined shipping casks

Description: This report describes a pilot study conducted at the INEL to dismantle lead-lined casks and shielding devices, separate the radiologically contaminated and hazardous materials, and recycle resultant scrap lead. The facility areas where the work was performed, dismantlement methods, and process equipment are described. Issues and results associated with recycling the lead as a free-released scrap metal are presented and discussed. Data and results from the pilot study are summarized and presented. The study concluded that cask dismantlement at the INEL can be performed as a legitimate recycling activity for scrap lead. Ninety-one percent of the lead recovered passed free-release criteria. The value of the 50,375 lb of recovered lead is approximately $0.45/lb. Resultant waste streams can be satisfactorily treated and disposed. Only very low levels of bulk radiological contamination (47 picocuries/gram of 137 Cs and 3.2 picocuries/gram of {sup 6O}Co) were detected in the lead rejected for free release.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Thurmond, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling zinc by dezincing steel scrap

Description: In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the increased cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The designed ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana has designed in a continuous process mode 900 tonnes of loose stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.1% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews pilot plant performance and the economics of recycling galvanized steel and recovering zinc using a caustic process.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. & Morgan, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRS vitrification studies in support of the U.S. program for disposition of excess plutonium

Description: Many thousands of nuclear weapons are being retired in the U.S. and Russian as a result of nuclear disarmament activities. These efforts are expected to produce a surplus of about 50 MT of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) in each country. In addition to this inventory, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 20 MT of Pu scrap, residue, etc., and Russian is also believed to have at least as much of this type of material. The entire surplus Pu inventories in the U.S. and Russian present a clear and immediate danger to national and international security. It is important that a solution be found to secure and manage this material effectively and that such an effort be implemented as quickly as possible. One option under consideration is vitrification of Pu into a safe, durable, accountable and proliferation-resistant form. As a result of decades to experience within the DOE community involving vitrification of a variety of hazardous and radioactive wastes, this existing technology can now be expanded to include mobilization of large amounts of Pu. This technology can then be implemented rapidly using the many existing resources currently available. An overall strategy to vitrify many different types of Pu will be already developed throughout the waste management community can be used in a staged Pu vitrification effort. This approach uses the flexible vitrification technology already available and can even be made portable so that it may be brought to the source and ultimately, used to produce a consistent and common borosilicate glass composition for the vitrified Pu. The final composition of this product can be made similar to nationally and internationally accepted HLW glasses.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Wicks, G.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Plodinec, M.J. & Ramsey, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulating beryllium electrorefining with AspenPlus{copyright}

Description: Beryllium is a lightweight, high strength metal with excellent thermal properties. It is a high cost material that has applications in electronics, the space program, and the defense industry. Beryllium is irreplaceable in several defense applications and therefore the US government maintains a reserve supply of several grades of the metal. However, the current defense industry (the largest metallic beryllium user) use has dwindled to the point that the only metallic beryllium producer in the US, Brush Wellman Inc., continually evaluates the profitability of continued production. The production dilemma has been compounded by health concerns associated with the generation of beryllium fines during production. An electrorefining method, previously developed, shows promise for recycling low purity beryllium scraps and produces a high grade material. Recycling and purification can reduce costs and waste disposal problems and increase the beryllium reserves in the event that Brush Wellman discontinues production. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how to use a commercially available process simulator for improving a process to electrorefine both scrap and low purity beryllium into a high purity product.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Polston, C.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Abeln, S.P.; Wantuck, P.J. & Corle, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity Disposal of No Dose/Low Dose Scrap Metal in Slit Trenches

Description: Activated metal is a special waste that requires evaluation for disposal. Contaminants in the activated metal will leach more slowly than will contaminants in generic waste. There is an inventory of activated scrap metal in the 105-L Disassembly Basin. Approximately 1,600 ft3 of the material is characterized as ''No Dose/Low Dose'' and consists mainly of activated aluminum and aluminum alloy pieces and parts and no stainless steel with a dose rate less than 200 mR per hr. Contaminants in the activated metal will leach more slowly than will contaminants in generic waste. The change in the leach rate will affect analyses for the groundwater pathway and intruder scenarios. For this evaluation, the slower leach rate from the activated metal waste will be neglected for the groundwater pathway, which is conservative because the higher leach rate used tends to produce higher groundwater concentrations and lower inventory limits. For this evaluation, the leach rate was set to zero for intruder scenarios, which is conservative for the inadvertent intruder because a slower leach rate will result in higher levels of radionuclides in the waste zone. The evaluation concludes that the existing limits are applicable to the disposal of No Dose/Low Dose activated scrap metal in slit trenches so that a Special Analysis is not needed to dispose of this waste stream.
Date: February 11, 2004
Creator: Cook, JR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. The Center has gotten off to a fast start. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-12 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer software, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, produce pollution prevention information and documentation, manage their materials inventory, produce independent government estimates, and implement sale/service contracts. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrap yard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums. Members of the Center look forward to working with all DOE sites, regulatory authorities, the private sector, and other stakeholders to achieve the metals recycle goals.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Adams, V.; Bennett, M. & Bishop, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-l2 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer programs, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, provide pollution prevention information and documentation, and produce independent government estimates. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrapyard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Adams, V.; Bennett, M. & Bishop, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stainless Steel RSM Beneficial Reuse technical feasibility to business reality

Description: The Stainless Steel Beneficial Reuse Program began in 1994 as a demonstration funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. The purpose was to assess the practicality of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle. Technical feasibility has been demonstrated through the production of a number of products made from recycled RSM. A solid business foundation is yet to be achieved. However, a business environment is beginning to develop as multiple markets and applications for RSM are surfacing around the Complex. The criteria for a successful business reality includes: - affordable programs, - a continuing production base from which to expand, - real products needs, - adequate RSM supply, and - a multi-year program This program currently sponsored by SRS and DOE-ORO to fabricate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters from RSM provides an activity that satisfies these criteria. The program status is discussed. A comparison of the cost of DWPF canisters fabricated from recycled RSM and virgin metal is presented. The comparison is a function of several factors: disposal costs, the fabrication cost of virgin metal canisters, the fabrication cost of recycled RSM canisters, free release decontamination costs, and the cost to accumulate the RSM. These variables are analyzed and the relationship established to show the break-even point for various values of each parameter.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Boettinger, W.L. & Mishra, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DECOMMISSIONING THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY BUILDING 830 GAMMA IRRADIATION FACILITY.

Description: The Building 830 Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was decommissioned because its design was not in compliance with current hazardous tank standards and because its cobalt-60 sources were approaching the end of their useful life. The facility contained 354 stainless steel encapsulated cobalt-60 sources in a pool, which provided shielding. Total cobalt-60 inventory amounted to 24,000 Curies (when the sources were shipped for disposal). The decommissioning project included packaging, transport and disposal of the sources and dismantling and disposing of all other equipment associated with the facility. Worker exposure was a major concern in planning for the packaging and disposal of the sources. These activities were planned carefully according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principles. As a result, the actual doses experienced during the work were lower than anticipated. Because the sources were sealed, most of the remaining equipment was not contaminated; therefore disposal was straightforward, as scrap metal and construction debris. However, disposal of the pool water involved addressing environmental concerns, since the planned method was to discharge the slightly contaminated water to the BNL sewage treatment plant.
Date: February 24, 2001
Creator: BOWERMAN,B.; SULLIVAN,P.T. & MOORE,D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals

Description: This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Kessinger, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

Description: Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M. & Damkroger, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Report for Cricket Radiation Detection System Used In EPA Port Installations

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted field radiological measurements at two port locations at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The radiological measurements were performed on five radiation detection systems at the port of Darrow, Louisiana and three systems at the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Darrow was visited on January 20-23, 2004 and Charleston on May 25, 2004. All tested systems are designed to detect radioactive material that might be present in scrap metals as the scrap is being unloaded from ships. All eight systems are commercially known as the Cricket and manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems. Each radiation detection system consists of a detector with two channels and a wireless transmitter, both mounted on the grapple, and a controller located in the crane cab. The cranes at both locations are operated by the Cooper T. Smith Company. The purpose of the radiological measurements was to evaluate the performance of the radiation detection systems in terms of their ability to detect elevated radiation levels, and to develop a routine testing method for all EPA Cricket systems.
Date: August 11, 2004
Creator: Shourbaji, AA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study ESTCP PROJECT # MM-0838

Description: In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation will require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This characterization study was be the second phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years. The FY06 Defense Appropriation contained funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). ESTCP responded by conducting a UXO Discrimination Study at the former Camp Sibert, AL. The results of this first demonstration were very encouraging. Although conditions were favorable at this site, a single target of interest (4.2-in mortar) and benign topography and geology, all of the classification approaches demonstrated were able to correctly identify a sizable fraction of the anomalies as arising from non-hazardous items that could be safely left in the ground. To build upon the success of the first phase of this study, ESTCP sponsored a ...
Date: February 15, 2010
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

Description: The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

Description: The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W. & Wilson, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applying a life cycle decision methodology to Fernald waste management alternatives

Description: During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low-level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains: can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald, is the focus of the following analysis.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Yuracko, K.L.; Gresalfi, M. & Yerace, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fernald`s dilemma: Do we recycle the radioactively contaminated metals, or do we bury them?

Description: During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains; can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald is the focus of the following analysis.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Yuracko, K.L.; Hadley, S.W. & Perlack, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

Description: Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W. & Wilson, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a plasma coating system for induction melting zirconium in a graphite crucible

Description: A plasma coating system has been developed for induction melting zirconium at 1900 C using a graphite crucible. This laminated coating system consists of plasma spraying the following materials onto the graphite: (1) molybdenum or tungsten, (2) a 50% blend by weight of the metal powder and calcia-stabilized zirconium oxide, and (3) calcia-stabilized zirconia followed by painting a final coating of nonstabilized zirconia on top of the plasma-sprayed coating system. Zirconium was melted in argon using both laminating systems without any degradation of the graphite crucible and with only a minimal amount of carbon absorption. This novel approach that is being proposed as an alternative method of melting zirconium alloys offers substantial cost savings over the standard practice of electric arc melting using a consumable electrode.
Date: May 26, 1993
Creator: Bird, E.L. & Holcombe, C.E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid metal extraction of Nd from NdFeB magnet scrap

Description: This research involves using molten magnesium (Mg) to remove neodymium (Nd) from NdFeB magnet scrap by diffusion. The results show that liquid metal extraction of Nd may be a viable and inexpensive method for recovering the expensive rare earth element Nd for use in Mg castings.
Date: December 10, 1999
Creator: Xu, Yanchen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department